Art that changed the world [1. American edition] 9781465414359, 1465414355 – DOKUMEN.PUB

table of contents :
Ancient and medieval. —
Prehistoric art —
egyptian artwork —
greek and Roman art —
early on Christian and Byzantine —
The Dark Ages —
Romanesque and Gothic —
Renaissance and affectation. —
Birth of the Renaissance —
Flowering of the Renaissance —
high Renaissance —
venetian Renaissance —
Northern Renaissance —
italian affectation —
Mannerism outside Italy —
Baroque to neoclassicism. —
italian Baroque —
Flemish and spanish Baroque —
Dutch Baroque —
french Baroque —
french rococo —
Rococo outside France —
Neoclassicism —
The nineteenth century. —
Romanticism —
quixotic landscape —
Pre-Raphaelites —
Realism —
Impressionism —
Post-impressionism —
Symbolism —
The modern age. —
Expressionism —
Cubism —
Birth of outline art —
Dada and surrealism —
Abstract expressionism —
Pop and op art —
holocene abstraction —
The figural tradition

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DK LONDON Senior Art Editor Gadi Farfour

Senior Editor Sam Atkinson

Managing Art Editor Karen Self

Managing Editor Esther Ripley

Producer, Pre-Production Rebekah Parsons-King

US Senior Editor Rebecca Warren

Senior Producer Gemma Sharpe

US Editor Kate Johnsen

Jacket Designer Laura Brim

Publishers Laura Buller, Sarah Larter

Jacket Design Development Manager Sophia MTT

Art Director Phil Ormerod Associate Publishing Director Liz Wheeler

DK INDIA Senior Art Editor Anjana Nair Art Editors Supriya Mahajan, Nidhi Mehra, Neha Sharma Assistant Art Editors Niyati Gosain, Ankita Mukherjee, Gazal Roongta, Vidit Vashisht

Senior Editor Sreshtha Bhattacharya Editor Suparna Sengupta Managing Editor Pakshalika Jayaprakash Production Manager Pankaj Sharma

Published in the United States by DK Publishing 345 Hudson Street New York, New York 10014 09 10 11 12 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 001-184794—Sep/2013 Copyright © 2013 Dorling Kindersley Limited All rights reserved

Managing Art Editor Arunesh Talapatra

Without limiting the rights under copyright reserved above, no separate of this publication may be reproduced, stored in or introduced into a recovery organization, or transmitted, in any form, or by any means ( electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise ), without the anterior written permission of both the copyright owner and the above publisher of this book.

DTP Designers Syed Md Farhan, Sachin Singh

Publishing Director Jonathan Metcalf Jacket Editor Manisha Majithia

First American Edition, 2013

A catalog criminal record for this book is available from the Library of Congress. The Stables, Wood Farm, Deopham Road, Attleborough, Norfolk NR17 1AJ art Editors Paul Reid, Lloyd Tilbury, Darren Bland, Rebecca Johns, Shane Whiting

Editors Marek Walisiewicz, Richard Gilbert, Neil Lockley

ISBN : 9781465414359 DK books are available at extra discounts when purchased in bulk for sales promotions, premiums, fund-raise, or educational consumption. For details, contact : DK Publishing Special Markets, 345 Hudson Street, New York, New York 10014 or [ e-mail protected ] Color reproduction by Altaimage Ltd., London, UK Printed and bound in China by South China

Picture Researcher Louise Thomas

Chief adviser

Discover more at


Ian Chilvers Ian studied history of artwork at the Courtauld Institute, London. He has written numerous books on art, including The Oxford Dictionary of Art and Artists and The Baroque and Neoclassical Age, and he was head adviser on DK ’ s acclaimed Art : The Definitive Visual Guide. Ian is the writer of the Baroque and Rococo sections of this book.


THE nineteenth CENTURY

Iain Zaczek

Caroline Bugler

Iain studied at Oxford University and the Courtauld Institute. A specialist in celtic and pre-raphaelite artwork, he has authored more than 30 books. arsenic well as writing chapter one of this book, Iain besides wrote the Neoclassicism section.

With a degree in history of art from Cambridge University and an MA from the Courtauld Institute, Caroline has written several books and articles. She has besides worked as an editor at The National Gallery, London, and at the Art Fund.



Jude Welton

Lorrie Mack

With a degree in art history and English, Jude has authored and contributed to many democratic works on art history. Her books for DK include Impressionism, Monet, and Looking at Paintings.

Lorrie is a highly have author and editor in the fields of design and the arts. She contributed to DK ’ s My Art Book and The Children ’ s Book of Art and wrote The Book of Dance, and managed a big art-history periodic for respective years.




























THE nineteenth CENTURY








256 pre-raphaelite












INTRODUCTION Art is always evolving. From the moment when prehistoric artists first began to decorate their caves, painters have always looked for bracing ways of portraying the global around them. sometimes, a nongregarious genius—a Giotto, a Leonardo, a Picasso—leads the way into chartless aesthetic territory. At early times, groups of like-minded painters explore a new expressive style or idea, creating an entire aesthetic movement. This book traces the full growth of the most significant movements, from the earliest sources of divine guidance to a sovereign masterpiece that is the crowning glory. Beginning with a all-important Turning Point—a paint that shaped the course of the movement or epitomized many of its most classifiable features—a diverseness of other influences are explored, from a pharmacist who concocts a brand new pigment, to an archeologist who unearths a forget gem, or a patron who challenges existing conventions. In a broader sense, social and political events were besides influential. The french Revolution inspired both Neoclassical and Romantic painters ; the invention of print increased the flow of ideas during the Renaissance ; and the growth of the railways enabled travel to fresh locations and transformed the way that the Impressionists worked. The footstep of change differed sharply from one earned run average to the future. Some aspects of egyptian art remained unaltered for centuries, while the last few years before World War I were marked by febrile artistic natural process. This lavishly illustrated scout encapsulates each movement, taking the reader on an exhilarating travel through the history of art from its earliest manifestations to the present day.














Painting is one of the oldest art forms, dating back to the Ice Age. Its function has changed over the course of the centuries, but any notions about creative brilliance or self-expression would have seemed identical alien to the first artists. many paintings were functional—they were used in rituals, they honored the dead, they glorified God. Their appearance varied well : some cave paintings and Roman hush lifes look identical realistic, but the art of other civilizations, such as the Egyptians, the Byzantines, and the Celts, found symbols and stylizations a more mighty way of representing the everyday worldly concern. possibly the greatest dispute lies in the status of the artists themselves. Painting did not offer a way to fame or riches—in the ancient universe, most artists were regarded as craftsmen. The identities of the greatest christian artists are nameless to us while, ironically, ancient greek artists are well documented, but their finest paintings have not survived.


The Great Hall of the Bulls c.15,000–13,000 BCE Lascaux Cave, nr. Montignac, France

Lascaux is both the most celebrated and the most lavishly decorated of all the painted caves. In all, more than 900 figures of animals have been identified. The most spectacular examples are located in a chamber dominated by six huge bulls, the largest of which is more than 17ft ( 5.2m ) long.


When the cave paintings at Lascaux were revealed to the public in 1948, the overriding reaction was astonishment. How could primitive people with so few resources have produced pictures of such sophistication ? With each new discovery, this sense of wonder has returned. In the 1990s, the long time of the oldest painted cave was pushed back to around 30,000 BCE and there is every likelihood that, in the future, this boundary may go back even further. meanwhile, scientific advances—radiocarbon date, accelerator multitude spectroscopy, and DNA analysis—are providing an increasingly detail understanding of both the paintings and their archaeological settings. The diaphanous number of surviving decorated caves besides continues to grow. At show, more than 360 have been recorded in Western Europe alone. comparable sites have besides been found in many other parts of the universe, confirming that cave art was a in truth global phenomenon.



Landmarks in rock candy art c.38,000 BCE Start of the Upper Paleolithic Period, the final phase of the Paleolithic Age. It is subdivided into toolmaking phases known as “ industries. ”

Artists from the Ice Age deposits showed that, in many cases, the cave artists were not portraying the beasts they actually ate. At Lascaux, for case, 90 percentage of the food remains were caribou bones, but this animal was depicted only once. In recent years, new theories have proliferated. Some scholars have argued that individual animals should not be viewed in isolation. They believe that it is more helpful to look at the entire dialog box, including its versatile signs ( hands, arrows, grids ). The hypotheses arising from the chinese Horse ( see pp.20–21 ) illustrate this approach. There is besides great concern in the links with shamanism. In the 19th and twentieth centuries, european anthropologists gained important insights into the rock art of southerly Africa by studying the shamanist practices of local Bushmen. Since then, scholars have explored parallels with european cave painting.

c.34,000 BCE The Aurignacian diligence, named after a web site in Aurignac, emerges in France. The earliest cave paintings are produced. c.28,000–20,000 BCE The meter of the Gravettian industry, named after a locate at La Gravette in the Dordogne sphere of France. The Venus figurines date from this period. c.16,000–10,000 BCE The close phase of the Upper Paleolithic era is the Magdalenian industry, named after the site of La Madeleine in France. The finest cave paintings are created during this era.


Cave paintings in Europe were produced by hunter-gatherer communities in the former stages of the Ice Age. When the paintings were first studied, it was assumed that the images plainly reflected the everyday lives of these people. It soon became clear, however, that many of these caves were not normally inhabited and, in addition, that the paintings were executed in places where they could not be seen. As a solution, it was suggested that some caves were sanctuaries and that the dissemble of painting served some ritual determination. For many years, the most popular theory was that the paintings were associated with hunting magic. By depicting big, goodly creatures— their ideal food source—the cavemen were hoping to ensure the future supply of these animals for their hunters. Gradually though, as more paintings were discovered, a flaw in this theory became apparent. The study of food

c.13,000–8500 BCE The Late Glacial time period, when the ice rink sheets gradually begin their retrograde. c.8000–3000 BCE The Neolithic Wet Phase, a mild period when Saharan north Africa is habitable.

SUDDENLY, [ A paint OF ] A BIG RED BEAR ROSE UP BEFORE US. TRANSFIXED, WE STAYED FOR A MOMENT TO ADMIRE IT 1995 | Eliette Brunel Deschamps French potholer, on discovering Chauvet

A parlous being Some of the masterpieces of prehistoric art were produced in the coarse of conditions. Hunter-gatherers struggled to survive during the final phases of the Ice Age. Their standard environment was normally a freeze landscape or a black tundra. When the climate was at its worst, they took recourse in caves.




BEGINNINGS A SHOCKING DISCOVERY In December 1994, three spelunkers were exploring a cave in the Ardèche Valley in France, when they came across a series of painted chambers. After radiocarbon tests were carried out, archaeologists were astonished to discover that the paintings were army for the liberation of rwanda older than early known examples. The earliest section dates to around 30,000 BCE, while a second period of habitation dates from about 25,000 BCE. The cave has been named after one of the speleologists, Jean-Marie Chauvet, while his companions,

I POINTED THE PICTURES OUT TO MY FATHER, BUT HE JUST LAUGHED. SOON, HOWEVER, HE GOT MORE INTERESTED … HE WAS so EXCITED HE COULD HARDLY SPEAK c.1923 | Maria de Sautuola Daughter of local landowner Marcelino de Sautuola, on the discovery of the Altamira cave paintings

Eliette Brunel and Christian Hillaire, have given their names to individual chambers. The discovery of the Chauvet Cave made experts revise their views on the Aurignacian period and on the nature and purpose of cave painting itself. The animals depicted are different from those in former caves. Alongside the common herbivores, there are images of dangerous creatures that were rarely pursued—bears, lions, and addled rhinos. This undermined the hypothesis that cave paintings were designed entirely for hunting rituals.

ARTISTIC INFLUENCES Historians have long been disbelieving of the idea that cave paintings are aboveboard reflections of the daily life of the hunter-gatherer. As more and more images have become available for study, they have analyzed every symbol and every unusual pose for hints about their purpose. increasingly, it seems likely that the cave artists were influenced by their ritual practices and beliefs. Painted symbols are found in many caves. Hands are peculiarly common, taking the imprint of handprints, decoration prints, or stenciled outlines. Often, they are combined with an animal visualize. In this case, the charcoal occupation to the leave is part of a gigantic.

Vallon-Pont-d ’ Arc, France

Red ocher is one of the most common pigments found in cave painting. It besides appears to have had a thick, symbolic significance. It was daubed on cult figurines, equally well as on the bodies of the dead and their dangerous goods.

Himba women grinding red ocher that is then mix with butter, ash, and a perfumed resin to produce a ointment that protects the skin.

Shamanistic practices may be linked with many of the cave paintings. This strange setting, unparalleled in Paleolithic artwork, shows a bird man, who may be absolutely or in a enchantment, lying next to a boo stick that may be either a spear potter or a ritual implement.

Bird-headed man with a disembowel bison, c.15,000–13,000 BCE, in a barely accessible sanctuary called the Shaft at Lascaux.

Unusual poses in the animal paintings have taxed the inventiveness of archaeologists. The prefer hypothesis is that this bison is rolling in its urine, in order to create territorial markings. however, it has besides been interpreted as fail, quiescence, or giving birth.

The Panel of the Hand Stencils, c.30,000 BCE, is situated deep inside Chauvet Cave, near the entrance to the Candle Gallery. Nr.

Nr. Montignac, France

A curled-up bison, c.16,000–14,000 BCE, follows the round shape of a roof boss on the ceiling at the Altamira cave. Nr. Santillana del Mar, Spain



c.16,000–14,000 BCE Altamira Cave, nr. Santillana del Mar, Spain

A pioneer figure in the report of the Paleolithic earned run average, Henri Breuil ( 1877–1961 ) was ordained as a priest but never took up his duties. rather, he devoted himself to recording and analyzing the latest discoveries in cave art. He visited sites throughout Europe, Africa, and China, and his encyclopedic cognition on the subjugate enabled him to calculate a more accurate chronology for the Palaeolithic long time.

The extraordinary paintings at Altamira were discovered in 1879, and information about them was first published in 1880. however, more than 20 years passed before they were generally accepted as genuine examples of Paleolithic art. Initially, experts had dismissed Altamira as an elaborate, modern counterfeit, arguing that the colors were besides bright and the techniques besides sophisticated for such an early date. Their astonishment is apprehensible. This remarkable bison was outlined in black and then colored in. Shading was achieved by scraping away belittled areas of paint, and engraved lines were added at key points—the eyes, the horns, and the hooves—to sharpen up the contingent.



Henri Breuil, french archeologist and authority on prehistoric cave artwork



TIMELINE It is fair over a hundred since historians accepted the mind that cave paintings dated back to the Upper Paleolithic earned run average. The earliest european examples appear to date from around 30,000 BCE. however, as new discoveries are made and dating techniques become more sophisticated, this position may change. Many of the european paintings were produced inwardly deeply, barely accessible caves, which has aided their survival. exchangeable images have been found in Africa and Australia, where the practice of creating them continued for army for the liberation of rwanda longer.

WE NOW SHOULDERED A HEAVY BURDEN OF RESPONSIBILITY. THIS INTACT SITE … MUST BE PROTECTED AT ALL COSTS 1995 | Eliette Brunel Deschamps French potholer, on the discovery of Chauvet

Megaceros Deer Running c.30,000 BCE Chauvet Cave, Ardèche, France

Candamo Cave The oldest cave paintings in Spain may have been produced c.23,000 BCE, at La Peña de Candamo. These include images of bison, bulls, and aurochs ( wild cattle ).

The megaceros was a giant deer, which is now extinct. It did not return to southern Europe after the late Glacial Period and paintings of it are alone found in very erstwhile caves, such as Chauvet and Cougnac.

30,000 BCE Neanderthals extinct The remains of the last Neanderthals date from c.30,000 BCE. They have dominated the Middle Paleolithic historic period, but are nowadays replaced by modern humans.

REPLICA CAVES Most cave paintings survived because they were preserved in a static microclimate, but this changed as tourists flocked to view them. In the 1950s, officials at Lascaux noticed that alga and calcite crystals were forming on the walls and the paintings were beginning to fade. The cave was closed in 1963 and a replica—Lascaux II—was created for visitors in a nearby concrete bunker.

27,000 Venus figurines A number of modest Venus sculptures date from c.26,000 BCE. Made from stone or gigantic tusks, the women are much corpulent, with few facial features and building complex hair’s-breadth arrangements. The most celebrated examples are from Willendorf in Austria, and Lespugue and Brassempouy in France.

Replicas of cave paintings in Lascaux II

Venus of Willendorf c.25,000 BCE Naturhistorisches Museum, Vienna, Austria



Discovered in 1908, this is the most celebrated of the Venus figurines excavated from Paleolithic sites across Europe. It was found at Willendorf in Austria but must have originated elsewhere, since its material ( oolitic limestone ) was not locally available. Images of alike figures were produced, either as paintings or engravings, in prehistoric caves.


Black Cow c.15,000–13,000 BCE Lascaux Cave, nr. Montignac, France

This superb painting was executed in a long, narrow passage called the Nave. It was superimposed on a frieze of around twenty horses, running in the opposite direction. Henri Breuil noted the “ twisted perspective ” of this character of image, with the body shown in profile but some details ( such as the hooves and horns ) pictured frontally.



15,000 BCE

Great Auk c.25,000–17,000 BCE Cosquer Cave, nr. Marseille, France

The paintings in this extraordinary cave were discovered in 1991 by Henri Cosquer, the coach of a diving center—a vital component, since the entrance to the site is nowadays submerged. The depictions of marine creatures include great auk, monk seals, and octopuses.

Panel of Spotted Horses c.26,000–20,000 BCE Pech Merle Cave, Lot, France

Paleolithic artists liked to exploit the contour of the surfaces that they were working on. here, the motley heads are bantam, but the animal to the right seems more convert, because the adjacent rock is shaped like a horse ’ south lead. In 2011, scientists found DNA evidence to suggest spot horses like these actually existed.


Bison c.11,500 BCE Niaux Cave, nr. Tarascon-sur-Ariège, France

At Niaux, most of the animal paintings were executed in a large, domed bedroom called the Salon Noir. Chemical tests have shown that the paint was made from manganese dioxide, coupled with biotite and feldspar.

15,000 BCE

12,000 El Castillo

c.11,000 BCE

According to radiocarbon tests, several paintings of bison are produced at the spanish cave of El Castillo c.13,500 BCE. In all, around 250 animal images are introduce here.

By c.11,000 BCE the Weichsel Glaciation—one of the final phases of the Great Ice Age—is drawing to a close in northern Europe.

MASKS AND SHAMANISM Bradshaw Aboriginal paint c.15,000 BCE Mount Elizabeth Station, Kimberley Region, Western Australia

[ AN EXPRESSION OF ] THE IDEAS THAT MOST DEEPLY MOVED THE BUSHMAN MIND AND FILLED IT WITH RELIGIOUS FEELINGS 1874 | Wilhelm Bleek german linguist, on the rock art of southerly Africa

Bradshaw figures take their name from Joseph Bradshaw, the settler who first recorded them in 1891. These rock paintings have been exposed to the elements, but their colors have remained newly because they are coated in a movie of fungus and bacteria.



This baronial figure, with massive biceps and horns, has been nicknamed “ the great idol of Sefar. ” “ Roundhead ” worshippers appear to kneel before him. Some scholars regard the horns and mask as evidence of shamanist practices among the Saharan peoples. In addition, they view some of the stranger scenes depicted at Sefar as visions brought on during trances, or alternatively by hallucinogenic substances used during the rituals.

Sefar, Tassili n ’ Ajjer, Algeria, c.6,000 BCE


Elands c.1500 BCE Game Pass Shelter, Drakensberg, South Africa

The paintings at Game Pass Shelter provided archaeologists with the clearest evidence of the links between rock art and shamanism. Elands ( bombastic antelopes ) were at the heart of ritual ceremonies, because shamans thought the animals ’ spiritual potency would enable them to enter a enchantment department of state.

Human Figures and Mouflon c.4500 BCE Tan Zumaitak, Tassili n ’ Ajjer Plateau, Algeria

The rock paintings at Tassili n ’ Ajjer were produced before the Sahara became a desert. This case dates from the early roundhead phase, when figures were depicted with few facial features. The paint shows the herdsmen tending mouflons ( large-horned sheep ).




1000 BCE

Kamares Ewer c.1900 BCE National Archaeological Museum, Iraklion, Crete

Ceremonial Cow c.3000 BCE Laas Gaal, nr. Hargeisa, Somalia

The paintings in the rock shelters of Laas Gaal are a reminder of a time when this arid partially of Africa was lavish and fat, with wild cattle roaming free. here, a long-horned cow, portrayed as a divine spirit, is worshipped by a herder.

This ewer—a bombastic jug—was made by the Minoans on Crete, one of the first european peoples to make function of a potter ’ south wheel. This exercise was found at the Palace of Phaistos, but most wares of this kind were excavated at Kamares itself, a cave refuge on Mount Ida.




MASTERWORK Chinese Horse c.15,000–13,000 BCE Lascaux Cave, nr. Montignac, France

The animal paintings at Lascaux are supreme examples of Paleolithic art. One learner has described the site as the “ Sistine Chapel of Prehistory, ” referring not good to the beauty of the paintings, but besides to the difficult conditions under which they were produced, gamey up on ceilings or in darkness recesses. The chinese Horse is situated in the Axial Gallery, one of the most amply decorated sections. It was dubbed “ chinese ” because it reminded some commentators of Song Dynasty paintings, and the closest contemporary type of horse does indeed come from that separate of the world. This is the Przewalski species from Mongolia, which, like the chinese Horse, has a small mind and a bulky body. That combination has prompted a few unflattering comments—a leading archeologist described the Lascaux horses as “ these Basset Hound animals, all belly. ” The outline of the animal was painted with a brush, while the chief areas of color were sprayed on, either from the mouth or through a hollow bone serve as a tube. The signs surrounding the sawhorse have been the subject of much debate. Some have linked these to the theories about hunting magic, interpreting the diagonal markings as weapons and the gridlike symbol as a net income. For others, the details are more descriptive. The lines are ferns or grasses, bending as the horse gallops through them, while the enlarge contours merely represent the animal ’ south midst, winter coat.





Tutankhamun ‘s Burial Mask c.1324 BCE Egyptian Museum, Cairo, Egypt

One of the most iconic images of egyptian art, Tutankhamun ’ s burial mask epitomizes the care and expense that was lavished on the dead. The elementary calculate of the mask was to protect the pharaoh ‘s head, which needed to be entire if he was to be reborn in the afterlife. The gold was not strictly ostentatious— it was besides a symbol of immortality.

egyptian art made a significant contribution to the development of western culture. The Greeks, in particular, were dazzled by its bluff monumentality, and through them some aspects of the egyptian style filtered through to by and by ages. tied so, the aims and methods of egyptian art are in many ways remote in spirit equally well as time. egyptian paint was wholly functional in its mentality. Artists were expected to depict their given subjects competently, according to a rigorously regulated arrange of standards, and there was no place for originality, aesthetic considerations, or self-expression. The painters themselves had little condition, surely nobelium better than early craftsmen, and they credibly worked in teams. The Egyptians believed fierily in an afterlife and directed much of their aesthetic energy into providing for it. The stagger sum of care and expense that this involved can be gauged from the magnificent rampart decoration and treasures found in the grave of Tutankhamun, who reigned as king during the artistic aureate senesce of the 18th Dynasty ( c.1540 –1295 BCE ).



A bouncy state c.2647–2124 BCE The Old Kingdom period comprises the 3rd to the 8th Dynasty. Chephren, the model for the Sphinx, is one of the rulers.

Order and stability so artist combined a side and frontal view. This gives the figures a contort appearance and produces some curious anomalies. In the figure of Nebamun ( see pp.30–31 ), for example, the left field hand is attached to the right arm. frivolous, ephemeral features—such as emotion or movement—were banished. The size of a figure reflected its importance, and skin color was predetermined—red for men, cream for women, and yellow ( symbolizing immortality ) for gods. The regulations remained in storm for most of the history of ancient Egypt, though they were observed less strictly in times of political discord, such as the Intermediate periods. The Gebelein murals ( see p.26 ) offer an model of this. The rules were besides modified during the disruptive reign of Akhenaten, as can be seen in the paint of his daughters ( see p.28 ), which displays both motion and human interaction. The honest-to-god traditions only began to wane after the collapse of the New Kingdom ( c.1540–1069 BCE ), when waves of foreigners—Persians, Kushites, Greeks, and Romans—threatened the area.

c.2040–1648 BCE In the Middle Kingdom menstruation, a revival in Egypt ’ s political fortunes follows the reunification of the area. c.1540–1069 BCE In the New Kingdom period, the military prevail of Ahmose ussher in a fresh time period of greatness. c.1540–1295 BCE The 18th Dynasty, regarded by many as the high item of egyptian art, includes the consequential reign of Akhenaten and Tutankhamun. These rulers besides coincide with the Amarna time period, which was arguably the most imaginative phase of egyptian art. c.1295–1069 BCE The Ramessides ( the line of kings named “ Ramses ” ) are big builders, but their govern is threatened by the military might of the Assyrians.


The egyptian civilization is noteworthy both for its richness and its longevity. It survived for around 3,000 years, producing art of a systematically high quality for most of this period. The river Nile, with its annual model of flooding, provided the fertile conditions that allowed the state ‘s agricultural economy to prosper. This in plow gave Egypt the financial muscleman to dominate its contiguous neighbors during the Old Kingdom period ( c.2647–2124 BCE ). From a very early stage, Egypt ‘s funerary beliefs were well established. The first pyramids emerged in the 3rd Dynasty, and were not straightforward tombs—they were houses for the ka ( spirit ) of the deceased, with treasures placed inside them for use in the afterlife. They were attached to big estates, which produced food and early goods for offerings, while besides supporting the local community. Farming activities were frequently portrayed inside the grave. Because they were basically religious in character, paintings were rigorously controlled. The human form had to be shown in its entirety,

525 BCE Persian king Cambyses II conquers Egypt, which becomes a client express. 31 BCE Mark Antony and Cleopatra are defeated by Roman forces at the Battle of Actium, effectively ending Egypt ’ s independence.

[ I SAW ] STRANGE ANIMALS, STATUES, AND GOLD— EVERYWHERE THE GLINT OF GOLD … I WAS hit DUMB WITH AMAZEMENT 1922 | Howard Carter British archeologist, on Tutankhamun ‘s grave

Tomb of Prince Khaemwaset This lavishly decorated tomb—adorned with two defender figures, lion-headed Nebneru next to Heri-maat—was produced for one of the sons of Rameses III. 20th Dynasty, Valley of the Queens, Luxor, Egypt




BEGINNINGS SANDS OF TIME The origins of egyptian paint can be traced back to prehistoric times. The artisans of the Nagada acculturation ( c.4000– 3500 BCE ) produced painted pottery, using some motifs that would survive into the dynastic era. The earliest known painted grave dates binding to c.3100 BCE and was discovered at the ancient capital, Hierakonopolis. The imperial cemetery at Saqqara is about as old, with decorated tombs dating back to deoxyadenosine monophosphate early as the 1st Dynasty. These include pyramids and the more modest mastaba ( mud-brick burying places ).

Although the contents of egyptian tombs may appear lavish and aesthetic to advanced eyes, that was never the intention. Everything in the funereal traditions of ancient Egypt served a common purpose : to protect and sustain the deceased in the afterlife. Paintings were not designed to look naturalistic or aesthetically pleasing—they were components in a ritual framework that was organized for the benefit of the dead. These practices remained in place for virtually the entire span of Egypt ’ second ancient history.

ARTISTIC INFLUENCES By the fourth dimension Saqqara was built, the format for grave decoration was already well established. Among the themes to feature heavily was department of agriculture, an natural process that the dead person might have been associated with during their lifetime—Unsu the scribe, for case, had been a granulate accountant. Agricultural motifs besides featured because of the food and provisions that would be needed in the afterlife. sculpt was combined with painting in early grave, producing colored reliefs preferably than frescoes. Parades of herdsmen with animals—their plain variety emphasized the wealth of the deceased—were a common theme.

Stylistic regulations dictated the way artists organized their pictures. homo figures were shown in profile, although both shoulders were turned to face the front. Scenes were arranged into retentive, horizontal bands known as “ registers. ”

Hieroglyphs, literally “ sacred words, ” were used to amplify the national of the painting—images were rarely meant to be viewed in isolation. Tomb paintings tended to be personalized with a root relating to the deceased.

egyptian blue or “ blue frit ” is often described as the first synthetic pigment. It is a calcium-copper silicate produced by fusing powdered limestone with sand and copper filings. It features in Nebamun Hunting in the Marshes ( see pp.30–31 ).

Offering Chapel of Ptah Sekhem Ankh, c.2454–2311 BCE ( 5th Dynasty ). museum of Fine Arts, Boston, MA

Tomb of Unsu, c.1479–1425 BCE ( 18th Dynasty ), depicts an agrarian scene. Louvre, Paris, France

Goddess Ma ’ at, c.1297–1185 BCE ( 19th Dynasty ), painted with hieroglyph aboard. Tomb of Nefertari, Valley of the Queens, Egypt

Powdered mineral pigments from the grave of Kha at Deir el-Medina ( 18th Dynasty ). egyptian Museum, Turin, Italy




Mastaba of Ty This is credibly the finest of the Saqqara tombs dating from the Old Kingdom era. Ty was a high-level woo official— “ Overseer of the Pyramids of Niuserre ” was one of his many titles—and his status is reflected in the glorious easing decorations at the mastaba. Long parades of porters ( pictured ) bring food, animals, and other goods to serve as offerings, while there are besides detailed illustrations of the many activities that Ty supervised, ranging from farming and brew to making inspections and managing the accounts. elsewhere on the relief there are a number of more alien scenes, such as hunting a hippopotamus with harpoons.


5th Dynasty 2494–2345 BCE Saqqara, nr. Cairo, Egypt

The Saqqara tombs were discovered by french Egyptologist and archeologist Auguste Mariette. An early on passion for hieroglyph had helped him land a subcontract at the Louvre and, in 1850, he was sent to Egypt to purchase manuscripts for the museum. rather, he excavated the locate at Saqqara, making the arresting finds that secured his reputation. Mariette ’ s determination to eradicate the plunder that took plaza at excavations led to his appointment as Conservator of egyptian Monuments and cofounder of the Cairo Museum. He evening found time to supply the plot for Verdi ’ randomness Aida, set in ancient Egypt.

Auguste Mariette, french archeologist and Egyptologist

I KNEW I WOULD DIE OR GO MAD IF I DID not RETURN TO EGYPT IMMEDIATELY 1856 | Auguste Mariette Speaking in Paris after discovering Saqqara




TIMELINE Throughout their history, the Egyptians used a diverse align of artifacts for funerary practices. Cult statues, such as those in Rahotep ‘s grave ( below ), were designed to theater the ka of the deceased, while adornments on mummy cases were meant to ward off evil. The vogue of painting remained signally consistent, with the luminary exceptions of the rebellious phase of Akhenaten ‘s reign ( see p.28 ) and the subsequently colonial periods, under the influence of Greece and Rome. First grave statues In Saqqara, a imperial official founds the earliest-known funerary cult chapel in c.2800 BCE. The first grave statues belonging to the pharaonic era besides date from this period.

Hieroglyphs Hieroglyphic forms of script are in general use throughout Egypt by c.2890 BCE. They are wide employed on most paintings, sculptures, and monuments.

3000 BCE




Early Dynastic period The initial early on dynastic period includes the initiation of a new capital at Memphis in c.2972 BCE. The historical part into dynasties ( royal houses ) was devised in the third century BCE by Manetho, an egyptian priest.

Princess Nefertiabet 4th Dynasty, c.2500 BCE Louvre, Paris, France

Rahotep and Nofret 4th Dynasty, c.2570 BCE Egyptian Museum, Cairo, Egypt

This couple were discovered in a mastaba near Meidum. The paint limestone figures are fabulously lifelike—strands of Nofret ‘s own hair’s-breadth are even depicted, peeping out from under her wig.

This limestone slab—discovered at the princess ‘s grave in Giza—shows Nefertiabet, a sister of King Cheops. Clothed in a panther-skin dress, she sits before the food and other offerings that she will need in the afterlife.

Building the pyramid construction of the brilliant pyramids at Giza begins c.2550–2500 BCE. The monuments to Khufu, Khafre, and Menkaure dominate the setting.


Transporting Grain Sacks 1st Intermediate Period, c.2100 BCE Museo Egizio, Turin, Italy

Murals from the grave of Iti at Gebelein reflect the fact that in that region, artistic controls were relaxed ascribable to political divisions within Egypt. Colors are bright than normal, but the scale is erratic.

An Asiatic Caravan 12th Dynasty, c.1880 BCE Beni Hasan Necropolis, Egypt

This detail of the decorations from the grave of Khnumhotep II depicts mobile traders from Asia bringing offerings for the deceased. The rapid ascent in immigration from Asia was a matter of political concern in Egypt.



1600 BCE

Detail of Musical Procession

The Valley of the Kings

11th Dynasty, c.2000 BCE Cincinnati Art Museum, OH

Female attendants clap their hands in a segment of the decorations from the grave of Queen Neferu, one of the wives of King Mentuhotep II. Her grave forms contribution of a large mortuary complex at Deir el-Bahari.

A imperial cemetery is established around c.1560 BCE in the area now known as the Valley of the Kings. It will become the most important burial site of the New Kingdom.




Palettes were practical objects used for grinding pigments, but some early, highly decorated examples held a deep significance. They were given as offerings to temples and employed during rituals. Scholars speculate that they may have been used to produce eye or body rouge, which was worn by the priest or daubed on cult statues. In artistic terms, the grinding bowling ball became a feature of speech of the purpose, used here to shape the necks of fabulous beasts. Palette of Narmer, c.3000 BCE, Egyptian Museum, Cairo, Egypt




Interior of the Tomb of Sennefer 18th Dynasty, c.1410 BCE Sheikh Abd el-Qurna, Egypt

Often dubbed the “ Tomb of the Vines ” because of the ceiling decoration, this 18th Dynasty grave depicts Sennefer— the mayor of Thebes—on the far wall, receiving offerings with his wife.

WELL-BELOVED COURTIER, GREAT OF THE GREAT ONES … THE KING KNEW OF MY EXCELLENCE c.1410 BCE | Sennefer Inscription in his grave, describing himself

Tanis Necropolis In c.800 BCE, the main focus of royal burials shifts away from the Valley of the Kings, and to Tanis. These tombs are more humble, though they contain aureate treasures.

1400 BCE



Queen Hatshepsut Work begins on the brilliant synagogue of Queen Hatshepsut in c.1460 BCE. Its unusual decorations include scenes of a naval excursion, and the exile of obelisks from the quarries at Aswan.

The Daughters of Akhenaten 18th Dynasty, c.1353–35 BCE Ashmolean, Oxford, UK

Artistic styles altered radically during the predominate of Akhenaten, the “ heretic king. ” Figures appeared less static and impassive, while the human form was portrayed in a queerly stylize manner.

The Great Harris Papyrus 20th Dynasty, c.1150 BCE British Museum, London, UK

At 138ft ( 42m ) in distance, this is one of the largest surviving papyrus. This segment shows Ramses III with the principal gods of Memphis—Ptah, Sekhmet, and Nefertem.



Mummy Cartonnage of Nespanetjerenpere

Fayum Portrait of a Young womanhood

22nd Dynasty, c.945– 718 BCE Brooklyn Museum

Roman period, c.30 BCE–120 CE

of Art, New York, NY

Fayum portraits combined the naturalism of Roman portrayal with the burying practices of the Egyptians. This is an highly lavish example, painted in encaustic ( a molten-wax summons ) on imported cedar forest, and covered with gold-leaf decoration.

Louvre, Paris, France

Cartonnage was a substantial composed of linen or papyrus mix with poultice and water, and was used to cover a mummy. assorted symbols and spells were painted on the surface, designed to aid the deceased—in this event a priest—in their travel to the afterlife.

Temple of Edfu Egyptian architecture enjoys a revival under the Ptolemies. The most impressive construction is the Temple of Horus at Edfu, begun by Ptolemy III in 237 BCE and finished in 57 BCE.

Kushite rule From around 728 BCE, the Egyptians are ruled by the Kushites from the south ( now the Republic of Sudan ). This situation is ended by invading Assyrians, who sack Memphis in 671 BCE.



1 CE

Nectanebo I

Rosetta Stone

A Roman province

A abbreviated period of egyptian independence begins during the thirtieth Dynasty, in c.380 BCE. Nectanebo I and his successors revive earlier build programs, enlarging temples and creating avenues of sphinxes.

A slab is carved with identical inscriptions in Greek, Demotic, and hieroglyph script in 196 BCE. It will finally provide scholars with the full of life clues that they need in holy order to decipher ancient hieroglyph.

Following defeat at the Battle of Actium the previous year, Mark Antony and Cleopatra invest suicide in 30 BCE. Egypt immediately becomes a Roman state.




The Ptolemaic Dynasty The Ptolemaic era, when Egypt is ruled by Greeks, begins c.240 BCE. Alexandria replaces Memphis as the capital and the Hellenistic style affects most branches of the arts.

Designed to aid the deceased in their ocean trip to the afterlife, The Book of the Dead is the collective identify given to an anthology of spells and instructions. These texts could be inscribed in grave or on coffins, but the most complicate were personalized for the asleep and written on long papyrus scrolls. many featured a series of painted vignettes, culminating in the judgment of Osiris, the deity of the dead. The judgment of Osiris, from The Book of the Dead, c.332–330 BCE




MASTERWORK Nebamun Hunting in the Marshes 18th Dynasty c.1350 BCE British Museum, London, UK

This fresco is rightly considered to be one of the finest examples of egyptian grave painting. It belonged to a series of frescoes that decorated the resting place of the copyist Nebamun, who—according to hieroglyphs at the site— “ counts the grain in the granary of godhead offerings. ” It formed separate of a larger picture that besides included Nebamun spearing fish. Although that fortune has not survived, a break up of the spear can be seen in the lower left corner of the painting. At first glance, the scene may look like a congregation representation of an bodily process that Nebamun might have enjoyed during his life. This would be misinform, though, because egyptian artwork always served a deeper determination. Nebamun would never have hunted while wearing his wig and an flowery collar, his wife would not have accompanied him dressed for a feast, nor would their child have been confront. In fact, the scene is full of symbolic references to birthrate and metempsychosis that are linked to a solar cult. Two lotus buds and a lotus flower are draped prominently over Nebamun ’ s right weapon. These are traditional attributes of the sun-god Re, who was often depicted reclining on a lotus. Gold was an emblem of the sun, and a bantam touch of gold leaf ( its only use in the paint ) is found in the center of the cat, an animal sacred to Re ’ randomness daughter, the goddess Bastet. The cat-o’-nine-tails ’ sulfur position— balancing incredibly on a reed and gazing up at Nebamun—coupled with the presence of the aureate leaf signals that its presence is symbolic.

TAKING RECREATION AND SEEING WHAT IS GOOD IN THE PLACE OF ETERNITY c.1350 BCE | Unknown Hieroglyphs inscribed below Nebamun ’ mho left sleeve




Detail of Garden Fresco c.20 BCE Museo Nazionale Romano, Rome, Italy

The Romans started a fashion for decorating their homes with scenes of gardens and orchards. The most celebrated fresco of this type is this example, which once adorned the Villa of Livia to the north of Rome. It was located in a subterranean chamber, which was probably used as a cool retirement in summer.

Painting and sculpture produced in the flower of ancient Greece and Rome provided the build up blocks of western artwork. Later ages looked second on it as an era of supreme achievements, which they could barely hope to emulate. The artworks of the two civilizations were both baronial and inflict, yet were hush produced in a manner that seemed realistic—a far cry from the awkward stylizations that succeeded them. This admiration for classical art was based primarily on sculpt, since more of it survived, but the repute of painting was calm high. ancient writers praised it to the skies, and as more paintings have come to light, many of these contemporary claims seem justified. The Greeks and the Romans shared a love for capturing world, whether in trompe l’oeil illusionistic effects—in which the painted object appears to be real—or in strikingly natural-looking garden scenes and still-life paintings.



The Classical world c.900 BCE The first Greek city-states begin to be formed.

The age of empires

c.620–500 BCE The Etruscans reach the altitude of their office in Italy.

( 5th–4th hundred BCE ), when greek art and architecture reached its flower. Following the campaigns of Alexander the Great, the exuberate of greek art were then transmitted far and wide—throughout the Mediterranean, across to North Africa, and into parts of Asia. The course of greek paint is harder to codify, since then little has survived. It was always in demand though—the Romans, in particular, were in fear of it. They wrote about it, they copied it, and—as the counterweight of exponent between the two civilizations shifted—they acquired it. Rome began as a kingdom, became a democracy, and reached its heights as an conglomerate. But even at the altitude of its gaudery, it silent deferred to the sheer quality of greek paint. The survival of Roman painting is in cosmopolitan about a patchy as that of ancient Greece, but the preservation of Pompeii ’ s artworks is a conspicuous exception. The treasures of this bury city show that the Romans continued to collect Greek easel paintings or have them copied, either as murals or as mosaics.

c.480–323 BCE The Classical period in Greece includes a golden old age of artwork, literature, and philosophy. 356–323 BCE During his shortstop life, Alexander the Great builds his nation into a huge empire, reaching angstrom far as India. 218 BCE Hannibal crosses the Alps into Italy with his carthaginian army. 146 BCE Macedonia officially becomes a Roman state, and the perch of Greece is effectively under Roman operate. 27 BCE Following his kill of Antony and Cleopatra in 31 BCE, augustus exercises fully control over Rome ’ second territories. Four years by and by, he assumes the title “ Augustus ” and becomes the first Roman Emperor.


The artistic traditions of both Greece and Rome had very deep roots. The initial stimulation came from the cultures that had preceded them but, as their power and influence grew, new sources of divine guidance were soon found. Both civilizations flourished through a mix of conquest and deal, which exposed them to an ever-widening circle of contacts. In Greece, the local influences came from the waning civilizations of the Minoans ( in modernday Crete ) and the Mycenaeans ( in mainland Greece ). The area itself developed as a group of autonomous city-states, which were fiercely competitive. In vase production, for case, the two main centers were Athens and Corinth, which vied continually for modern alien markets for their wares. greek colonists besides had an impact. By the seventh century BCE, settlers in North Africa returned with dazzling reports of the glories of egyptian art. It took time for these divers influences to merge into a national vogue. This process was not completed until the classical music period

79 CE The tragic destruction of Pompeii by a volcanic volcanic eruption preserves a wealth of Roman art for the future.


The Parthenon Built on the highest point of the Acropolis in Athens, the Parthenon—a temple dedicated to Athena—is one of the most celebrated monuments of the Classical long time in Greece.




BEGINNINGS THE GREEK HERITAGE only a bantam proportion of the paintings produced in the Classical world have survived, so it is hard to gain a balance picture of their growth. Easel paintings and murals were undoubtedly the more prestigious forms of artwork, winning excessive praise in the writings of Pliny and other ancient writers, but painted vases have proved more durable. Most vases that have survived were retrieved from grave and, although they were much broken, it has been possible

to piece together substantial numbers of them. The greek tradition stemmed from Mycenaean and Minoan examples, producing its first rightfully freelancer dash during the Geometric phase, when abstract ornamentation was the dominant access. figural elements were gradually introduced, partially through contacts with the Near East, culminating in the black-figure and red-figure vases that mark the acme of greek accomplishment in pottery.

ARTISTIC INFLUENCES The art of both Greece and Rome had a long pedigree, stretching back into prehistoric times. The keystone influences on greek art came from the Cyclades islands, Mycenae on mainland Greece, and the Minoan culture on Crete, while the Romans followed in the path of the Etruscans. Decorated etruscan tombs at Tarquinia and Cerveteri—both now World Heritage sites—emphasize the importance of the art of that culture. The Minoans were influenced by greek fresco-painting techniques. They flourished on Crete from around 2500 BCE, producing fine works of artwork with religious overtones— equally well as strictly cosmetic murals—in big palaces, specially Knossos.

Dolphin Fresco, detail, 3rd millennium BCE, has been carefully reconstructed in the Queen ’ randomness Megaron ( bang-up hall ). palace of

Greek colonists took their customs and corporeal culture to alien lands, spreading their paint traditions and resulting in local variations. This visualize is from a greek grave in Italy—its stylus is provincial, with little attack at magnificence.

The Diver, c.480 BCE, depicts a figure that is thought to symbolize the travel from life into death. Paestum,

The Mycenaean civilization, which flourished in Greece in the Late Bronze Age, grew out of the city of Mycenae in the northeastern Peloponnese. It is best known for pottery, which was an important divine guidance for later greek vase painters.

The color red was made from cinnabar, one of the rare and most expensive pigments in the ancient world. Patrons specified the sum to be used as a statement of their wealth. Pliny the Elder recommended diluting cinnabar with butt ’ s lineage or oppress berries to make it last.

Knossos, Crete

Campania, Italy

The Warrior Vase, thirteenth century BCE, is unique in its iconography—a phalanx of marching soldiers. National Archaeological Museum, Athens, Greece

Cinnabar was thought to turn black if exposed to sunlight or moonlight. To prevent this, artists coated it in a mix of vegetable oil and candle wax.


TURNING POINT Dionysus Cup Exekias c.530 BCE Staatliche Antikensammlungen, Munich, Germany

The Dionysus Cup is a sincerely consummate blend of function and design in the black-figure proficiency, in which figures were painted in black on a red clay background. The vessel is a kylix—a shallow wine-cup—and would have been chiefly used at symposium ( drinking parties ), where the guests reclined on couches. As they drank, the effigy at the buttocks of the cup was revealed. Exekias has chosen as his subject an episode from a Homeric hymn about Dionysus, the wine-god, who was captured by pirates in his youth. To escape, he turned the mast into a vine, complete with clusters of grapes. Terrified, the pirates jumped overboard, where they were transformed into dolphins. Dionysus reclines like one at a symposium, enjoying the view that he has created. The narrative is condensed into a one, harmonious image, with the seven dolphins balanced by the seven bunches of grapes.

Exekias active Athens, Greece, c.550–520 BCE


Full view

Exekias was the greatest of the greek vase painters working in the black-figure technique. A putter and a painter, he was highly imaginative in both fields. Sixteen signed pieces have survived and, in all, around 40 paintings are attributed to him. He combined great preciseness and naturalism with imaginative flair, choosing strange subjects and often endowing them with actual psychological depth. He besides excelled at adapting his designs to the awkward surfaces of different kinds of vessels.




ETRUSCAN ART c.650 BCE Louvre, Paris, France

This character of aroma flask, with a homo or animal head, was extremely popular throughout the Mediterranean. The conflict scene indicates that it was designed for manipulation by a valet.

Detail of Wrestlers, Tomb of the Augurs, Italy

Vase painting styles

Archaic menstruation

The Greeks act into northern Syria in the ninth hundred BCE. This affects the style of vase painting, with asian motifs now being featured alongside the more traditional geometric patterns. Corinth remains the most important center of pottery product.

The Archaic historic period begins to blossom in ancient Greece from c.730 BCE. New city-states are founded, trade contacts are extended, and colonies are set up in many parts of the Mediterranean.

800 BCE


700 etruscan origins The Etruscans emerge on the italian mainland c.690 BCE, quickly superseding the Villanovan people. They produce noteworthy grave paintings as separate of an elaborate fad of the dead.

Winged Gorgon c.7th hundred BCE Museo Archeologico Regionale Paolo Orsi, Syracuse, Sicily, Italy

Geometric Amphora c.800 BCE

Large, geometric amphora were much used as scratch markers at this meter. Precise bands of zigzag or mesh patterns were combined with friezes of grazing animals or, occasionally, mourners and burying carts.

The Etruscans emerged in northerly Italy in around the eighth hundred BCE and remained a potent impel for the adjacent 500 years. Their aesthetic expressive style contains a mix of Greek, Phoenician, and asian influences. The Romans drew inspiration from their art, which is typified by the painted grave at Tarquinia and Cerveteri. The wrestle bouts pictured here were staged at funeral games.

Corinthian Aryballos

Painting flourished in the Classical world, though it is hard to appreciate this, since sol short remains. The most celebrated painters of antiquity—Zeuxis, Apelles, Parrhasius, Apollodorus—were all active agent during the 5th or fourth century BCE, but not a single original employment has survived. The rampart paintings that were preserved in and around Pompeii offer a tantalizing glance of the Greek and Roman artistic inheritance that was destroyed.

This colorful mud relief was probably used to decorate the side of an altar. It displays the awful Medusa carrying her young, the winged horse Pegasus. The classifiable kneel pose was a standard way of representing a figure that was either running or flying.



Roman republic Rome becomes a democracy in 510 BCE. The concluding king is expelled and his position is taken by two officials called praetors ( later consul ), who are elected each year.






Artemis and Actaeon Bell Krater

Pan Painter

Pan Painter c.470 BCE

active Athens, Greece c.480–450 BCE

Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, MA



This is the opposite side of the Pan Painter ’ s name slice, portraying a tragic sequence from greek caption. While out hound, Actaeon surprises Artemis in her seclude grotto. In retaliation, the pure goddess sets his own hounds upon him, watching as they tear him apart.


350 BCE

Temple of Zeus

Parthenon completed

The temple of Zeus at Olympia is completed in 456 BCE. Built to house a brilliant statue of the god, it is acclaimed as one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World.

Begun in 447 BCE, the Parthenon—the synagogue dedicated to Athena on the Acropolis in Athens— is completed in 432 BCE. The building is lavishly adorned with sculpture, much of which survives today.


bear Colophon, Ionia [ now Turkey ] ; active fourth century BCE

Hailed as the greatest cougar of ancient Greece, Apelles was a native of Ionia, in Asia Minor. He became court cougar to Philip of Macedon and his son, Alexander the Great. Apelles was famed for his portraits and his elegant depictions of Aphrodite, but deplorably none of them have survived to the salute day.

Alexander the Great as Zeus After Apelles c.350 BCE Casa dei Vetti, Pompeii, Italy

This little but majestic wall paint was discovered at Pompeii. It is a first hundred BCE Roman copy of a lose greek original from c.350 BCE. Scholars speculate that it derives from a portrayal by Apelles, since it corresponds identical closely to a description by Pliny the Elder, the Roman writer.

One of the greatest of the red-figure vase painters, the Pan Painter worked in a lively, theatrical performance style. More than 160 of his works have survived. He was credibly trained by Myson, a leading artist of the preceding generation, and he developed a ample repertory, ranging from religious and fabulous themes to scenes of casual liveliness. The artist takes his name from a spirit depicting of the Greek god Pan, who chases a startle goat herder ( on the reverse of the vessel illustrated left ).



Dioskurides of Samos born Samos ?, Asia Minor active c.1st century BCE



Little is known about Dioskurides, a mosaicist who produced a couple of theatrical scenes for the Villa of Cicero. He was obviously working from a practice book, since late, painted copies of his Street Musicians have survived. He was highly skilled, using minute tessera and even painting the mortar between the stones.

Mosaic of Street Musicians Lost work A celebrated painting celebrating the military art of Alexander the Great is produced c.300 BCE. Although the picture itself has not survived, it is known through a Roman copy found at Pompeii, the Alexander Mosaic.

300 BCE

Dioskurides of Samos, 1st hundred BCE Museo Archeologico Nazionale, Naples, Italy

This fall mosaic was recovered from the Villa of Cicero in Pompeii. It is credibly a copy of a greek paint from the third century BCE. The theatrical masks suggest that it represents a scene from a comedy.




Carthage rises

Rome conquers

From c.310 BCE, Carthage rises to dominance in the Mediterranean, embarking on a conflict with the Greeks for operate of Sicily.

Rome extends its office and influence throughout the second hundred BCE. The appropriate of Numantia in 133 BCE brings most of Spain under its predominate, while the province of Asia Minor ( contemporary Turkey ) is established.

Trompe l’Oeil Doorway second hundred BCE Pompeii, Italy

One of the foreman traits that the Romans inherited from the Greeks was a love of illusionistic effects. Many of the wall paintings at Pompeii feature of speech unusually convincing trompe l’oeils of doors, column, and architectural details. This arch and doorway, for example, are entirely painted.



PERFECTLY PRESERVED The Aldobrandini Wedding c.27 BCE – 14 CE Vatican


Museum, Vatican City

This fresco was discovered in 1601 in the remains of a Roman mansion. It takes its list from its first owner, Cardinal Aldobrandini. It has a fabulous root, with Venus attending to the bridget in the center.

Pompeii has become a all-important site for the study of Roman painting. In 79 CE Mount Vesuvius erupted, killing thousands and burying the thriving port under dense layers of ash and pumice. The dry, airless conditions helped preserve scores of wall paintings, providing a unique insight into roman culture. Ruins at Pompeii

Revolt of Spartacus A far-reaching slave rebellion in 73 BCE shakes Roman confidence. Spartacus, a thracian captive, escapes from a gladiator school in Capua and raises a huge army that inflicts a drawstring of humiliating defeats on Roman forces. He is finally defeated by Marcus Crassus in 71 BCE.


1 CE


100 CE Colosseum opens Rome ‘s first permanent amphitheater, the Colosseum, opens in 80 CE. The commitment ceremony is followed by 100 days of games.

Trajan ‘s Column

Woman Selling Cupids first century BCE – 79 CE

Woman Playing a Kithara c.50–40 BCE Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, NY

This deluxe fresco was designed for the villa of P. Fannius Synistor at Boscoreale. The woman ’ mho rich people overdress has given rise to suggestions that she may be a macedonian fagot, pictured with her daughter or baby.

Museo Archeologico Nazionale, Naples, Italy

The Romans loved portraying cupids in humorous vignettes—drinking wine, playing children ‘s games, or tied performing family chores. respective neoclassic artists were affectionate of this particular theme, producing their own versions ( see p.223 ).

In c.107 CE exploit begins on Trajan ‘s Column, a outstanding memorial with relief carvings celebrating the achievements of Emperor Trajan. In finical, it commemorates his victorious campaigns in Dacia ( in contemporary Romania ).




MASTERWORK Villa of the Mysteries Frescoes c.60–50 BCE Pompeii, Italy

This alone exemplar of a monumental cycle of Roman paintings was discovered in the Villa of the Mysteries, situated on the outskirts of Pompeii. By well fortune, the build sustained relatively little damage during the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 79 CE, and most of the paintings have survived in reasonable discipline. The frescoes take the kind of a frieze, covering three walls of an oecus ( large barroom ) at the southwest corner of the villa. The precise details of the imagination are still disputed, but most critics agree that the paintings relate to the initiation rites for a cult of Dionysus reserved entirely for women. At the heart of the frieze, the god reclines with his satyr and other forest companions. These mingle with the women taking contribution in the ceremonies, which appear to include a emblematic marriage and a ritual lay waste to. The figures in the detail pictured here include a child read from a scroll, a woman bearing a tray of food, and a seated priestess unveiling an unobserved object that will be used in the rites. The patron of these paintings is unknown, but was clearly a person of considerable means. This is apparent from the lavish use of vermilion, a prohibitively expensive loss pigment.

… FOR THE EYE IS ALWAYS IN SEARCH OF BEAUTY c.20 BCE | Vitruvius Pollio Roman architect and engineer, generator of De Architectura




The Virgin of Vladimir Circle of Andrei Rublev, fifteenth hundred Russian Museum, St. Petersburg, Russia

The original version of this picture was painted in Constantinople in the early twelfth century and was sent to Vladimir in 1155. It typifies the Byzantine practice of arranging subjects in very specific formats : this model depicts the Eleousa ( compassionate ) expression of the Virgin. The Infant is affectionate, but Mary appears sorrowful, as if she already knows Christ ‘s painful destiny.

In 330 CE, the Roman emperor butterfly Constantine the Great took the momentous measure of transferring his capital to the East. This go had huge consequences, not only in the kingdom of politics but besides for the future development of religion and art. In the West, christian painters would finally glorify their faith with artworks that brought the Holy Scriptures to life, displaying naturalism, emotion, and imaginative power. In the East, the approach could hardly have been more different. christian artwork was earnest and stylized, a mean of communing directly with the Lord. As such, it was cautiously regulated. There was no interest in producing realistic images of the natural earth. Nor were artists expected to demonstrate any signs of originality or personal construction. rather they were encouraged to spread the influence of the finest icons by imitating them ampere precisely as possible. This was the case with The Virgin of Vladimir ( see above ), the holiest picture in Russia, which was copied repeatedly over the centuries.



The upgrade and spill of Constantinople

The path to Orthodoxy restricted. During the time period of the Byzantine Papacy ( 537–752 CE ), all papal appointments had to be approved by the emperor, while the finest christian art on italian land was produced at Ravenna, a provincial Byzantine capital. In the East, the Church struggled to maintain one and suppress heresy. A series of Ecumenical Councils were called to lay down the finer points of Orthodox doctrine, but divisions still persisted. One of the most unplayful problems concerned the use of icons, which some considered idolatrous. During the Iconoclastic periods, they were prohibited entirely and thousands were destroyed. even after the ban was revoked, the content and vogue of icons was closely monitored, with theological preciseness taking priority over any aesthetic considerations. The Byzantine Empire ended with the precipitate of Constantinople in 1453, but the art of icon painting continued to flourish in Russia and the Balkans.

532–537 CE Emperor Justinian builds the church of Hagia Sophia in Constantinople, adorning it with icons and mosaics. 726–787 CE and 814–843 CE Eras of Iconoclasm, when many Byzantine icons are prohibited and destroyed. 988 CE Vladimir of Kiev marries the sister of Emperor Basil II, bringing byzantine culture to Russia. 1155 The city of Vladimir acquires its most celebrated picture, the Virgin of Vladimir. The Assumption Cathedral will be built to house it. 1204 Soldiers on the Fourth Crusade sack Constantinople and found the Latin Empire.


Early Christian artwork developed in an earned run average of crisis. In 324 CE, Constantine reunited the conglomerate after a period of civil war, but he recognized that Rome was no longer desirable as its capital. rather, he opted for the old greek city of Byzantium, which was better situated strategically to manage his huge territories. He enlarged it, renamed it Constantinople, and encouraged the outspread of Christianity. In separate, this was because of his own conversion, but it was besides a recognition of the success of the religion in this area. The Church was already thriving in Egypt, Syria, Armenia, and Ethiopia, and their regional styles, combined with Roman and Hellenistic influences, all contributed to the early development of Byzantine art. Rome proved deoxyadenosine monophosphate vulnerable as Constantine had feared. The city was sacked several times in the fifth century CE and the last emperor in the West was deposed in 476 CE. The Church survived these onslaughts, but its influence was

324–330 CE After enlarging and embellishing the city of Byzantium, Constantine renames it Constantinople.

1395 Theophanes the Greek, the celebrated Byzantine icon painter, begins work in Moscow. 1453 Constantinople falls to the Turks, signaling the end of the Byzantine Empire.

WE KNEW NOT WHETHER WE WERE IN HEAVEN OR ON EARTH, FOR SURELY THERE IS NO SUCH SPLENDOR OR BEAUTY ANYWHERE UPON EARTH 988 CE | Russian emissaries Reporting to Vladimir of Kiev, after witnessing services in Constantinople

Constantinople This fanciful watch of Constantinople is from the high illustrated Weltchronik ( World History ) published in 1493. It is frequently called the Nuremberg Chronicle, after its space of issue.



BEGINNINGS A MELTING POT In the West, the earliest christian paintings were created on the walls of the catacomb, a maze of burying chambers just outside Rome. The menace of persecution inactive lingered, so the images were cautious, identical basic, and sufficiently ambiguous to be interpreted as hedonist artwork. In depictions of the Good Shepherd, for example, Christ was portrayed as a unseasoned, beardless man who could well be mistaken for Orpheus or Apollo. In the East, the first icons were modeled on pagan images of family gods. Surviving examples of these are evocative of the Christ and Abbot Mena painting ( see p.46 ), with chunky figures in a rigid, frontal pose. The Fayum portraits ( see p.29 ) from Roman Egypt were besides highly influential. Some icon painters even adopted the same techniques : the Sinai portrait of St. Peter ( see p.47 ), for exemplify, was executed with the encaustic process favored by the Fayum artists.

ST. LUKE According to Eastern custom, the first picture was a portrayal of the Virgin holding the baby Christ, painted by St. Luke. The claim was first recorded in the Veneration of Holy Icons, a treatise written in the eighth century CE at the start of the iconoclastic period, and attributed to St. Andrew of Crete. Churches in Rome, Jerusalem, and Constantinople were all said to hold paintings by Luke. The most influential was at the Hodegon Monastery, Constantinople, which gave its name to the format—the Virgin Hodegetria—that was followed by late icon painters.



St. Luke Painting the Blessed Virgin, early fifteenth hundred, Michael Damaskenos, Ikonen-Museum Recklinghausen, Germany

TURNING POINT Virgin Enthroned with Two Saints sixth century CE St. Catherine ’ south Monastery, Sinai, Egypt

This is the most fall of the early icons preserved at Sinai. The Virgin sits in stateliness, flanked by St. Theodore and St. George. Behind, two angels gaze up in wonder as the hand of God reaches devour toward her. The paint anticipates the formal expressive style that characterizes Byzantine art. Its encaustic technique gives the figures a deep glow, but the artist ’ mho concern is doctrinal preferably than aesthetic. His primary bearing is to stress the Virgin ’ mho function as the Theotokos ( God-bearer ).

ARTISTIC INFLUENCES The center of the Christian earth lie in the East, during the early on years of the religion. together with Constantinople, the cities of Antioch, Alexandria, and Jerusalem were all authoritative centers. Each of these had artistic traditions of their own, which contributed to the development of Byzantine art. The coptic Church produced a classifiable form of early Christian artwork, with its desegregate of egyptian and hellenic influences. These are best seen in Coptic rampart paintings and manuscripts.

The Virgin and Child Accompanied by the Apostles, detail, 6th century CE, a fresco from the Monastery of St. Apollo, Bawit. Coptic

The semblance purple was extremely esteemed, because of its high cost and its imperial associations, so eastern artists much used it for the robes of Christ and the Virgin ( see Crucifixion, p.48 ).

Jesus Before Pilate and the Repentance of Judas, 6th hundred CE, from the lavish imperial pages of the Codex Rossanensis. Museo Diocesano

The Roman catacomb provided inspiration for some formats of Byzantine icons. In the East, the Virgin Mary was normally shown beg in the Orans pose, and was much pictured with the baby Christ.

Orans ( praying ) figure, 3rd hundred CE, displays the position adopted in worship in the East : arms spread, palms facing outbound. Catacombs

The Rabbula Gospels, the oldest know Syriac manuscript, introduced many ideas to early christian iconography. The syrian Church, centered in Antioch, was crucial in spreading the Faith.

The Ascension, detail, 586 CE, depicts Christ wear up to heaven. A complex figure bears the symbols of the four Evangelists. Biblioteca

Museum, Cairo, Egypt

di Arte Sacra, Rossano, Italy

of Priscilla, Rome, Italy

Laurentiana, Florence, Italy




TIMELINE Rebecca at the Well

While the threat of persecution hush lingered, the earliest christian art remained modest. however, once Constantine had made Christianity the official religion of the Roman empire, artists became more ambitious, borrowing forms and imagination from classical antiquity. Icons developed from around the sixth hundred CE, but their condition as consecrated objects caused controversy, and for a time they were banned. byzantine links with Russia date from the tenth century and after the spill of Constantinople, Russia became the chief kernel of icon paint.

Vienna Genesis, 6th century CE Österreichische Nationalbibliothek, Vienna, Austria

This lavish manuscript of the Book of Genesis was written in silver inscription on empurpled vellum. The bluff expense of such a project suggests it was credibly produced in Constantinople as an imperial endowment. Rebecca is chosen as Jacob ’ s bride after drawing water for his camels.

Exarchate of Africa Edict of Milan In 313 CE, Emperor Constantine and his political rival, Licinius, agree to grant religious exemption to Christians. This agreement is wide known as the Edict of Milan.

300 CE

Emperor Maurice creates the Exarchate ( state ) of Africa in c.590 CE, with Carthage as its capital. This form of government is designed to protect Byzantine interests in the western Mediterranean region.

Council of Chalcedon Held in 451 CE, the Council of Chalcedon highlights the growing divisions between East and West. The decision to elevate the interpret of Jerusalem, ranking it second only to Rome, proves particularly unpopular.




Construction of San Vitale The Basilica of San Vitale in Ravenna is begun by Bishop Ecclesius in c.525 CE. He does not live to see its completion, but the church is finally consecrated in 547 CE.

Jesus and the Samaritan Woman c.320–350 CE Catacomb on Via Latina, Rome, Italy

Some of the earliest christian paintings were produced in the Catacombs, a network of clandestine burial tunnels near Rome. In this New Testament sequence, Christ wears a toga and is beardless.

Christ and Abbot Mena Late 6th–early seventh century CE Louvre, Paris, France

This is the oldest known coptic icon. It was excavated from the egyptian monastery of Apollo at Bawit. Christ lays a protective arm around the shoulder of the abbot, who holds a coil in his leave hand containing the rules of the monastery.


Boethius Diptych seventh hundred CE Museo Cristiano, Brescia, Italy

Consular diptych were lavish condition symbols. This couple of hinged, bone panels is a writing tablet, but it was besides a present, given traditionally by a newly appointed consul to his supporters. Some were Christianized. In this case, religious paintings were added in the seventh century CE to Boethius ’ s original tablet of 487 CE.

700 CE Pope arrested Martin I is the only pope to challenge the authority of the emperor butterfly during the period of the Byzantine Papacy ( 537–752 CE ). He is arrested in 653 CE and banished to Chersonesos Taurica, in contemporary Ukraine.

RAVENNA The Byzantine empire maintained influence in Italy through its peasant capital at Ravenna. The city was captured from the Ostrogoths in 540 CE, as character of justinian ’ mho political campaign to reconquer the West. Its crowning glory was the Basilica of San Vitale, with its dazzling mosaics of justinian and his empress, Theodora. Emperor justinian and his cortege, mosaic panel, c.547 CE, S. Vitale, Ravenna, Italy

St. Peter St. Catherine ‘s Monastery, Sinai, Egypt

In this early picture, Peter is portrayed as a trope of authority. The visualize follows a format that was much found on consular diptych, where the status of the national was reinforced by images of higher powers in roundels—in this case, God the Father, the Virgin, and a young, beardless Christ.


6th–7th century CE






According to tradition, the monastery at Sinai stands on the site of the biblical consequence of Moses and the Burning Bush. The community was founded in the fourth century CE, but fortified buildings were commissioned by justinian two centuries later. St. Catherine ’ s contains many books and manuscripts, but is renowned for its collection of early icons, which escaped the ravages of the iconoclasts. The monastery of St. Catherine stands at the foot of Mount Sinai

Iconoclasm returns In 813 CE, the new emperor, Leo V, reawakens the consider over Iconoclasm by banning religious images. This is put into impression two years late, following a synod in Constantinople.

700 CE

End of Iconoclasm The irregular period of Iconoclasm draws to a close in 843 CE, marked by a emanation of icons from the Blachernai Church to Hagia Sophia in Constantinople.


Crucifixion eighth century CE St. Catherine ’ s Monastery, Sinai, Egypt

The crucifixion was not depicted by the first christian artists, because of the take down nature of the punishment, which was reserved for park criminals, slaves, and non-Romans. jesus is shown standing on the Cross, preferably than hanging from it, wearing an eastern tunic called a colobium. Both he and the Virgin Mary are clothed in purple, a color denoting senior high school status.

Ezekiel ’ second Vision in the Valley of Dry Bones Homilies of St. Gregory 880–882 CE Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris, France

This is the finest miniature in a manuscript produced for Emperor Basil I. It depicts a vision prefiguring the Resurrection, in which the prophet is shown a group of skeletons that the Lord restores to life.


Archangels Michael and Gabriel 10–11th century

Emperor Nicephorus III Botaneiates between St. John Chrysostom and the Archangel Michael

Private Collection

Homilies of St. John Chrysostom 1078

This is an early icon in a provincial vogue, possibly Cretan. Michael and Gabriel were much pictured together by Byzantine artists because, in accession to their own feast days, they were besides celebrated on Synaxes ( assemblies ), when there were particular services for groups of holy figures.

Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris, France

This stately portrayal conceals a political subtext. The Chrysostom manuscript was produced for Emperor Michael VII Dukas, but in 1078 he was ousted by one of his generals, Nicephorus Botaneiates. The usurper punctually had the portraits changed.

Vladimir dies In 1015 Vladimir, Grand Prince of Kiev, the ruler who had forged raw ties with the Byzantine conglomerate, dies on the eve of battle.



1100 church of the Dormition In 1080, construction solve begins on the cloistered church of the Dormition at Daphni near Athens. In the follow ten, it will be adorned with a noteworthy serial of mosaics.

The Nativity eleventh century St. Catherine ’ south Monastery, Sinai, Egypt

Byzantine versions of the Nativity differed from those in the West. Artists supplemented the meager details in the New Testament with data from the Apocryphal Gospels. These specified that the Nativity took place in a cave and that Mary was assisted by two midwives, Salome and Zelomi.




The Harrowing of Hell c.1315–21 Chora Museum, Istanbul, Turkey

One of the finest examples of former Byzantine artwork, this outstanding fresco dates from a period when the empire was shrinking and funds were limited. significantly, the committee came from a affluent individual, Theodore Metochites, rather than the emperor butterfly. It illustrates a biblical tradition in which after his crucifixion, Christ descended into Limbo ( on the edge of Hell ) where, according to a chivalric impression, he raised up Adam and Eve from their graves and led them to heaven. The scene was executed in a semicircular apse, accentuating the way that all the figures seem to move toward Christ.

The Heavenly Ladder 12th hundred St. Catherine ‘s Monastery, Sinai, Egypt

The Heavenly Ladder was a 7th-century CE treatise by St. John Klimakos ( literally John of the ladder ), an abbot at St. Catherine ’ south Monastery. In 30 chapters, his text outlined the path to spiritual perfection for monks, with each chapter representing a tone on the run to heaven.

Norman palace in Palermo End of Latin Empire

In 1150, work continues on Roger II ’ s palace in Palermo, Sicily. The foreground of the entire project is the Palatine Chapel, with its stunning sequence of mosaics produced by Byzantine craftsmen.


Under the leadership of Michael VIII, Byzantine forces capture Constantinople in 1261. This brings to an end the Latin Empire, founded by the Crusaders in 1204.



St. George and the Dragon Novgorod School, fourteenth hundred

The Ustyug Annunciation Novgorod School 1130–49 Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow, Russia

This early russian icon, one of the few that survived the Mongol invasion in the thirteenth hundred, depicts Christ cradled upon Mary ’ mho chest of drawers. She besides holds a length of narration, a reference book to the caption that she made a curtain for the Temple of Jerusalem.

Russian Museum, St. Petersburg, Russia

St. George is thought to have been a soldier, martyred in Palestine during the period of persecution under Diocletian ( 303–312 CE ). As a warrior saint, he was popular with the Crusaders, who brought his cult back to Britain. The serpentine dragon is a symbol of the annoy.


FOR THE SILENT PAINTING SPEAKS ON THE WALLS AND DOES MUCH GOOD c.370 CE | St. Gregory of Nyssa Sermon on St. Theodore of Amasea

Battle of Ankara In 1402, the Mongols under Tamburlaine the Great frustration the Ottoman united states army at Ankara. The resulting confusion enables Manuel II to strengthen the Byzantine side.



THE ICON AS TALISMAN All icons were regarded as sacred objects, but a few were deemed so holy that marvelous powers were attributed to them. Soldiers believed icons could help them in battle. In this word picture of a siege in 1169, the Novgorodians use an double of the Virgin to assist them against the Suzdalians. They pray to the picture and then place it on the parapets, where it shields the defenders against incoming arrows. then they make a decisive charge, led by the haloed figures of St. Boris and St. George. The Miracle of the Icon, c.1400–50, Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow, Russia

Florus and Laurus Novgorod School, fifteenth century Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow, Russia

These twin brothers were venerated in Russia as the patron saints of horses. here, they intercede with St. Michael ( top ) for the reappearance of some miss animals, which are rounded up by three grooms.



MASTERWORK Old Testament Trinity Andrei Rublev c.1425 Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow, Russia

This is the supreme masterpiece of Russia ’ s finest icon painter. It illustrates a theme that was developed by Byzantine artists. In the West, depictions of the Trinity normally featured the promptly identifiable figures of God the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit ( normally in the class of a dive ). By contrast, Eastern painters tended to portray three similar-looking godhead figures, basing the view on an sequence from the Old Testament ( Genesis 18:1–15 ). In this passage of Scripture, the Hebrew patriarch Abraham is visited by three nonnatural strangers. The textbook refers to them interchangeably as the Lord and as three men, leading later christian theologians to conclude that this incident was the first appearance of the Trinity in the Bible. Abraham offers the visitors cordial reception, giving them a meal of bread, meat, cheese, and milk. They, in turn, inform him that his aged wife, Sarah, will give give birth to a son.

Rublev ’ s Trinity is a huge improvement on earlier versions of this composition. He stripped away the distracting narrative capacity, focusing on its apparitional core. The table at which the guests eat is now an altar. On it, a chalice with the head of the sacrificial calf symbolizes the Eucharist. In front man there is a respite, where relics are normally stored. Behind each of the figures, there is another symbol. The mansion is God ’ randomness house, the goal of life ’ s travel ; the mountain represents the spiritual rise that believers must make ; and the oak is an emblem of the Tree of Life and Christ ’ s Crucifixion. Finally, though aesthetic considerations were not valued highly at the time, Rublev ’ s figures display a gracefulness and his colors a lyric beauty that are unmatched in any other icon. According to a 17th-century custom, the picture was painted in respect of Sergei Radonezhsky, a celebrated teacher and cloistered reformer in chivalric Russia.

Andrei Rublev


give birth Russia, c.1360 ? died Moscow, Russia, 1430

787 CE | Seventh Ecumenical Council On the restoration of the fear of icons in christian worship



Russia ’ second greatest and most influential picture painter, Rublev mastered the formal Byzantine expressive style, but softened it, lending his figures an air of gentleness and peace. few personal details are known, though he may have been a monk at the Holy Trinity Lavra, near Moscow, and in 1405 he is documented assisting Theophanes the Greek in the Cathedral of the Annunciation, in the Kremlin. The Old Testament Trinity remains, by far, Rublev ’ s most celebrated influence. His reputation continues to grow. In 1988, he was canonized by the russian Orthodox Church and he has become better known in the West through Andrei Tarkovsky ’ s award-winning biopic of 1966.




St. Matthew Lindisfarne Gospels c.698–721 CE British Library, London, UK

In this prime exercise of Dark Ages painting, classical music elements—the robe and even a very basic phase of sandals worn by Matthew—are painted in a nonclassical, linear style. The evangelist writes his Gospel while his symbol, the winged man, stands behind him ( the third number may possibly be Christ ). The close resemblance between this St. Matthew and Ezra, in the Codex Amiatinus ( see p.59 ) suggests that they were copied from a coarse source.

The art of manuscript light was the independent form of painting that survived the churning menstruation after the break down of the Roman empire. many manuscripts were designed for a identical specific determination : to assist with converting the heathen tribes of Europe to Christianity. These tribes already had flourishing artistic cultures of their own, chiefly consisting of abstract or highly conventionalized designs executed in metalwork and stonework, rather than in paintings. christian artists were perfectly glad to combine cosmetic motifs from these pagan sources with figurative images from christian sources. For missionary purposes, a shorten shape of the biblical text was preferred, focusing on the life of Jesus as described in the four Gospels—Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John. The decoration in these Gospel Books revolved around the four Evangelists and their traditional symbols. In many cases, the artist painted a portrait of the Gospel writer at the begin of the book in the style of writer portraits from classical manuscripts. This character of informant is distinctly discernible in the illustrations of the Lindisfarne Gospels, such as St. Matthew ( see above ).



The conversion of the West 476 CE Romulus Augustulus, the end Roman emperor in the West, is ousted by a barbarian king, who rules in his place.

Spreading the Word as weapons and jewelry. Painting alone came to the forefront during the conversion to Christianity, when religious texts were needed. The Gospel Books and early christian texts were created by monks, working in concert in a scriptorium ( “ a place for writing ” ). Some of the finest examples were created in Britain and Ireland by Celtic and Anglo-Saxon craftsmen. The scriptorium in the monasteries of Iona, Lindisfarne, Jarrow, and Wearmouth were particularly significant, producing manuscripts for missionaries elsewhere in Europe. Religious text had to be copied precisely, but there was much more telescope for invention in the illustrations. cloistered artists might borrow ideas from other Christian or classical manuscripts, but they could besides copy designs that they had seen on the heathen metalworking or jewelry that was in far-flung circulation. This produced the ample fusion of imagination that made the Lindisfarne Gospels and the Book of Kells such extraordinary masterpieces.

597 CE The Gospel of St. Augustine is sent from Rome to England by the Pope. It is one of a number of manuscripts intended to assist in the conversion of the English. c.700 CE The Tara Brooch, one of the finest examples of Celtic jewelry, is created. Its intricate coil decoration is echoed in the manuscripts of the time period. 793 CE Viking raiders launch their first attack on Lindisfarne, Northumbria. 814 CE In Ireland, the monastery at Kells is revived. Monks from Iona begin to move to this safe haven to escape Viking attacks. c.820–35 CE One of the greatest carolingian manuscripts, the Utrecht Psalter, is produced in France, probably at the abbey of Hautvillers.


The final collapse of the Roman empire in the fifth century CE created a vacuum in Europe. The old areas of imperial control were overrun by marauding tribes : the Visigoths occupied parts of Gaul and Spain, the Ostrogoths and Lombards invaded Italy, while Germanic tribes —Angles, Franks, Saxons, and Jutes—spread across much of northern Europe. Often, these peoples could not settle within fixed borders, but were forced to continually migrate due to pressure from equal tribes. The Celts, for example, originated in central Europe but were finally pushed to the westerly fringes of the celibate —Ireland, Scotland, Wales, and Brittany. Many heathen tribes had vibrant cultures that were far removed from the mainstream of classical art. The naturalism that was predominant in the pottery and fresco of the Greeks and Romans was rarely seen. alternatively, in view of their mobile circumstances, tribal craftsmen tended to lavish the greatest attention on little, portable objects, such

878 CE Following his get the better of by Alfred, the Viking drawing card Guthrum adopts Christianity. 966 CE With the baptism of Mieszko I, Poland becomes one of the concluding european nations to adopt Christianity.


Island monastery Situated off the west coast of Scotland, the island of Iona was once one of the most important christian centers in Europe, with a scriptorium producing manuscripts of alone beauty.




BEGINNINGS A FUSION OF STYLES Some sources for the great dress Christian manuscript of the Dark Ages can be identified. The Gospel of St. Augustine was probably brought to the british Isles from Rome during Augustine ’ second mission, and is still used for the swearing-in of the Archbishop of Canterbury. Its sole-surviving Evangelist portrayal is classical in style. In the Ezra portrayal ( see p.59 ), nine books are displayed in a cupboard. This is credibly the Novem Codices, a fabled 9-volume bible purchased from the library of Cassiodorus

( a 5th-century CE Roman statesman and learner ) and sent to Northumbria. Historians have surmised that portraits in the Lindisfarne Gospels and the Codex Amiatinus were borrowed from this source. The most challenging celtic manuscript is the Cathach of St. Columba, a shard of a Psalter. Dating from the early seventh hundred CE, its decorated initials provide a trace of the glories that were to come. It was hanker attributed to St. Columba and, as its name attests—Cathach means “ Battler ” —it was carried onto the battlefield as a keepsake.

ARTISTIC INFLUENCES The bang-up Gospel Books were created against a setting of transfer. A constant flux of raiders, settlers, and traders exposed native craftsmen to a wealth of influences. It is a will to the skill of these christian artists that they were able to combine a diverseness of cosmetic elements, divorce them from their heathen context, and use them to adorn holy place textbook. Intricate intertwine was not confined to Celtic art. In this Visigothic manuscript, it adorns the arched kind of a canon board —a means of cross-referencing text in the Gospel Books.

Codex Euricianus, detail, c.480 CE, from a manuscript created for Euric, a king of the Visigoths. Biblioteca Nacional de España, Madrid, Spain

Pagan jewelry exerted a celebrated influence on celtic craftsmen. The cosmetic forms that were normally used could well be given a spiritual significance, such as the animal emblems of the Evangelists.

Visigothic fibula ( brooch ), c.6th hundred CE, resembles the eagle used to symbolize St. Mark in the Book of Durrow.

Pictish stonework—produced by a celtic race in contemporary Scotland—had a significant shock on the manuscripts of Northumbria. This is peculiarly apparent in the conventionalized forms of animals.

Pictish Symbol Stone, contingent of a slab remember to have been a sculpt marker, eighth century CE. Brough of Birsay,

Viking raiders borrowed artistic ideas from looted items and besides influenced native styles. Biting creatures, decoration snakes, and besotted lock became popular in celtic and anglo-saxon art.

Orkney, Scotland

Deer eating a branch of Yggdrasil, the world tree, detail, 11th century. Urnes stave church, Sogn og Fjordane, Norway



Book of Durrow c.675 CE Trinity College Library, Dublin, Ireland

Following a violent dispute in 563 CE that forced him to leave his native Ireland, Columba vowed to redeem himself through missionary work. He founded a monastery on the island of Iona, using it as a base to launch an expedition to convert the Picts in Scotland. Iona became his center of operations for founding a network of monasteries, organizing missions to Europe, and running a noteworthy scriptorium, which produced a succession of fine manuscripts, possibly including the St. Columba, Dunkeld Book of Kells itself. Cathedral, Scotland

The decoration in Gospel Books much included images of the four authors and their respective symbols. These mystic emblems—a lion, a calf, an eagle, and a man—were draw from two passages in the Bible, describing apocalyptic beasts worshipping before the toilet of God ( Ezekiel 1:10 and Revelation 4:6–9 ). Each of the creatures was thought to represent a different aspect of Christ ’ s divine persona. The leo represented his imperial and majestic function as the King of Heaven, while the valet referred to his embodiment as a human being. The Durrow leo resembles Pictish stonework, suggesting that the manuscript was produced in Northumbria.


Symbols of the Gospel Writers



TIMELINE Manuscripts mirrored the dangers and uncertainties of the Dark Ages : occasionally cryptic borderline notes hint at violence and larceny, the Lichfield Gospels ( diametric ) was exchanged for a sawhorse, while the Canterbury Codex Aureus ( see p.60 ) was stolen by Norsemen then ransomed by a very important person called Aelfred. Politics, besides, was reflected : in both the Canterbury manuscript and Imago Hominis ( opposite ) the figures ’ heads are shaved like a Roman monk in a wish to promote papal agency. In stylistic terms, hedonist influences—complex intertwine, stylized robes, and ferocious beasts—gradually diminished over time. The wax of the Franks By 500 CE, Clovis I has largely succeeded in his quest to subjugate the Alemanni ( a confederation of Germanic tribes ) and unite the Franks under his leadership.

500 CE




The royal cemetery at Sutton Hoo is the most important AngloSaxon web site in Britain. The independent grave—a ship burial—is frequently associated with Raedwald ( died c.625 CE ), who ruled when East Anglia was converting to Christianity. There are exotic items, such as Byzantine bowl and merovingian coins, but besides buckles and brooch with patterns that closely resemble decorations in the Book of Durrow. The pry while is this helmet, with its flowery face mask and dragonhead details.

Helmet from Sutton Hoo


Battle of Mount Badon In c.510 CE, the Britons, purportedly led by King Arthur, are said to have won a bang-up victory over Anglo-Saxon invaders at the Battle of Mount Badon.

Foundation of Lindisfarne The monastery of Lindisfarne is founded in c.635 CE by Aidan, a monk from Iona. It quickly becomes a key concentrate for the gap of Christianity in northern England.

The Story of Adam Ashburnham Pentateuch c.580–620 CE Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris, France

Unique in both style and iconography, this manuscript contains 19 narrative illustrations, running from the universe of the world to the exodus of the Israelites. The sequence on this page concludes with the prototype of Cain murdering Abel.


Imago Hominis



Echternach Gospels, late seventh century CE

Codex Amiatinus, before 716 CE Bibliotheca Medicea Laurenziana, Florence, Italy

Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris, France

Depictions of St. Matthew ’ mho symbol much resemble an angel ( see p.54 ), but the Echternach artist took the strange step of portraying him as a monk. This symbolism has political overtones, since the man wears a tonsure— a partial shave of the headway —in the Roman rather than the celtic dash.

This exemplification of the Old Testament copyist is from a bible copied at the Wearmouth-Jarrow scriptorium and sent to Rome in 716 CE, as a giving for the Pope. It closely resembles St. Matthew ( see p.54 ) in the Lindisfarne Gospels.

Battle of Tertry Pepin II, an ancestor of Charlemagne, wins a crucial victory over the Neustrians at the Battle of Tertry ( 687 CE ). This brings most frankish territories under his control.


700 Carpet Page

Lindisfarne Gospels c.698–721 CE British Library, London, UK

As the mention suggests, carpet pages may primitively have been inspired by the designs on prayer mats. The intertwine here positively teems with life, as fierce-looking birds and dogs confront each other.


LINDISFARNE GOSPELS The Lindisfarne Gospels is one of the great manuscripts of the time period. It was created as part of the cult of St. Cuthbert, a former Bishop of Lindisfarne. A subsequently inscription provides an unusual measure of detail about the make of the book, stating that the artist and scriber was Eadfrith, another Bishop of Lindisfarne ( c.698–721 CE ). As to the decorations, the carpet pages and calligraphy are mesmerizing, while the artist ’ s far-out treatment of birds—a jumble of serpentine bodies and poisonous beaks—has won particular praise.

St. Luke Lichfield Gospels c.720 CE Lichfield Cathedral, UK

The evangelist is shown with his symbol —the winged ox—above his head, and he holds two ceremony staves in his bantam hands. The manuscript was credibly produced in Northumbria.

Death of Venerable Bede Bede dies in 735 CE. His ecclesiastical history of the english People is one of the primary sources for this period.

750 CE


The Incarnation Page Canterbury Codex Aureus c.750 – 755 CE Kungliga


Biblioteket, Stockholm, Sweden

This lavish manuscript, with its golden decorations, was credibly produced in Canterbury. even so, there are hard Northumbrian influences in the calligraphy. The Incarnation Page is so called because it describes the birth of Christ.

c.731 CE | The venerable Bede Anglo-Saxon chronicler, in ecclesiastical history of the english People

Lombards seize Ravenna In 751 CE, Aistulf, King of the Lombards, continues his expansion, seizing the city of Ravenna. This is the last Byzantine stronghold on italian land.


850 Viking raids on Bangor

Treaty of Verdun The Treaty of Verdun ( 843 CE ) brings the carolingian Civil War to a close. Through it, Charlemagne ’ second empire is divided up between the sons of Louis the Pious.

Vikings plunder the monastery of Bangor, in County Down, Ireland, in consecutive years. In 824 CE, they break open the enshrine of St. Comgall and carry off his relics.


King David Playing the Harp Vespasian Psalter, mid- eighth century CE British Library, London, UK

The vespasian Psalter is one of the earliest treasures from Canterbury, where the monks believed ( incorrectly ) that it had belonged to St. Augustine himself. King David was frequently portrayed in Psalters, because he was traditionally regarded as the generator of the Old Testament Book of Psalms.


750 CE

Alfred becomes king In 871 CE, Alfred the Great becomes king of Wessex. In the lapp year, he gains a celebrated victory over the Danes at the Battle of Ashdown.

Although he was a lead figure in the conversion of the English, nothing is known of the early life of Augustine of Canterbury. He was credibly born and raised in Italy, and became a Benedictine monk at the monastery of St. Andrew in Rome, where he soon impressed Pope Gregory I. In 597 CE, Gregory chose him to lead a mission to evangelize the Anglo-Saxons. Augustine arrived at Thanet in England on Easter Day, and was welcomed by the local king, Ethelbert. He founded his attend at Canterbury, becoming the first Archbishop there. Augustine besides made good build up in establishing papal domination in England, but full moon recognition was not achieved until after the Synod of Whitby in 664 CE, long after his end.


Kings and Scribes


Codex Vigilanus 976 CE Escorial Library, Spain

This is an exercise of Mozarabic art, the style of work produced by Christians living in Spain during the menstruation of Muslim rule. This page includes depictions of three scribes, one of whom is Vigila, the monk who gave his list to the manuscript.


In an old age when most people were illiterate, the sumptuously produced Gospel Books were objects of wonder. They were revered in the lapp means as relics and were stored in a cumdach—a specifically designed, boxlike enshrine. such caskets were often highly flowery, with precious metals and stones set into the lid. The envisioned example, the Soiscél Molaise, is decorated with images of the Evangelists ’ symbols. The disadvantage of the cumdach, however, was that it became a tempt choice for thieves. Soiscél Molaise, 11th hundred, National Museum of Ireland, Dublin, Ireland

Eric Bloodaxe in York In 947 CE, Eric Bloodaxe begins his reign as king of Jorvik ( York and the surrounding area ). He is the final Viking king of the region, and is expelled by the Northumbrians in 954 CE.



1000 Capetian dynasty Hugh Capet is elected to the french throne in 987 CE, succeeding the carolingian line. The capetian dynasty will rule France from 987 CE to 1328.

Liber Sacramentorum tenth century Biblioteca del Seminario Arcivescovile, Udine, Italy

This is a Sacramentary, a book containing the text that were used during Mass. The miniature scenes depict the Adoration of the Magi, the marriage at Cana, and the Baptism of Christ.

Opening Page of St. John ’ s Gospel MacDurnan Gospels, recently 9th hundred CE Lambeth Palace Library, London, UK

This is one of the end decorate Gospel Books. An inscription suggests that it was either rate or written out by Mac Durnan, the abbot of Armagh. In the tenth century, it was presented by King Athelstan to Canterbury Cathedral.



MASTERWORK The Monogram Page Book of Kells c.800 CE Trinity College Library, Dublin, Ireland

This is the most important foliate in the finest of all the Gospel Books. Almost the entire design is devoted to the two greek letters Chi and Rho ( written as “ XP ” ), which form Christ ’ south monogram. In the complicate Celtic manuscripts, there were normally five major pages of calligraphy—one at the begin of each of the four Gospels, and the Monogram Page. The latter was seen as the most significant, since it marked the beginning of the passage describing Christ ’ s birth ( Matthew 1:18 ), so most artists gave it special treatment. The example of the lapp passage in the Canterbury Codex Aureus ( see p.60 ) is typically flowery, but the Kells exemplar eclipses all others. It was preceded by two full-page illustrations in the manuscript—a portrait of Christ and a carpet-page. celtic artists excelled at calligraphy, because it was compatible with the eddy, abstract designs that had featured on their metalwork and jewelry for centuries.

The complexity and assortment of the tightly coiled spirals and knotwork are phenomenal. In addition, there are respective bantam figurative details hidden away in the design, including three angels on the leave side of the “ X, ” an otter with a salmon ( bottom ), and two mice nibbling a communion wafer ( buttocks, left ). There has been much debate about these animals—some believe that they are related to the symbols of the Eucharist that appear frequently throughout the manuscript. There is an chemical element of mystery about the manuscript. The Book of Kells was an extremely ambitious undertaking—it had more illustrations than other Gospel Books and would have been both costly and timeconsuming to produce. Yet it was never finished. The reason is unknown, though it is tempting to link the incomplete department of state of the book with the Viking attacks of the clock time, when many monks were slaughtered.



In addition to its celebrated full-page decorations, the Book of Kells features ornamental details scattered liberally throughout the text. many of these served a practical aim, highlighting important passages or helping the scriber to save space. Vellum was an expensive commodity, so there was a natural reluctance to leave lines unfinished. Scribes solved this problem by allowing sentences to run over, finishing on the line above or below, known as a “ turn in the way ” or “ forefront under the wing. ” In the Book of Kells, the distributor point was marked with a “ C ” symbol. Often, a small animal—such as the chase pictured below—was included with a tail or paw extended to show the direction that the text should be read.

c.1188 | Giraldus Cambrensis Clergyman and chronicler, description of an light Gospel Book from Topographia Hiberniae

Folio 19, Verso, Book of Kells, detail, c.800 CE. A frump and “ C ” symbol crisscross the turn in the path.





Bayeux Tapestry c.1070–80 Musée de la Tapisserie, Bayeux, France

Probably commissioned by Bishop Odo of Bayeux, the half buddy of William the Conqueror, this noteworthy wall hang tells the narrative of the Norman invasion of England. The format is alike to contemporaneous frescoes, such as those at Saint-Savin and NohantVicq ( see p.69 ). Episodes run into each other and there is a bare minimal of contingent, but the narrative is emphatic and active.

Art in the Middle Ages was dominated by two capital styles : Romanesque and Gothic. Both terms derived from ancient peoples—the Romans and the Goths— and both relate chiefly to architecture. Romanesque architecture is massive and robust in appearance, qualities that are reflected in the wall paintings that were commissioned for buildings in the manner. Figures appear solid and rounded, and are sometimes simplified, but any stylization is far less pronounce than that of Celtic manuscripts. many aspects of the Romanesque style were spread by the Normans in the wake of their triumphant military campaigns. These included the conquest of England, southerly Italy and Sicily, and the Crusader territories in the Middle East. The most celebrated Norman artwork, the Bayeux Tapestry ( above ), typifies their vigorous version of the Romanesque style. The Gothic style was an development of Romanesque, with a greater vehemence on grace and elegance. Figures are grandiloquent, lissome, and have a distinctive sway in their position.



Church and Crown 966 CE The New Minster Charter is the first major artwork produced by the Winchester School of manuscript paint.

An age of reform sculptors for their distract carvings, fearing that his monks would be “ more tempt to read in the marble than in our books. ” other high-level clerics followed this lead. By the latter part of the twelfth hundred, the transition to the Gothic style was under way. In set of plain majority, architects nowadays wanted their churches to appear light, airy, and—above all—tall, with towers and spires that seemed to soar toward the heavens. An increasing emphasis on stained-glass windows meant that there was far less board for wall paintings, but manuscripts remained in high demand. New sources of patronage emerged, peculiarly from the courts of affluent aristocrats. They wanted a broader range of laic subjects, including histories and romances, in concert with a unlike kind of devotional textbook : Books of Hours, designed for use by laymen.

1066 William, Duke of Normandy, exuberate at the Battle of Hastings. His victory signals the end of the Anglo-Saxon era in England. 1088 The oldest university in the West is founded at Bologna in Italy. The universities of Paris and Oxford follow during the twelfth hundred. c.1100 work begins on a series of rampart paintings at the chapel of Berzé-la-Ville. These prove to be outstanding examples of the french Romanesque vogue. 1291 Following a drawn-out siege, the city of Acre falls to Muslim forces. The loss of this final Christian stronghold in the Holy Land efficaciously brings the Crusades to an end.


After the mass migrations and political upheavals of the Dark Ages, the Middle Ages ushered in a menstruation of relative stability in Europe. Cities grew, universities were founded, and the feudal system developed. In the arts, the main patron was placid the Church, although exchange was under way. A reform campaign was in full dangle, rooting out corruption and strengthening the monasteries. several orders—such as the Cluniacs, Cistercians, and Carthusians—were founded, and a host of churches were built. The ecclesiastical reforms increased the demand for paintings—both murals and manuscripts—but the character of artists remained unaltered. Almost without exception, their names and lives are strange. To some extent, this was because the Church was wary about decoration. Bernard of Clairvaux, a leading trappist, famously criticized Romanesque

1309–76 After a bitter political quarrel, the papacy takes recourse at Avignon in France. Seven popes principle from here, until Gregory XI ends the exile from Rome. c.1400–05 The Ellesmere Chaucer, a beautifully illustrate manuscript of the Canterbury Tales, is produced shortly after the writer Geoffrey Chaucer ’ s death.


Early Gothic architecture Notre Dame cathedral in Paris, begun in 1163, is one of the earliest gothic cathedrals. The newly architecture emphasized height, accentuated by slender windows with point tops. Rose windows besides became a major feature of speech.



BEGINNINGS THE WINCHESTER SCHOOL The Romanesque tradition was built up from a kind of sources. many wall paintings in this style have a discernible Byzantine influence. This is most discernible in Italy, where political and trade contacts with the East were strongest but, as the mural of St. Paul and the Viper ( see p.71 ) demonstrates, traces of the Byzantine expressive style traveled vitamin a far as Britain. In northern Europe, the key influences came from the two capital imperial dynasties, the Carolingians and the Ottonians. Both courts offered generous backing, encouraging the growth of a net of affluent monk centers with highly fat workshops. In England, the drift reached a watershed with the Winchester School of manuscript clarification. The term is a flimsy misnomer, since manuscripts in the distinctive Winchester style were produced in scriptorium in other centers, such as Canterbury and Bury St. Edmunds, not just in Winchester itself.

AETHELWOLD OF WINCHESTER A key figure in the 10th-century reform movement in the English Church, Aethelwold was for a time a monk at Glastonbury under the reformer, St. Dunstan. Aethelwold became Abbot of Abingdon in 955 CE and Bishop of Winchester in 963 CE, improving monk standards in both places. He besides took a strong concern in the arts. Aethelwold was skilled at metalwork himself, and there is small doubt that the lavish decorations in his Benedictional were created under his personal supervision.



Aethelwold, from the Benedictional of St. Aethelwold, c.980 CE, British Library, London, UK

TURNING POINT Christ ’ second Entry into Jerusalem Benedictional of St. Aethelwold c.980 CE British Library, London, UK

This is the most celebrate of the manuscripts produced by the Winchester School. With 28 full-page illustrations, it is besides one of the pinnacles of Anglo-Saxon art during its most fat phase. The most spectacular aspect is the decoration of the borders—elaborate trellises are covered in winding acanthus leaves, while some of the corners are dominated by big rosettes or roundels. Figures from biblical stories interact with the borders, climbing up them or emerging from behind them, creating a rudimentary common sense of depth.

ARTISTIC INFLUENCES In the early chivalric period, the Dark Age taste for abstract or highly conventionalized decoration was gradually reversed. The Carolingians and Ottonians were ruled by Holy Roman Emperors, who strove to restore their Roman bequest. In England, this policy was echoed by Anglo-Saxon kings seeking to create a national identity. carolingian art was a prime source of the Romanesque style. During the earned run average of Charlemagne ( r.768– 814 CE ) and his heir, illuminators adapted ideas from late Antique, Classical, and Byzantine models.

St. Mark, detail from the Ebbo Gospels, c.820–830 CE, reveals a more expressive approach that replaced earlier stylization. Bibliothèque

Anglo-Saxon artwork, such as the Alfred Jewel, is evidence that the achievements of the Winchester School were part of a broader revival of the arts. The figure may be Christ or Alfred the Great.

The Alfred Jewel, c.871–899 CE, made of gold and cloisonné enamel, may be an aestel, a arrow for reading manuscripts. Ashmolean

The Ottonians provided a bridge between carolingian polish and the Romanesque vogue. Their manuscript custom, from centers including Trier, Cologne, and Reichenau, proved particularly influential.

Decorative calligraphy from the Wernigerode Gospels produced at Korvei monastery echoes the style at Winchester. Morgan Library

Vellum was the standard material for manuscripts. It was traditionally made from calf skin, although skins of other animals were besides desirable. The hides were dried, scraped, and stretched anterior to use.

Decorated initial from a Bible, 1255, shows a copyist hold prepared vellum sheets, in front of a skin stretched on a skeletal system. Kongelige Bibliotek,

Municipale, Epernay, France

Museum, Oxford, UK

& Museum, New York, NY

Copenhagen, Denmark





King Rothari


Madrid Codex, 11th century Biblioteca Nacional, Madrid, Spain

By the eleventh hundred, manuscripts were covering a much broader scope of subjects. This example, besides known as the Edictum Rothari, is a historical record of the laws proclaimed by Rothari, king of the Lombards ( r.636–652 CE ).

Throughout the Romanesque time period, the Church remained the dominant allele patron. The finest surviving examples of painting are illuminated manuscripts and murals, although a leap of the imagination is often required to visualize the undimmed, original color of the latter. By the later Middle Ages, royal and aristocratic taste came to the forefront—demand for images of leisure and chat up increased. however, as the Avignon frescoes demonstrate ( see p.72 ), even the Pope was able of enjoying profane subjects.

Otto crowned Emperor In 962 CE, Otto I is crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Pope John XII in Rome. This heralds the start of an aesthetic revival in Germany, particularly in the fields of bone and metalworking.

970 CE

Erik the Red in Greenland Crowning of Canute

Erik Thorvaldsson, good known as Erik the Red, continues his exploration of Greenland. In 986 CE, he founds the beginning Norse settlements there.

Canute becomes king of Denmark in 1018, two years after gaining the throne of England. In time, he will besides rule Norway.



Abraham and the Sacrifice of Isaac The Aelfric Hexateuch c.1025–50 British Library, London, UK

Produced in Canterbury, possibly for a lie node, this manuscript contains the earliest surviving translation of Old Testament text into Anglo-Saxon. The manner of the illustrations is primitive, about naive, quite unlike conventional treatments of biblical themes. Aelfric of Eynsham was one of the translators.

The Angel Battles the Beast Apocalypse of Beatus of Liebana, tenth century Escorial Library, Spain

With its bright colors and simplified forms, the Mozarabic style resembles folk artwork. It is frequently found in manuscripts of the Commentary on the Apocalypse by a spanish monk, Beatus of Liebana.




The Kiss of Judas Early twelfth century church of St. Martin, Nohant-Vic, France

There is an extraordinary common sense of motion in this remarkable cycle of wall paintings. messiah is swept away to the correct, while Peter pulls in the opposite direction as he slices off Malchus ’ s ear.

A CLOISTER WITHOUT A BOOK ROOM IS LIKE A MILITARY CAMP WITHOUT WEAPONS Medieval saying From a latin pun : “ claustrum sine armario est quasi castrum sine armamentario ”




1110 The First Crusade

Pope Urban II launches the First Crusade in 1095, in reception to a call for care from the Byzantine emperor butterfly. The campaign will finally lead to the capture of Jerusalem, but most of the territorial gains are ephemeral.

Creation of the trappist order In 1098, a group of monks led by Robert of Molesme found the Abbey of Cîteaux, the main base of the trappist Order.


The build of the Tower of Babel One of a series of 30 Old Testament scenes painted on the barrel-vaulted ceiling, this sequence appears peculiarly fresh and animated. This is probably because construction work on Saint-Savin was still in advancement, so the artist was able to observe the masons at close quarters.


c.1060–1115 Saint-Savin Abbey, France

Medieval artists much portrayed Hell as the gaping trap of a huge animal, waiting to consume the damned. The original generator for this persona was the biblical animal Leviathan, whose “ hint sets burning coals ablaze ” ( Job 41:21 ). The concept was popular in scenes of the last Judgment, but it was rarely depicted more imaginatively than here, where an angel plainly locks shut the gates of Hell.

The Jaws of Hell Fastened by an Angel, Winchester Psalter, early twelfth century, british Library, London, UK


Winchester Bible artists



By the twelfth hundred, manuscripts were nobelium long decorated entirely by monks. Some illuminators were laymen who made their animation as itinerant, professional artists, lodging at the monastery while they worked. Their names are rarely known. Often, artists worked in teams. In the case of the Winchester Bible, for example, six different hands have been identified. The “ Master of the Leaping Figures ” ( alleged because of the exaggerated sense of bowel movement in his scenes ) was a dominant penis of this anonymous group, designing around 40 of the initials.

Vézelay Tympanum Around 1130 work nears completion on the nave and eardrum of Sainte-Madeleine, Vézelay in France. The mission of the Apostles on the eardrum is one of the finest examples of Romanesque sculpture.



Christ in Majesty 1123 Museu Nacional five hundred ’ Art de Catalunya, Barcelona, Spain

This imposing mural was painted in the church of San Clemente in Tahull, Spain. With its firm contours, its starchy, linear folds, and its brawny, conventionalized features, it is one of the finest examples of Romanesque painting in Catalonia. Christ ’ s text is from the Gospel of John : “ I am the light of the world ” ( John 8:12 ).

page from the Winchester Bible c.1150–80 Winchester Cathedral, UK

No expense was spared in creating this huge manuscript, the largest surviving english Bible from the period. Its foreman aura is the set of adorned initials at the begin and end of each chapter. This example comes from the begin of the Book of Exodus.


The Crucifixion

A Scribe, an Astronomer With an Astrolabe, and a mathematician

Evesham Psalter, after 1246 british

Psalter of St. Louis and Queen Blanche c.1225–50 Bibliothèque de l ’ Arsénal,

Library, London, UK

There is a curiously topical element here. In 1238, Louis IX acquired a relic of the Crown of Thorns and built the Sainte-Chapelle in Paris ( completed in 1248 ) to house it. In the wake of the promotion, artists began to include this token in scenes of the Crucifixion for the foremost time.

Paris, France

This page formed the frontispiece to a calendar, which explains the strange, scientific discipline. however, the strange vegetation, the figures ’ elongate arms, and the lyrical depicting of the nox flip give this visualize a mystic quality.

murder in the cathedral On December 29, 1170, the controversial Archbishop of Canterbury, Thomas à Becket, is murdered in his cathedral. He is canonized by Pope Alexander III barely three years by and by.



1230 St. Paul and the Viper c.1180 St. Anselm ’ randomness Chapel, Canterbury Cathedral, UK

This fresco pictures an sequence from Paul ’ s mission in Malta ( Acts 28:1–6 ). Its dash has a Byzantine flavor and is strongly evocative of a mosaic in Palermo. Medieval images of snakes always carry overtones of Satan.

1250 Death of Frederick II The Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II dies on December 13, 1250. He had been an enthusiastic patron of the arts and besides wrote the first treatise on falconry, De arte venandi semen avibus.




Bestiaries were books of animal lore. They were highly democratic in the Middle Ages, spawning dozens of colorful manuscripts. Although the descriptions of the creatures were presented as scientific fact, the majority of the text consisted of moral lessons, myths, and christian allegories. The camel, for case, was regarded as a symbol of discretion, because of its ability to store body of water, but besides as an emblem of crave. fabled creatures, such as unicorns and basilisks, were besides included. Adam Naming the Animals, Aberdeen Bestiary, 12th century, Aberdeen University Library, Scotland, UK




Scythian Women Besieging Their Enemies Histoire Universelle c.1268 Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris, France


The shock of western manuscripts outside Europe was considerable. This example was produced at Acre, a christian stronghold in the Holy Land, during the Crusader period. The local artist developed a style that combined elements of French, Byzantine, and Arab influences.



Matteo Giovanetti 1343–45 Papal Palace, Avignon, France

This is character of a series of elegant hunting scenes that were commissioned for the secret apartments of the Pope. The design was supervised by an italian artist, Matteo Giovanetti, although he credibly did not paint this section. The frescoes resemble contemporary tapestries.




Marco Polo in China

The Black Death

In 1275, Marco Polo arrives in China at the summer court of Kublai Khan, staying until 1292. He travels with his don and uncle, both jewel merchants who have made the travel before.

By 1340, the bubonic infestation wreaks havoc in China. Often known as the Black Death, it spreads to Europe in the recently 1340s, killing millions of victims.

LE ROMAN DE LA ROSE This drawn-out 13thcentury poem was a best seller. It is a quixotic allegory, describing the dream-vision of the narrator, who courts his picture of ideal smasher in the Garden of Love. The book had a slenderly blue reputation, creating a ample demand for manuscripts. More than 200 have survived, many with lavish illustrations.



Scenes from the Lover ’ randomness Dream, french School, fourteenth hundred, Musée Condé, Chantilly, France

Kristan von Hamle Visits His Lover Codex Manesse c.1304 University Library, Heidelberg, Germany

There is a fairy-tale simplicity about the miniatures in this charm manuscript— produced in Zurich for the Manesse family—which is devoted to the love poem of german Minnesänger ( minstrels ). Knights perform chivalrous deeds to win their dame.


The Limbourg brothers


died Bourges, France 1416

Netherlandish illuminators Herman, Jean, and Pol Limbourg were the supreme exponents of the International Gothic expressive style. They came from Nijmegen, where their father was a sculptor. Their links with Jean, Duc de Berry, date from 1405, and they began influence on his Très Riches Heures around 1413. Its jewel-like miniatures capture both the refinement of the motor hotel and the hardships of peasant life. The brothers did not complete the manuscript, however, because all three died in 1416, probably from the plague.

The Battle of Agincourt Peasants ’ Revolt The first gear bang-up challenge of Richard II ’ s reign occurs in 1381, when a far-flung Peasants ’ Revolt breaks out. Rebels storm the Tower of London, but the young king is able to defuse the position.


Henry V ’ s victory at the Battle of Agincourt, in 1415, marks a all-important phase in the Hundred Years ’ War. It brings fresh impulse to the English in their campaigns against the french, though the successes of Joan of Arc soon reverse any gains.


July Limbourg Brothers, before 1416 Musée Condé, Chantilly, France

THE VERY PURPOSE OF A KNIGHT IS TO FIGHT ON BEHALF OF A LADY c.1470 | Sir Thomas Malory English writer, in Le Morte d ’ Arthur

The calendar illustrations in Les Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry cover a compass of activities on the ducal estates. here, sheepshearing and harvesting are combined with a view of the chateau at Poitiers. The miniature includes far-out details feature of the work of the Limbourgs, such as a rickety wooden footbridge resting precariously on two stone blocks.

The Virgin in the Garden of Paradise german School c.1420 Städelsches Kunstinstitut, Frankfurt, Germany

This is a transitional work : the discrepant use of scale and position is typically chivalric, but the interest in nature and the precise delineation of numerous plants herald the Renaissance. The Virgin is surrounded by assorted saints, among them St. George with a beat miniature dragon.




MASTERWORK The Wilton Diptych c.1395–99 National Gallery, London, UK

A crowning case of the International Gothic style, the Wilton Diptych is a portable altarpiece that features a portrayal of Richard II ( r.1377–99 ), the young king who kneels in the left panel. He is accompanied by John the Baptist and two angelic english kings, Edmund and Edward the Confessor. The painting takes the form of a diptych, with two hinged panels that had a virtual purpose—the panels can be closed together, protecting the open of the painting when it is transported. however, the format besides enabled the artist to create an inordinately flattering image of the sovereign. It was not unusual for patrons to appear aboard sacred figures, but their presence was normally fairly discerning. In the Evesham Psalter ( see p.71 ), for example, the Abbot of Evesham is included at the foot of the Crucifixion, meditating on Christ ’ s sacrifice. The portrayal is so small that it would be easy to miss it. In the Wilton Diptych, however, it seems as if the king has been granted a individual audience with the Virgin. The Infant Christ appears to be reaching out toward him, and the angels are wearing badges with a flannel hart, Richard ’ s personal emblem. entirely the flowers beneath Mary ’ mho feet confirm that they are in separate planes : she is holding court in the gardens of Paradise. nothing is known about the origins of the painting, although it is condom to assume Richard commissioned it for his own use. It takes its name from Wilton House, the home of the Earls of Pembroke, who owned the visualize for about 200 years.

NOT ALL THE WATER IN THE ROUGH RUDE SEA CAN WASH THE BALM FROM AN ANOINTED KING c.1595 | William Shakespeare English dramatist, describing the king in Richard II









Emerging in 14th-century Italy, the click of the Renaissance—a revival of the cultural ideals of classical antiquity—is intelligibly visible in the frescoes of Giotto, which display a new humanness and naturalism. italian Renaissance art blossomed fully in the fifteenth century, in paintings characterized by clearness, harmony, and perspective. florentine artists were at the vanguard, but in Venice an evenly significant, more painterly tradition evolved as artists exploited the oil paint technique learned from painters in northern Europe. Northern Renaissance artists shared the drive toward naturalism of their italian counterparts, but it was based on meticulous observation rather than on classical antiquity. In the early sixteenth hundred, artistic developments in Italy culminated in High Renaissance art, renowned for its decorate and adept complexity. These qualities were refined and exaggerated in the sophisticated style known as Mannerism, which emerged first in Italy and soon spread throughout Europe.



The Lamentation of Christ Giotto di Bondone c.1303–06 Arena Chapel, Padua, Italy

One of the most celebrated of Giotto ’ s Arena Chapel frescoes depicts the torment Christ, cradled in his grieving mother ’ second arms. dramatic gestures and the diagonal of the pit ridge lead the center to the emotional congress of racial equality of the setting, where Mary stares in mournful intensity at her abruptly son.

The Renaissance ( meaning “ metempsychosis ” ) was an cerebral and aesthetic movement that began in Italy in the fourteenth century, inspired by a revival of authoritative learn. In the ocular arts, the work of the Florentine master Giotto di Bondone has long been regarded as a turn period that heralded the emergence of the Renaissance. Giotto ’ sulfur paintings, such as the frescoes in the Arena Chapel ( left ), mark a departure from the stylized, nonnatural images of Byzantine art. They introduced emotional drama, a naturalism then associated with ancient Roman artwork, and a convert sense of cubic outer space. Although Giotto ’ s art influenced Florentine painters of the next genesis, its entire affect came late. distinctively different styles developed in 14th-century Italy, notably in the city state of Siena through artists including Duccio and Simone Martini. An elegant, courtly stylus known as International Gothic besides flourished. It was more than a century after Giotto created his groundbreaking paintings that his true aesthetic heir emerged—another great Florentine overlord, Masaccio.



Europe during the parentage of the Renaissance

A new humanity A driving military unit of the Renaissance was the revival of interest in the literature and art of ancient Rome. Italy ’ s classical past was visible in ruins and ancient artifacts, and the authoritative revival had a major influence on pictorial naturalism. interest in the classical past was besides linked with the lift of humanism, a philosophy that emphasized the individual achievements of man in this liveliness rather than the adjacent, and marked a significant move away from the emotional state of medieval Christianity. Another important change in religious sensitivity was triggered by the 13th-century friar St. Francis of Assisi and his followers, whose preaching stressed Christ ’ s suffering and world. The combination of the classical revival and this raw style of Christianity provided the basis for a new type of art— one that not only looked more naturalistic, but that besides inspired sympathy for the veridical, homo qualities of Christ, rather than creating a sense of fear and mystery, which was the function of the conventionalized Byzantine images of God.

1308 Dante, Italy ’ s most celebrate writer, begins his celebrated poem The Divine Comedy. In it, he expresses bang-up wonder of Giotto ’ s naturalism. 1309 The Papacy moves from Rome to Avignon. The Sienese painter Simone Martini works at the papal court there from about 1335 until his death. 1348 The Black Death devastates Europe. About half the inhabitants of Florence and Siena are killed by the harass, possibly including the Lorenzetti brothers ( see p.83 ).


In the fourteenth century, Italy did not exist as a unified nation. To the confederacy was the Kingdom of Naples, while the Papal States around Rome were nominally under the Pope ’ s rule, although the papal court had transferred to Avignon, France, in 1309. In cardinal and northern Italy, commerce had enriched and empowered cities such as Florence, Siena, Venice, and Milan, which grew into autonomous city-states. It was in this political climate of proud city-states vying with each other for exponent and prestige that the italian Renaissance was born. With the growth of bank, textiles, and trade, Italy had become more urbanized than the rest of Europe, and artists were commissioned to provide paintings for specific churches and civil buildings. Some of these profane commissions were highly ambitious works, such as Ambrogio Lorenzetti ’ s Allegory of Good and Bad Government frescoes ( see p.83 ) painted for Siena ’ s Palazzo Pubblico ( town hallway ). however, the majority of paintings commissioned in the early Renaissance were christian images.

1301 Halley ’ s Comet makes one of its rare appearances. many saw it as a bad omen, but Giotto incorporated the comet into the Adoration of the Magi fresco in the Arena Chapel. rather of the traditional headliner of Bethlehem, he depicts a flaming comet.

1427 Florence imposes a raw tax organization on its citizens to raise money for the war against its knock-down rival, Milan. Masaccio ’ s Tribute Money may be an allusion to this.

GIOTTO TRANSLATED THE ART OF painting FROM GREEK INTO LATIN AND MADE IT MODERN c.1400 | Cennino Cennini Florentine painter and writer

A patchwork of city-states The Tuscan city of Siena is dominated by the bell tugboat ( campanile ) of the Palazzo Pubblico, which housed the city ’ mho republican government. City-states like Siena were characterized by intense civic pride ( campanilismo ), and were frequently at war with each early.




BEGINNINGS THE CHRISTIAN STORY One of the defining characteristics of Renaissance painting was a drive toward reality. Artists moved aside from the flat, linear style of Byzantine art, creating more realistic, sculpturally rounded forms and figures that appeared to exist in real space. The christian imagination of Byzantine artwork was intentionally mysterious and distanced from the real populace of world, but Giotto, Duccio, and their followers began to tell the Christian history in veridical, homo terms. In narrative scenes, the increasingly naturalistic portrait of the physical global was paralleled by a new feel of emotional and dramatic realism.

ARTISTIC INFLUENCES Numerous factors influenced the Arena Chapel frescoes. Giotto ’ s dramatic storytelling vogue was influenced by Franciscan sermon and miracle plays, deoxyadenosine monophosphate well as by earlier contemporary artists and classical art. The powerful ease of his monumental realism is partially a function of the fresco technique, which involved working methodically and quickly on sections of wall cook daily with wet plaster. The teachings of St. Francis ( c.1182– 1226 ) and his order had a humanize influence on italian painting : messiah was portrayed as a suffer man preferably than a triumphant, distant deity. St. Francis was besides a submit for italian Renaissance art.

The paintings of Cimabue ( Cenni di Peppi ), who may have been Giotto ’ s teacher, display a soften of the inflexibility of Byzantine artwork. The figures have gentler expressions and more natural gestures, and the swerve toilet bring volume and receding space.

Pietro Cavallini was inspired by classical music Roman art to develop a more naturalistic stylus. His innovative direction of painting the human figure with solidity and humanness influenced artists including Giotto, who would have seen his solve in Rome.

Nicola and Giovanni Pisano were about as significant in sculpt as Giotto was in paint. Inspired by antique art, father and son imparted a mighty common sense of aroused drama into push narrative scenes, which show hard links with Giotto ’ mho frescoes.

St. Francis and Angels, detail, c.1250–1300, from the town of Francis ’ s parentage. S. Maria degli Angeli, Assisi, Italy

Madonna and Child Enthroned, c.1280–90, by Cimabue was painted for the altar of S. Trinità in Florence. Uffizi, Florence, Italy

The last Judgment, detail, 1290s, Cavallini, portrays Christ with corpulent three-dimensionality. S. Cecilia in Trastevere, Rome, Italy

The Crucifixion, detail, 1265–68, from a carved dais relief by Nicola Pisano, shows play and expressive emotion. Siena Cathedral, Italy


TURNING POINT The Betrayal of Christ Giotto di Bondone c.1303–06 Arena Chapel, Padua, Italy

This intensely dramatic picture from Giotto ’ s Arena Chapel frescoes illustrates the consequence when Judas Iscariot betrays Jesus by identifying him with a kiss of greeting. As the punic disciple envelops Christ in his clothe, the focus of the fit is on their contrast faces, pressed dramatically together against a abound backdrop of weapons. There is an acute psychological pull in Christ ’ s unflinching gaze as he stares calmly into Judas ’ s tense confront. Renowned for their revolutionary naturalism, massive nobility, potent storytelling, and emotional impact, the Arena Chapel frescoes were recognized even by Giotto ’ south contemporaries as usher in a new aesthetic era.

Giotto di Bondone


born Colle di Vespignano ?, nr. firenze, Italy c.1270 ; died Florence, January 8, 1337

Giotto was the first artist since antiquity to become a celebrated name. major figures of the time—including Dante, Boccaccio, and Petrarch—praised him, and he was in demand all over Italy. He is thought to have trained with Cimabue. There is often quarrel about the attribution of his bring, but the frescoes in the Arena Chapel, Padua, and the Bardi and Peruzzi Chapels in S. Croce, Florence, are surely by his hired hand. He may have been involved with the fresco cycles at San Francesco in Assisi. respective altarpieces bear his signature, but may be by his workshop. Although unsigned, the Ognissanti Madonna has a exchangeable earnest magnificence and humanity to the Arena Chapel frescoes, and is universally considered to be by Giotto himself.




TIMELINE italian painting in the 14th and early fifteenth century was not marked by one one dash. Compared to the weighty naturalism of the Florentine custom, Duccio and other Sienese artists developed a more cosmetic style. But both schools continued to move away from the aloofness and rigidity of Byzantine art and toward a greater naturalism, expressiveness, and humanness. At the end of the fourteenth century, as communication between european courts improved, a newly courtly style emerged known as International Gothic. Simone ’ s first work Simone Martini paints his earliest known work in 1315, a fresco of the Maestà in Siena Town Hall, combining Byzantine distance with the seemliness of Gothic art.

Scrovegni commissions Giotto In an attack to expiate his don ’ sulfur crimes of usury, in around 1303 Enrico Scrovegni commissions Giotto to paint the narrative motorbike of frescoes in the Arena Chapel, Padua.


Sienese procession On June 9, 1311, Duccio ’ s outstanding altarpiece, the Maestà, is carried in exultant emanation to the phone of church bells from the artist ’ s workshop to Siena Cathedral.







The Annunciation Simone Martini 1333 Uffizi, Florence, Italy

Exquisite craft and expressive, graceful contour characterize this Sienese altarpiece, which Simone Martini created in collaboration with his brother-in-law, Lippo Memmi. The virgo shrinks from the Angel Gabriel as he tells her she is to be the mother of Jesus.

Noli Me Tangere Duccio di Buoninsegna 1308–11 Museo dell ’ Opera del Duomo, Siena, Italy

This gore, from Duccio ’ s brilliant altarpiece the Maestà, shows the arise Christ telling Mary Magdalene not to touch him. Like Giotto, the influential Sienese master Duccio introduced a new sense of human feeling into his delineation of biblical stories.


The Effect of commodity Government in the City

The Lorenzetti brothers

Ambrogio Lorenzetti 1338

active Siena, Italy 1320–45 ( Pietro ) ; 1319–48 ( Ambrogio )

This detail from Lorenzetti ’ s fresco in Siena ’ s town hall presents a signally naturalistic watch of the bustle city and its inhabitants. It forms separate of his celebrate Allegory of Good and Bad Government.


Palazzo Pubblico, Siena, Italy

Sienese brothers Pietro and Ambrogio Lorenzetti were major painters, but fiddling is known of their lives. They collaborated on at least one fresco cycle, but chiefly worked independently. Their naturalism is closer in spirit to Giotto than to their Sienese contemporary, Simone Martini. Both may have died in the Black Death.

Triumph of Death Andrea Orcagno 1344–45 S. Croce, Florence, Italy

Painted by one of an crucial family of Florentine artists, this fresco fragment is separate of a trilogy that in the first place included the survive Judgment and Hell. The potently dramatic fit features grotesque, vividly think demons.

The Black Death In 1348 one of the most devastate pandemics in history, the Black Death ( bubonic plague ) swept through Europe. It had a profound effect on european history— millions died, and the population took 150 years to recover.






Giotto appointed architect In 1334 Giotto is appointed city architect in Florence, and begins make on the campanile ( bell tower ) for Florence Cathedral.

The Baptistery doors Sculptor Andrea Pisano completes the bronze doors for the Florence Baptistery in 1336. His relief scenes from the life of John the Baptist show the influence of Giotto ’ s painting.

Crucifixion With Eight Saints Bernardo Daddi 1348


Courtauld Gallery, London, UK

Possibly Giotto ’ randomness schoolchild, Daddi ran a busy and influential workshop in Florence after Giotto ’ s death. This polyptych ( multi-paneled paint ) is his last-known exploit. It exemplifies his sweet, lyrical style.

Portrait of a Dominican Friar Tomaso da Modena 1352 Chapter House of S. Niccolò, Treviso, Italy

This beautifully observed portrayal by one of the leading artists in northern Italy is one of a series of signed and dated frescoes of lionize members of the Dominican order, showing the friars read, write, and meditating.





Coronation of Alexander III Spinello Aretino 1408–10 Palazzo Pubblico, Siena, Italy

Spinello was the first non-Sienese cougar to provide paintings for Siena ’ s Palazzo Pubblico, where this fresco forms part of a bicycle dedicated to Pope Alexander III. Spinello credibly trained in Florence— his copious figures and powerful outlines owe much to Giotto.

The Great Schism In 1378 the western Church is divided when two rival lines of popes are elected, one based in Rome, and one in Avignon, France. This division, known as the Great Schism, continues until 1417.

The Church Militant and The Church Triumphant Andrea da Firenze 1366–68 S. Maria Novella, Florence, Italy

This is a detail from Andrea ’ s most celebrated work, a bicycle of frescoes glorifying the dominican order. The throng of dogs protecting the christian troop is a pun on “ Dominicans ” ( the Latin domini canes means “ dogs of the Lord ” ).

Anonymous masterpiece As the International Gothic style emerges in Europe, the Wilton Diptych ( see pp.74–75 ) is created around 1395 by an unknown artist. Experts can not agree on the artist ‘s country of origin, testifying to the sincerely international nature of the stylus.







The Crucifixion Altichiero c.1376–79

Madonna of the Quail

S. Antonio, Padua, Italy

This detail from a fresco of the Crucifixion characterizes Altichiero ‘s style. Inspired by Giotto and Roman easing sculpture, the colorful narrative combines nobility with full of life incident and closely observed details.

Pisanello c.1420 Castelvecchio, Verona, Italy

Coronation of the Virgin Lorenzo Monaco 1414 Uffizi, Florence, Italy

This altarpiece was painted for the Florentine monastery where Lorenzo took his vows ( Lorenzo Monaco is italian for “ Laurence the Monk ” ). With its bright colors and sinuate lines, it represents the pinnacle of late Gothic art in Florence.

Thought to be an early shape by Pisanello ( “ the little Pisan ” ), this unusual Madonna is a adorable case of the International Gothic style. The sensuous lines and cosmetic use of naturalistic details of birds and fruit add to the little paint ’ mho charm.



Adoration of the Magi Gentile district attorney Fabriano 1423 Uffizi, Florence, Italy

Gentile district attorney Fabriano bear Fabriano, Italy, 1385 ? ; died Rome, Italy, before October 14, 1427


Painted for one of the wealthiest citizens in Florence, Palla Strozzi, this spectacular altarpiece is a masterpiece of the International Gothic style. It displays a courtly elegance designed to underline Strozzi ’ s own wealth and rate. Set in a excellently flowery frame, the painting blends natural-looking and cosmetic detail, and shows the Magi dressed in gorgeously deluxe garments. The natural discussion of lighting, specially in the nox setting of the predella ( the humble images beneath the main gore ), is remarkable.

The complete chief of the International Gothic style, Gentile district attorney Fabriano is named after his birthplace, Fabriano, a township in the Marches region of central Italy. Throughout the two decades of his career, he worked in major italian art centers including Venice, where he painted for the Doge ’ s Palace, and in Rome, Siena, Orvieto, and Florence, where he painted the Adoration of the Magi. Renowned for its cosmetic beauty, narrative detail, and natural treatment of light and shade, his work influenced artists including Pisanello, Jacopo Bellini, Masolino, and Fra Angelico.




MASTERWORK The Tribute Money Masaccio c.1426–28 Brancacci Chapel, S. Maria del Carmine, Florence, Italy

In his short circuit life, Tommaso di Ser Giovanni di Mone Cassai ( 1401–28 ) became one of the most important artists of his clock, and was a establish founder of Renaissance art. His dub Masaccio, by which

he is now known, may be translated as “ Sloppy Tom ” —he is said to have earned the name because he was so absorbed by his artwork that he had no time for blase matters, such as looking after his appearance. This magnificent fresco is one of his most celebrated works. It is part of a motorbike painted for the Brancacci Chapel in Florence by Masaccio and his colleague Masolino di Panicale. The fresco depicts a rarely painted biblical fib that Masaccio portrays with great clearness, dividing the narrative into three sections. In the center, Christ and his disciples stand outside a township, indicated by contemporary computer architecture. Confronted by a tax collector demanding a bell, Christ tells Peter to go to the lake, where he will find a fish containing a coin. On the entrust, Peter finds the coin ; on the right he pays the tax collector the “ tribute money. ”


The grave, unadorned magnificence of Masaccio ’ s massive style differs from the flowery elegance of contemporary painters, such as Lorenzo Monaco or Gentile district attorney Fabriano. alternatively, it shows a profound debt to the paintings of Giotto from more than a century earlier. however, where Giotto ’ s depicting of three-dimensional space was largely intuitive, Masaccio constructs his pictorial space in accord with the scientific laws of position, as developed by contemporaries Leon Battista Alberti and Filippo Brunelleschi. The figures in the painting besides show links with the Florentine Renaissance sculptor Donatello, and with antique artwork. A unmarried, consolidative light source helps to create a convert sense of bulk and space as light falls and shadows are formed on the draped figures, the construction, and the barren landscape.

GIOTTO BORN AGAIN, STARTING WHERE DEATH HAD CUT SHORT HIS ADVANCE 1896 | Bernard Berenson American art historian, on Masaccio



The Baptism of Christ Piero della Francesca 1440–60 National Gallery, London, UK

The calm air nobility of Piero ’ s absolutely balanced masterpiece derives partially from the accurate mathematical proportions and pure geometric shapes that underlie the writing. Although Piero worked chiefly external Florence, he was influenced by aesthetic developments there, and was inspired by artists such as Masaccio and Fra Angelico.

Paintings in 15th-century Italy, such as Piero della Francesca ’ s The Baptism of Christ ( left ), achieved a knock-down sense of monumentality, clearness, and order. These classifiable qualities were founded on the report of ancient art, advanced scientific principles of perspective, and Renaissance notions of divine geometry and symmetry. firenze was at the concentrate of quattrocento ( 15th-century ) developments in the fields of painting, sculpt, and architecture. however, artists created many significant works in other cities—such as Siena and Arezzo—and in culture courts including those of Federico da Montefeltro in Urbino, the Este family in Ferrara, and the Gonzagas in Mantua. It was in Mantua that Mantegna ’ s classically divine painting took the illusionistic possibilities of position to a newfangled flush. While christian subjects still dominated, artists were besides commissioned to paint portraits, conflict scenes, and sophisticate mythologies, such as Botticelli ’ s masterpiece, Primavera ( see pp.98–99 ).



A knock-down dynasty 1434 Cosimo de ’ Medici returns from expatriate in Venice and assumes might in Florence. He funds many public build up projects in Florence, earning him the style pater patriae ( beget of his state ).

Florence and the Medici learner, and collector of antiquities, he maintained relative political constancy and patronize major artists. science and art came together in one of the lasting legacies of the Renaissance—perspective. A mathematical organization for representing threedimensional space on a flat surface, linear perspective was developed by the Florentine architect Filippo Brunelleschi and fellow-architect and writer Leon Battista Alberti. While mathematics was the footing of analogue position, it besides underpinned the ideal of beauty that found expression in quattrocento painting. The ancient mind of “ divine proportion ” was revived at this time, and mathematical ratios ( based on the human body ) were used to create architecture and paintings with harmonious proportions that were thought to echo the God-given geometry of the universe. Quattrocento artists, including Paolo Uccello and Piero della Francesca, were fascinated by mathematical position, and Piero wrote treatises on both position and the skill of optics.

1444 Having amassed a fortune as a condottiere ( mercenary commanding officer ), Federico da Montefeltro becomes Duke of Urbino, establishing a culture ideal city that attracts scholars and artists including Alberti and Piero della Francesca. 1469 Lorenzo de ’ Medici assumes ability in Florence. He rules until his death in 1492, when his son Piero succeeds him. 1494 french troops under Charles VIII intrude on Italy, beginning a time period of war that lasts until 1559. The Medici are expelled from Florence.


Often called “ the cradle of the Renaissance, ” the city of Florence was home to many of the innovations and cultural achievements of the fifteenth century. Despite the plagues of the mid-14th hundred, which had devastated its population, Florence was the most golden city in Italy, with its own gold currency, the florin. Developments in computer architecture, science, art, philosophy, and literature thrived there as politicians, architects, artists, and scholars exchanged and explored ideas. Although technically a democracy, 15th-century Florence was dominated by a individual family— the Medici, who were great patrons of classical memorize and the arts. A affluent class of bankers and merchants, they gained baron through political astuteness rather than military unit. They ousted equal opinion families the Albizzi and the Strozzi in 1434 and remained in power until exiled in 1494, belated returning to exponent in 1512. Lorenzo de ’ Medici, known as Lorenzo the Magnificent ( 1449–92 ), played a pivotal character in Renaissance Florence : diplomat, poet,

1498 The influential preacher Girolamo Savonarola, an outspoken critic of the Medici and of Church putrescence, is executed in Florence for unorthodoxy. Savonarola ’ s preaching about the function of art influenced many artists including Botticelli, Fra Bartolommeo, and Michelangelo.


Quattrocento Florence This bird ’ s-eye opinion shows Florence dominated by the huge Cathedral dome designed by Brunelleschi. Alberti wrote that it was “ a structure so huge … that it covers all Tuscans with its apparition. ”




BEGINNINGS A NEW PERSPECTIVE The blossom of art in early 15th-century Italy was to a great extent triggered by four men : the architect, Brunelleschi ; the architect and writer, Alberti ; the painter, Masaccio ; and the sculptor, Donatello. Brunelleschi pioneered the understand of linear, single-point position, the mathematical system that allows artists to create a convert magic trick of space and modeled form on a flat surface. Alberti formulated the rules of perspective and wrote an influential treatise, On Painting ( 1435 ), setting out the method acting that an artist should follow.

HE WOULD NEVER TAKE THE PENCIL IN HAND UNTIL HE HAD FIRST OFFERED A PRAYER 1568 | Giorgio Vasari italian writer and artist, on Fra Angelico in Lives of the Artists

The first artist to put the principles of position into exercise with complete consistency was Masaccio. His frescoes of the Holy Trinity in S. Maria Novella and in the Brancacci Chapel ( see pp.86–87 ) achieved an unprecedented illusion of space and monumental, sculptural realism. Masaccio ’ sulfur paintings are close in spirit to the sculptures of Donatello, whose realistic freestanding sculptures and reliefs were inspired by antique art. Like Masaccio, Donatello had a huge influence on the development of quattrocento painting.

ARTISTIC INFLUENCES In early 15th-century Italy, two contrasting approaches to painting coexisted—the elegantly decorative International Gothic style, and the hearty, modeled style of Masaccio. These two strands are blended in the early on exploit of Fra Angelico, and in that of Sienese artists including Sassetta. As the hundred progressed, a monumental feel of outer space and form took prevail in italian art. Gold aura as used here and in Simone Martini ’ s earlier Annunciation were punched with cosmetic patterns. Alberti ’ s Renaissance treatise, On Painting, recommends that artists “ represent the glitter of amber with plain colors ” preferably than use gold itself.

Angel Gabriel, detail from The Annunciation, 1333, by Simone Martini and Lippo Memmi, features the habit of gold leaf.

Masaccio ’ s pioneering use of position influenced Fra Angelico and later painters. His Holy Trinity is one of the earliest paintings to use linear position systematically to create a convincing delusion that the image receded into the wall.

Holy Trinity With the Virgin, St. John, and Donors, c.1425–28, places figures in a classical music set. S. Maria Novella, Florence, Italy

Brunelleschi ’ randomness influence is apparent in the position and place setting of Angelico ’ south Annunciation. Placing figures in an arcade of corinthian columns and semicircular arches, as seen in Brunelleschi ’ s architecture, forms a convincing common sense of space and solidity.

The Foundling Hospital ( begun 1419 ), by Brunelleschi was the first construct since antiquity to master the lyric of classical architecture.

The sculptor Donatello was highly influential. Taking inhalation from antique art, he was renowned for the inventiveness and aroused office of his work. In this elegant Annunciation, the resound poses and gestures establish a active relationship between Gabriel and Mary.

The Annunciation, c.1435. Vasari noted that it brought Donatello recognition for its grace and emotional drama. S. Croce,

Uffizi, Florence, Italy

Florence, Italy



Fra Angelico born nr. Vicchio, Italy c.1395–1400 ; died Rome, Italy, February 18, 1455

The Annunciation Fra Angelico ’ s early masterpiece combines a cognition of Masaccio ’ mho massive style with a cosmetic lyricism that links it to Gothic art. Seated in a classical loggia, the Virgin responds with humility to the Angel Gabriel ’ s news that she will give give birth to the Son of God. Their verbal switch over : “ the Holy Ghost shall come upon thee … Behold the handmaid of the Lord … ” is written in aureate inscription. The fall back architecture leads the eye back toward the fit of Adam and Eve being expelled from Eden— a reference to mankind ’ randomness sin, which will be redeemed by Christ, whose coming parturition Gabriel announces.


Fra Angelico 1432–33 Museo Diocesano, Cortona, Italy

Fra Angelico ’ s veridical list was Guido di Piero, although after he became a Dominican friar he was known as Fra Giovanni. His nickname “ the angelic brother ” reflects his angelic reputation. Trained as a manuscript illuminator, he went on to become one of the most crucial artists in Florence, and besides in Rome. Based chiefly in Fiesole, he is most consort with his series of frescoes in the monastery of S. Marco in Florence, which were designed to aid the monks ’ spiritual contemplation.





Throughout the quattrocento ( fifteenth century ) italian artists progressed toward a greater sense of naturalism and monumentality, which was underpinned by an awareness of old-timer artwork and advances in mathematics and position. In the second half of the century, artists created spectacularly convincing illusions of reality, aided by the habit of the oil painting proficiency. The grand mythologies of Botticelli and Mantegna, the anatomic studies of Antonio Pollaiuolo, and the harmonious, idealize paintings of Perugino looked forward to the high Renaissance.



In his influential treatise On Painting, published in Latin in 1435 and translated into italian the follow year, Alberti explained the principles of position. Parallel lines appear to converge as they move far away from the spectator and fitting at a vanishing point. By showing painters how to use converging lines to create a mathematically constructed smell of space and depth on a flat surface, he helped to transform westerly art.

St. Francis Renounces His Earthly Father Sassetta 1437–44 National Gallery, London, UK

Ghiberti ’ s doors

Death of Masaccio

In 1425, Lorenzo Ghiberti finishes one jell of bronze doors for Florence ’ second Baptistery, and begins a moment ; their sculpt respite scenes are renowned for their gain use of perspective.

Masaccio moves to Rome in 1428, leaving the Brancacci frescoes unfinished. He dies soon subsequently, aged 26 or 27—so on the spur of the moment that some defendant poisoning.


The temptation of Adam and Eve Masolino da Panicale c.1426–28 Brancacci Chapel, S. Maria del Carmine, Florence, Italy

This fresco appears on the wall antonym Masaccio ’ s Tribute Money ( see pp.86–87 ). Masaccio collaborated on the neighbor piece, The Raising of Tabitha, but this scene—showing a slender, elegant Adam and Eve—is by Masolino entirely. Almost 20 years older than Masaccio, Masolino had a more graceful, less monumental style.


Sassetta ( Stefano di Giovanni ) was one of 15th-century Siena ’ s lead artists. This setting from an altarpiece dedicated to St. Francis blends the cosmetic Sienese custom with Florentine developments in perspective and naturalism.






The Care of the Sick Domenico di Bartolo 1440–44 Hospital of S. Maria della Scala, Siena, Italy

One of a remarkable series of frescoes painted for a hospital in Siena, this laic discipline is unusual. In vivid—sometimes gory—detail, Bartolo depicts the sick being cared for by friars, observed by affluent visitors.

St. Lucy Altarpiece Domenico Veneziano c.1445–47 Uffizi, Florence, Italy

In this aglow altarpiece —named after the church service in Florence for which it was painted—Domenico echoes the traditional triptych format of the Virgin and Child flanked by Saints by dividing the fit into three using the arches of a loggia.

Sienese preacher When Franciscan preacher Bernardino of Siena dies in 1444, the company of the Virgin commissions an altarpiece featuring Bernardino preaching outdoors to crowds.



Battle of San Romano Paolo Uccello c.1440–50 National Gallery, London, UK

Renaissance geometry and chivalric pageant compound in this painting commemorating a Florentine victory against the Sienese in 1432. It was once hung in the Medici Palace. Florentine drawing card Niccolò district attorney Tolentino appears at the center field of the stagelike foreground in a gorgeously decorated, geometrically shaped hat. Lines created by broken lances strewn on the grate converge at the vanishing point on the head of Niccolò ’ south horse.



Humanist Pope Tommaso Parentucelli, a humanist scholar, is elected Pope Nicolas V in 1447. Fra Angelico frescoes the Pope ’ south private chapel in the Vatican with scenes from the lives of St. Stephen and St. Lawrence.

Paolo Uccello hold Florence, Italy c.1397 ; died Florence, December 10, 1475



Paolo di Dono was nicknamed Uccello ( “ bird ” in italian ) because of his love of animals, in particular birds. long regarded as a curio, he is now one of the most popular Renaissance artists. After a brief stint as a mosaicist in Venice, Uccello spent most of his life in Florence. His idiosyncratic work combines the cosmetic appeal of the International Gothic custom with enthusiastic displays of mathematical position. Vasari claims his exuberance was such that he worked late into the night, telling his wife : “ What a fresh mistress is this position ! ”

The Youthful David Andrea del Castagno c.1450 National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC

This painted leather harbor would have been carried at a Florentine pageant or joust. David ’ s desperate courage in slaying the colossus Goliath made him a popular, inspirational capable in Renaissance Florence, which saw itself as standing up to giants of the day, such as the Duke of Milan.



Procession of the Magi, detail Benozzo Gozzoli c.1459–61 Chapel of the Medici Palace, Florence, Italy

This excellent fresco is Gozzoli ’ s masterpiece. Commissioned by Piero de ’ Medici, it measuredly echoes Gentile district attorney Fabriano ’ s Adoration of the Magi and features portraits of Medici family members and their allies.

Portrait of a Lady Alesso Baldovinetti c.1465 National Gallery, London, UK

Profile portraits, echoing the heads on antique coins, were democratic in 15th-century Italy. This lady has not been identified, but the cosmetic device on her sleeve probably relates to her family ’ sulfur coating of arms.

Donatello dies The Florentine sculptor Donatello ( Donato di Niccolo ), the greatest sculptor and the most influential artist of the time—in any medium —dies in Florence on December 13, 1466.





Mantegna to Mantua In 1460, Andrea Mantegna arrives in Mantua and becomes court painter to Ludovico Gonzaga. He remains in service to the Gonzaga syndicate for the rest of his life.

Virgin and Child With Scenes From the Life of St. Anne Fra Filippo Lippi c.1453 Palazzo Pitti, Florence, Italy

Fra Filippo Lippi ’ s early paintings were influenced by Masaccio, but late work such as this was more decoratively linear. Lippi influenced Botticelli, who was probably a student. He was among the first Renaissance artists to use the tondo ( circular ) format.

Oculus from the Painted Room ( Camera Picta ) Andrea Mantegna c.1465–74 Gonzaga Palace, Mantua, Italy

In a ace display of position, Mantegna creates the delusion that the ceiling of the “ Painted Room ” opens on to the flip : servants and ladies peep down over a parapet, accompanied by cleverly foreshortened putti.




The Montefeltro Altarpiece Piero della Francesca c.1472–74 Pinacoteca di Brera, Milan, Italy

Resplendent in armor, Federico district attorney Montefeltro, who commissioned the painting, kneels in a Renaissance church before the Madonna and Child with attendant saints and angels. Above the Madonna ’ s egg-shaped headway hangs an ostrich egg—symbol of the marvelous Virgin give birth.

painting IS NOTHING BUT A REPRESENTATION OF SURFACES AND SOLIDS FORESHORTENED OR ENLARGED … c.1480–90 | Piero della Francesca Writing in On Perspective in Painting

Netherlandish determine From 1472 to 1474, Netherlandish artist Joos van Ghent stays at the court of Federico da Montefeltro in Urbino. His petroleum painting technique influences fellow artists, such as Piero della Francesca.



Piero della Francesca


born Borgo San Sepolcro ( now Sansepolcro ), Umbria, Italy, c.1415 ; died Borgo San Sepolcro, October 12, 1492

One of the great theorists of the Renaissance, Piero della Francesca was remembered chiefly as a mathematician until the nineteenth hundred. now he ranks as one of the greatest of all quattrocento artists, admired for the clarity and earnest nobility of his works, which are underpinned by his fundamental understanding of perspective, geometry, and harmonious proportion. He lived chiefly in Borgo San Sepolcro, but painted in respective other places, notably Arezzo, where he created a magnificent fresco cycle on the Legend of the True Cross, and Urbino, where he worked at the court of Federico district attorney Montefeltro.

St. Jerome in His Study Antonello da Messina c.1475 National Gallery, London, UK

Antonello combines meticulously planned position with the oil painting technique to create a spectacularly illusionistic double : the rock ledge appears to project toward us, while the floor tiles ’ converging lines lead deep into the painting.



Pietro Perugino


born Castello della Pieve ( now Città della Pieve ), Italy c.1450 ; died Fontignano, nr. Perugia, Italy February or March 1523

1568 | Giorgio Vasari Writing in Lives Of The Artists



Pietro Vannucci was nicknamed after Perugia, where he settled. His early on years are obscure, but he worked in Florence before making his repute paint frescoes for the Sistine Chapel in 1481. He was by and by hailed the “ best painter in Italy ” by affluent patron Agostino Chigi. Perugino ran workshops in Florence and Perugia, and his sweetly harmonious, idealize art was a formative influence on the young Raphael.

Birth and death In 1475, Michelangelo Buonarotti is born on March 6 in Caprese, near Arezzo : he becomes a giant of the High Renaissance. On December 10 Paolo Uccello dies in Florence.

1475 murder in the cathedral In an abortive undertake to seize office in Florence, the Pazzi class and others conspire to murder Lorenzo de ’ Medici and his younger brother Giuliano on April 26, 1478, during high Mass at the Cathedral. Giuliano is stabbed to death, Lorenzo wounded. Botticelli paints frescoes of the hang conspirators.

The Martyrdom of St. Sebastion Antonio and Piero Pollaiuolo 1475 National Gallery, London, UK

The Pollaiuolo brothers ( their name means “ poultryman ” ) ran a busy workshop in Florence, and late Rome. In this knock-down collaborative work, the muscular figures shown from a kind of viewpoints are probably by Antonio, who was a endow sculptor and was fascinated by anatomy—he evening dissected corpses. Piero was a pioneer of landscape, and probably painted the bird’s-eye background, based on the Arno valley around Florence.


The Annunciation, With St. Emidius Carlo Crivelli 1486 National Gallery, London, UK

The Crucifixion With the Virgin, St. John, St. Jerome, and St. Mary Magdalene

This unusual announcement shows how closely politics, religion, and art were linked in 15th-century Italy. Commissioned to commemorate the Pope ’ s holocene concede of rights of self-government to Ascoli, it shows the township ’ south patron saint presenting Gabriel with a model of the township, while the zooming perspective leads back to a bridge where a carrier pigeon delivers the papal message—a witty parallel to the consecrated message being delivered by the angel to Mary.

Pietro Perugino c.1482–85 National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC

This idealize, sweetly pious effigy of the Crucifixion—devoid of any suggestion of suffering—was once thought to be an early work by Raphael.

end of an era Botticelli ’ s frescoes of the conspirators who were hanged for their part in the Pazzi conspiracy of 1478 are destroyed in 1494, when the Medici are expelled from Florence.





A Satyr Mourning Over a Nymph Piero di Cosimo c.1495


National Gallery, London, UK

Louvre, Paris, France

In this tender, poignant portrayal, the old man ’ second deface side contrasts with the unsullied features of the little boy, who gazes up at him with touching volume.


An Old man and a Boy Domenico Ghirlandaio c.1485

Possibly a warn against marital jealousy, this enigmatic fabulous view may depict Procris, who was accidently killed by her husband Cephalus while spying on him. The sorrowful frank reflects Piero ’ s sensitivity to animals.

One of the most passionate artwork patrons of her time, Isabella vitamin d ’ Este amassed a fine collection of ancient art. She commissioned leading artists, including Mantegna and Perugino, to provide allegorical paintings for her studiolo in the Ducal Palace in Mantua. She inspired her brother Alfonso to create his camerino, a marble-walled gallery for the display of paintings, including titian ’ mho Bacchus and Ariadne ( see pp.118–19 ). Drawing of Isabella five hundred ’ Este by Leonardo district attorney Vinci, 1499–1500





MASTERWORK Primavera Sandro Botticelli c.1482 Uffizi, Florence, Italy

Primavera is one of the most celebrated of all Renaissance paintings. Botticelli was the first artist since antiquity to paint fabulous subjects such as this on a bombastic scale, and to treat them with a seriousness previously reserved for religious subjects. This newfangled type of painting was highly valued in culture Renaissance circles : like a painted allegorical poem, it uses complex symbolism to bring in concert classical music and Renaissance ideas about love, beauty, and nature. Vasari describes it as “ Venus as a symbol of bounce [ Primavera is italian for spring ] being adorned with flowers by the Graces. ” Scholars continue to debate its precise mean, but it draws on versatile greek and Roman myths, and seems to be linked to the Medici festivals for which Botticelli painted fabrics and banners. Painted in tempera on a wooden panel, it was commissioned for one of the Medici residences in Florence, by or for Lorenzo the Magnificent ’ randomness young cousin, Lorenzo di Pierfrancesco de ’ Medici. At the center of the composition stands the life-size figure of Venus, attended by Cupid ; to her leftover, the three Graces ( goddesses of charm, seemliness, and smasher ) dance, while Mercury stirs the cloud with his baton. To Venus ’ south right, the greek nymph Chloris is accosted by Zephyr. She transforms into Flora, the goddess of flowers, who wears an dainty gown matching the description of one wear at a Medici tournament of 1475, which was “ painted with roses and flowers and greenery. ”






Sistine Madonna Raphael 1513–14 Gemäldegalerie, Dresden, Germany

This celebrated paint epitomizes the nobility and decorate of high Renaissance painting. It was commissioned by Pope Julius II, and depicts the Virgin and Child flanked by two saints, Sixtus and Barbara. St. Sixtus gestures the Virgin forth as she appears on clouds through depart curtains, while St. Barbara glances down at two winged putti who gaze up at the heavenly fit.

The apogee of the italian Renaissance came in the first few decades of the sixteenth century. It was a period dominated by three giants of italian art—Leonardo ( 1452–1519 ), Michelangelo ( 1475–1564 ), and Raphael ( 1483–1520 ). According to the artist and biographer Giorgio Vasari, writing in his Lives of the Artists in 1568, this menstruation represented the pinnacle of aesthetic accomplishment. Works such as Raphael ’ s Sistine Madonna ( left ) — admired for its magnificence, idealize beauty, and refined grace ( grazia ) —came to be seen as touchstones of paragon for centuries. Many of the identify works of the high Renaissance were frescoes, but artists besides exploited the particular qualities of anoint rouge to achieve the subtle, softening effects that were characteristic of the time period. high Renaissance artists were valued for their identity and imaginative powers a good as for their ability to depict idealize figures in complex ( frequently twisting ) poses, frequently derived from age-old sculpt.



A city restored and ransacked

The clientele of popes once again, the city began to prosper. A succession of popes set about restoring Rome to its early, ancient glory. The area around the Vatican and St. Peter ’ south was the focus of renovation. In 1475, Pope Sixtus IV ordered the rebuilding of an honest-to-god chapel to take on a new ceremonial role—it became the Sistine Chapel. New churches rose throughout Rome, and tax concessions on property led to a flurry of build, giving lift to splendid palaces and villas such as the Villa Farnesina. This brought countless commissions for artists, who decorated the new sites. Construction make unearthed ancient Roman remains, such as the celebrated sculptures the Laocoön and Apollo Belvedere. These examples of antique art were admired by gamey Renaissance artists and others, including Pope Julius II, who founded the Belvedere collection of sculpt. Of all the popes, Julius II ( r.1503–13 ) played the most significant character in the achievements of the High Renaissance. Among his many commissions were the rebuilding of St. Peter ’ mho, Michelangelo ’ s Sistine Chapel frescoes, and Raphael ’ s Stanze. Everything changed on May 6, 1527, when mutinous imperial forces of the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V entered Rome. Fueled partially by religious sectarianism, they raped, tortured, and slaughtered thousands of inhabitants. Martin Luther ’ s name was carved with a spear tap across Raphael ’ s fresco the Disputa. The gold age of the high Renaissance came to a sudden, bloody end.

Harmony and balance Inspired by round Roman temples, Bramante ’ s perfectly proportioned Tempietto ( c.1502–10 ) epitomizes gamey Renaissance ideals of authoritative harmony and symmetry. S. Pietro in Montorio, Rome, Italy

1503 Julius II becomes pope. In his reign, he commissions many major artistic works. 1506 The ancient sculpture the Laocoön is discovered in Rome. In the same year, the foundation stone is laid for the new St. Peter ’ randomness Basilica. 1513 The Medici kin is restored to exponent in Florence. Pope Julius II dies, and Pope Leo X is elected in his place. 1517 religious reformer Martin Luther posts his 95 Theses denouncing the degeneracy of the Catholic Church, marking the beginning of the Protestant Reformation. 1519 Charles I of Spain becomes Holy Roman Emperor, as Charles V.


While Florence had been the cradle of the early Renaissance, papal Rome is the city most associated with the masterpieces of the High Renaissance. At the end of the fifteenth hundred, the stability of Florence had been shaken by the invasion of Charles VIII of France and the flight of the rule Medici family. Its put as the focus of artistic initiation waned, and Rome took concentrate stage. With its Christian and classical heritage, the city attracted artists, architects, and scholars from across Europe. In this climate of confidence, artists shared the humanist doctrine of the period that saw man as “ the measure of all things. ” Unlike Florence or Venice, Rome was not a center of bank, fabricate, or trade—it needed the papacy to draw pilgrims to the city and produce wealth. In the words of Pope Martin V, Rome had become “ dilapidate and deserted ” after the papal court moved to Avignon in 1309. But in the fifteenth century, after Rome had become the permanent wave papal establish

1500 Pope Alexander VI declares 1500 a Jubilee year. Pilgrims flock to Rome in the hope of “ bribe ” salvation. In the like year, Juan de la Cosa, Christopher Columbus ’ mho pilot program, draws one of the earliest surviving maps depicting the Americas.

1527 Rome is ravaged by imperial forces of Charles V in an event that comes to be known as The Sack of Rome. Inhabitants are murdered and art treasures looted.




BEGINNINGS ATMOSPHERE AND GRACE While early Renaissance artists aimed to create coherent, ordered depictions of nature, paintings of the High Renaissance show nature observed, but refined and idealize. Hard-edged naturalism was softened and replaced by an stress on seemliness and nuance expressed through placid transitions of imprint and semblance. Initiating this change, Leonardo developed an anoint paint proficiency called sfumato ( “ in the manner of smoke ” ) in which he blurred edges and contours. While mathematically plotted linear position was central to early Renaissance art, “ forward pass ” ( atmospheric ) perspective became a sport of the High Renaissance. Atmospheric effects that cause aloof objects to appear increasingly bleary and blue toward the horizon had retentive been mimicked by artists, but Leonardo invented the terminus “ antenna perspective ” and amply developed its function in painting.

TURNING POINT The Virgin of the Rocks Leonardo district attorney Vinci c.1483 Louvre, Paris, France

Leonardo ’ s early masterpiece uses a pyramidal musical composition, which became a prototype for high Renaissance painters. It shows the Virgin and Child with St. John and an angel in a outside, cavelike place setting, with a strange rough landscape receding into a pale, blue haze in the far distance ( darkened varnish has obscured the master colors ). The paint is imbued with a lyrical tune of mystery. Departing from the clearness and preciseness of earlier quattrocento paint, Leonardo makes his graceful figures emerge from the shadows, softening features and blurring contours with sfumato. Unlike any figure painted before this, the exquisite angel who turns to gaze out of the picture seems about to breathe with life.

ARTISTIC INFLUENCES Leonardo ’ s flair was singular, and his nice model of figures using blended gradations of light and ghost originated in his own scientific investigations. But the bring of earlier italian and Northern Renaissance artists show precedents to several aspects of this groundbreaking paint, looking forward to the gracious refinements and mastery of standard atmosphere that are hallmarks of the High Renaissance.

Leonardo district attorney Vinci born Anchiano or Vinci, Italy, April 15, 1452 ; died nr. Amboise, France, May 2, 1519



A complex and versatile creative genius, Leonardo district attorney Vinci was one of the most outstanding figures of the italian Renaissance, and of all time. The bastard son of a notary and a peasant daughter, he was apprenticed to the sculptor and cougar Andrea del Verrocchio in Florence, then settled in Milan in 1482. His drawings and notebooks reveal the breadth and depth of his intellectual curio, which included research into areas ampere divers as anatomy ( he dissected more than 30 bodies ), mastermind ( he designed flying machines, armored vehicles, and canal systems ), mathematics, optics, botany, sculpt, architecture, and music. He researched every aspect of light and color. painting was alone one of his interests, and although he was one of the greatest and most influential artists of his meter, he completed few pictures. His career was chiefly divided between Florence and Milan, but he spent his final years in France as the honor guest of Francis I.

Pictorial grace was central to high Renaissance style. This cover girl withdraw by Leonardo ’ s overlord, the sculptor and painter Andrea del Verrocchio, shows similarities to Leonardo ’ s Virgin and angel.

Head of a Woman, c.1475, is attest of Verrocchio ’ sulfur strong palpate for cubic form. british Museum, London, UK

Atmospheric—or aerial— position had been observed since ancient Roman times. Its effects were imitated by many artists including dutch 15thcentury painter Hans Memling.

Passion of Christ, detail, c.1470. Memling ’ second exercise frequently featured aloof blue hills to create depth in a landscape. Galleria

Depictions of the natural world evolved during the Renaissance. Botticelli ’ mho Primavera ( see pp.98– 99 ) features a tapestrylike effect of flowers, while Leonardo ’ s flowering plants reflect his sake in botany.

Primavera, detail, c.1482. Flowers and fruit are strewn across Botticelli ’ s paint, emphasizing its cosmetic surface.

Saubada, Turin, Italy

Uffizi, Florence, Italy


FROM THIS HEIGHTENING OF LIGHT AND SHADE THE FACE GAINS GREATLY IN RELIEF … AND IN BEAUTY Leonardo district attorney Vinci Writing in Treatise on Painting



The Damned Consigned to Hell


Luca Signorelli 1500–03 Orvieto Cathedral, Italy

One of a series of frescoes based on the biblical Apocalypse, this potent scene shows Signorelli ’ s ability to depict the male nude in vigorous, complex poses. According to Vasari, Michelangelo admired Signorelli ’ second make.

The High Renaissance is normally dated from around 1500 until around 1530. however, the move toward the high Renaissance expressive style can be seen in Leonardo ’ s art in the decades before 1500. His advanced Virgin of the Rocks ( see pp.102–03 ) dates from c.1483—the year that Raphael was born. While Leonardo worked chiefly in Florence and Milan, it was in Rome—where Michelangelo and Raphael produced their most influential works in the first decades of the 16th century—that the high Renaissance chiefly flourished.

Artistic giants In 1501, artists credit line up to admire a cartoon—a life-size preparatory drawing—by Leonardo in Florence. Michelangelo begins his huge sculpt of David, the largest freestanding sculpt since ancient times.






Michelangelo 1508–12 Apostolic Palace, Vatican

The paint of the domed ceiling of the Sistine Chapel is one of the greatest achievements in the history of art. Michelangelo completed the work virtually unaided, dismissing assistants and refusing to admit anyone while he worked. Paintings of prophets and sybils who foretold Christ ’ s birth flank the central series of frescoes, which depict events from the Creation to Noah.


Mona Lisa Leonardo district attorney Vinci c.1503–06 Louvre, Paris, France

This portrait of a fashionable Florentine womanhood set against a cryptic, mountainous landscape is probably the worldly concern ’ s most celebrated painting. Its dateless appeal comes partially from the enigmatic quality of the sitter ’ south smile, which Leonardo achieved by blurring the contour of lips and eyes, using the sfumato proficiency.


Sistine Chapel Ceiling

Vatican commissions Michelangelo begins painting the Sistine Chapel ceiling in the Vatican in 1508. Raphael moves to Rome, where Pope Julius II commissions him to paint the Vatican ‘s Stanza della Segnatura ( see pp.108–09 ).



A spectacular masterpiece of ancient art was discovered in a vineyard in Rome on January 14, 1506. This dramatic ancient marble sculpture shows the Trojan priest Laocoön and his sons being crushed to death by sea serpents. Michelangelo was among those who went to see it immediately. By June 1506, it was the leading attraction in Pope Julius II ’ s solicitation of ancient sculpt, the Belvedere solicitation. It became the most influential and copied of all ancient works of art. Laocoön, Vatican Museum, Vatican




born Caprese, Italy, March 6, 1475 ; died Rome, Italy, February 18, 1564

Sculptor, painter, architect, and poet, Michelangelo Buonarroti was one of the greatest and most influential artists of the Renaissance. The about superhuman nature of his work inspired awe in his contemporaries, who called him “ the divine Michelangelo. ” An intense, pensiveness fictional character, he was briefly apprenticed to painter Domenico Ghirlandaio before turning chiefly to sculpt. He developed a heroic vogue based on the expressive qualities of the male nude. Most of his long career, which spanned some 70 years, was spent in Florence and Rome, where his late work inspired Mannerism.

Mythological masterpiece Raphael paints his observe fresco the Triumph of Galatea for the affluent banker Agostino Chigi ’ s Villa Farnesina from 1511 to 1512. It shows the ocean nymph Galatea riding on a shell pulled by dolphins.



The annunciation With Six Saints Fra Bartolommeo 1515 Louvre, Paris, France

Strongly influenced by Leonardo, Bartolommeo was the lead high Renaissance painter in Florence after Leonardo, Michelangelo, and Raphael had left the city. Calm, balanced compositions such as this, featuring the pure with saints, are distinctive of his influence.



Portrait of Baldassare Castiglione

Sebastiano del Piombo 1517–19

The Raising of Lazarus

Raphael c.1515

National Gallery, London, UK

Sebastiano ’ sulfur grand, boldly colored altarpiece was commissioned as a equal companion firearm to Raphael ’ randomness last, unfinished masterpiece The Transguration. The Venetian-born Sebastiano was a friend of Michelangelo who may have negotiated the commission, and evening helped with some preliminary drawings.

Louvre, Paris, France

Raphael ’ s portraits were enormously influential, admired for the beauty of their proficiency, their boldface compositions, and their insidious revelation of fictional character. Raphael ’ s ally Castiglione was writer of The Courtier ( 1528 ), a celebrated treatise describing ideal courtly demeanor.

Cathedral commission In 1522 Correggio receives a major commission—to fresco the attic, apse, and choir vault of Parma Cathedral. He finally completes lone the dome with the enormously bold, illusionistic assumption of the Virgin.






Leonardo leaves Italy Leonardo leaves Italy for good in 1516 or 1517, invited to France by King Francis I. officially he is “ beginning painter, architect, and mechanic to the king. ” He dies in France in 1519.

Raphael born Urbino, Italy, March 28 or April 6, 1483 ; died Rome, Italy, April 6, 1520



Painter, draftsman, and architect, Raphael ( Raffaello Santi ) was the supreme synthesist of the high renaissance : he absorbed the ideas of Leonardo and Michelangelo and combined them to create an art of odd deck and magnificence. Raphael was brought up in the civilized populace of Urbino, where his father was a painter. His formative influence was the fresh, elegant art of Perugino, but his style grew grand under the influence of Leonardo and Michelangelo. precociously talented and socially charming, Raphael promptly achieved achiever and fame. He worked in Rome from the age of 25 until his early death, aged 37.

Melissa Dosso Dossi c.1520 Galleria Borghese, Rome, Italy

Working at the court of the Este family in Ferrara, Dosso ( actual name Giovanni di Luteri ) painted fabulous and religious works angstrom well as portraits. His atmospheric find for landscape, which suggests the influence of Giorgione and Titian, is apparent in this excellently deluxe make.

Madonna of the Harpies Andrea del Sarto 1517 Uffizi, Florence, Italy

Influenced by Leonardo, Raphael, and Fra Bartolommeo, Andrea developed a serene, stately dash that was described by Vasari as “ faultless. ” This is one of his most celebrated paintings. Its cover girl colors were revealed by restoration in the 1980s.

Death of Raphael On April 6, 1520, Raphael dies of a fever in Rome. According to Vasari, the stallion papal court “ is plunged into grief. ”


Jupiter and Io


Correggio c.1530


born Correggio, Italy, c.1490 ; died Correggio, Italy, March 6, 1534

The northern italian artist Correggio ( Antonio Allegri district attorney ) is most admire for his spectacular illusionistic frescoes in the domes of S. Giovanni Evangelista and the cathedral in Parma, and for his paintings of fabulous subjects, whose gentle sensuality foreshadows Rococo art. correggio gained only a humble repute in his life, but he had enormous posthumous fame : in the 17th and 18th centuries, he was revered about american samoa much as Raphael.

Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna, Austria

This is the most celebrated of Correggio ’ south series of fabulous paintings depicting the loves of Jupiter, commissioned by Federico II Gonzaga. It shows the nymph Io being seduced by the Greek god Jupiter, who has transformed himself into a swarm in holy order to ravish her. Her head thrown bet on in erotic abandon, the nymph succumb to the caresses of the god, whose face and hands can precisely be discerned in the cloud. Correggio ’ second assimilation of Leonardo ’ s sfumato technique is discernible in the soft, sensuous give of Io ’ second flesh and facial features.

A celebrated series Correggio begins a series of the Loves of Jupiter in 1530 for Federico II Gonzaga, 5th Marchese of Mantua, as a endowment for Emperor Charles V.

The Sack of Rome The city is invaded by the imperial forces of the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V in 1527. Mass slaughter depopulates the city. Martin Luther ’ south name is carved on Raphael ’ s Disputa.



LIVES OF THE ARTISTS Vasari ’ s Lives of the Artists ( 1550 and 1568 ), the primary source of information on Renaissance artwork, influenced attitudes for centuries. It expresses the view that after the golden senesce of classical antiquity, art declined in the Middle Ages, was revived in the fourteenth century, and reached its top out in the writer ’ mho time, in the art of Michelangelo, whom Vasari idolized.


Michelangelo ’ south grave, designed by Vasari, S. Croce, Florence, Italy

1529 Michelangelo as engineer While Michelangelo is in Florence working on the Medici Chapel, Florence is besieged. Michelangelo is appointed military mastermind in 1529 and sets to work fortifying the city walls.

ART ’ S REBIRTH, AND THE STATE OF PERFECTION TO WHICH IT HAS AGAIN ASCENDED 1568 | Giorgio Vasari On High Renaissance artwork, writing in Lives of the Artists




MASTERWORK The School of Athens Raphael c.1510–12 Stanza della Segnatura, Vatican

not long after he arrived in Rome in 1508, Raphael was commissioned by Pope Julius II to decorate a suite of rooms ( stanze in italian ) in the Vatican palace. While Michelangelo labored nearby on his own masterpiece—the Sistine Chapel ceiling—Raphael began work on this fresco in the Stanza della Segnatura ( the board in which papal documents were signed ). The room is thought to have been used as the Pope ’ south private library : the overall theme of the cosmetic outline is the relationship between Christian thinking and classical eruditeness. Painted medallions on the ceiling depict the four branches of learning that formed an enlighten Renaissance education : philosophy, Theology, Poetry, and Jurisprudence. Under each decoration is a wall fresco illustrating that discipline. Beneath “ Theology, ” Raphael painted the Disputa, in which Christian theologians discuss the mystery of the Sacrament. On the diametric wall, below “ Philosophy, ” Raphael painted his most celebrated fresco—which late became known as The School of Athens—in which he brought together the great thinkers of the ancient world. Raphael creates a majestic writing of great clarity, harmony, and rhythmical ability. In a classical music architectural setting—possibly linked to Bramante ’ s design for the new St. Peter ’ s—Plato and Aristotle discuss their philosophic ideas, surrounded by other ancient philosophers and scientists who debate ideas and excrete on cognition. Gathered in dynamic groups, the gesticulate figures are arranged in harmonious rhythm throughout the writing. The brawny perspective of the architectural framework leads the eye deep into the paint, toward and beyond the central pair. Raphael includes portraits of his contemporaries. Plato is modeled on Leonardo, while Euclid, bending down to demonstrate a mathematical concept, has been identified as Bramante. In the foreground, the self-absorbed figure of Heraclitus may be a portrayal of Michelangelo. Raphael besides included a self-portrait on the far right.





The Doge Leonardo Loredan Giovanni Bellini c.1501 National Gallery, London, UK

Bellini ’ s dazzling portrait of Doge Loredan, elected leader and figurehead of the Venetian Republic, distills the character and context of venetian Renaissance painting. In a virtuoso display of oil painting, Bellini uses a sphere of plain blue to set off the pearly shininess of the Doge ’ s ceremonial silk robes and cap, which shimmer with threads of embroider gold.

Venetian Renaissance painting emerged chiefly through the art of Giovanni Bellini. In the class of his long career, Bellini was about single-handed responsible for transforming Venice from an artistically peasant city into a major art center that rivaled the enormousness of Florence and Rome. venetian Renaissance painting had a different character from that created by contemporaneous artists from central Italy. While the more intellectual art of Florence depended on note, Bellini and his followers developed a classifiable style of painting that was characterized by the sensuous beauty of color, and the evocation of light and standard atmosphere. Bellini ’ s painterly use of color and poetic access to landscape was developed far in the art of Giorgione and Titian. After Giorgione ’ s early death, the great headmaster Titian dominated venetian art. He achieved alone external status, and had an enduring influence on western artwork.



Flourishing of an island republic

City of water From the easterly Mediterranean, Venetian ships carried back exotic multicolored marbles, flecked with purples, reds, and greens. colorful buildings reflected in the canals created flowing, shifting colors that found echoes in venetian paint. Sea trade wind with the East besides brought luxury goods including alien spices, dyes, and pigments that were used in manuscripts, textiles, ceramics, and paint. The spell dyes that created the gorgeous, thick colors of fashionable velvets and silks were matched by the fat pinks, reds, and gold in paintings by Bellini, Palma Vecchio, Titian, and Veronese. Venice ’ mho climate besides had a significant impingement on the techniques of venetian paint. While a blistering, dry climate enabled the tradition of fresco paint to flourish in Tuscany, the damp of Venice was unsuitable for frescoes. however, there was a adept add of canvas, thanks to Venice ’ s sailcloth industry. Working in oils on canvas, venetian artists developed their own classifiable, painterly expressive style.

1494 Charles VIII of France invades Italy. The french envoy in Venice, Philippe de Commynes, “ marvels ” at the bang-up city “ all in the water. ” 1501 Lorenzo Loredan is elected as Doge of Venice. 1529 The sculptor and architect Jacopo Sansovino, who had fled Rome after the city was sacked in 1527, is made architect to the Republic of Venice.


The foremost trading city in Renaissance Europe, Venice was besides one of the most politically stable. The ancient city was built on a bang-up lagoon in an ideal position for trading links with the East. Throughout the Middle Ages, Venice grew affluent through nautical deal and established an oversea empire stretching down the easterly Adriatic seashore to Crete and Cyprus. The Most Serene Republic of Venice besides ruled territories in northern Italy. The stability of Venice was based on its singular kind of government. Its leaders came lone from members of Venice ’ s noble families, who ruled under an elect magistrate, the Doge. He represented the Republic, but had no political world power. Important aesthetic commissions came from the State and from the scuole—charitable organizations that besides functioned as social clubs for venetian citizens. Artists were paid in venetian ducats, one of the strongest currencies in Europe. Venice ’ second position as a city built on water had an impact on painting in numerous ways. The body of water itself brought coloring material and reflected lighter.

1479 A peace treaty is made between the Venetian Republic and the Ottoman Turks. Sultan Mehmed II asks the venetian Senate to send a cougar to Constantinople. Gentile Bellini is chosen.

1547 At the Battle of Mühlberg on the upper Elbe, Catholic forces of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V defeat the Protestant army of the Elector of Saxony. The follow year, titian visits the imperial court at Augsburg and paints a portrayal of Charles V on hogback, leading his troops. 1568 publication of the second gear, revised edition of Vasari ’ s Lives of the Artists. Vasari gives venetian art greater coverage than he did in the first edition.


Reflected beauty Venice ’ s reeking specify gives the city a unique air : its light, space, and colors create a poetic beauty reflected in much venetian Renaissance paint.




BEGINNINGS LUMINOUS VISIONS Painting in early 15th-century Venice lagged behind the innovative art of Renaissance Florence, and was hush basically cosmetic and Gothic in character. The distinctive venetian Renaissance dash developed chiefly through the art of one man, Giovanni Bellini. Giovanni ’ mho don, Jacopo Bellini, had been taught by the International Gothic overcome Gentile district attorney Fabriano. Giovanni ’ s early paintings of the Madonna and Child show him adapting his father ’ randomness stylus, softening its linear formality and increasing both magnificence and naturalism.

Under the influence of his brother-in-law Andrea Mantegna—who had trained in Padua rather than Venice, and was a maestro of perspective—Bellini developed a fresh sense of pictorial outer space. however, unlike Mantegna ’ s landscapes, Bellini ’ mho are suffused with an atmospheric lyricality. In 1475–76, Antonello da Messina visited Venice, bringing his expertness in oil paint. Bellini became a leading technical in vegetable oil paint, a medium that allowed him to achieve atmospheric and coloristic effects that were unachievable in tempera.

ARTISTIC INFLUENCES Venice ’ s Byzantine and Gothic inheritance, the taste for deep colored textiles and textures, and flush the local craft of glassblowing all influenced venetian Renaissance art. A sensuous, painterly dash evolved when venetian traditions interracial with outside innovations, such as the use of position and vegetable oil paint.

Venetian glaze, one of the area ’ s most observe crafts, had an affect on Bellini ’ sulfur employment. This painting ’ second molten aureate landscape has been compared to the flowing color of venetian glass of the period, while the angel in the sky has the appearance of boast glass.

Late 15th-century Venetian methamphetamine reliquary, sprayed with gold decoration, has echoes in the chalice held by the angel.

Jacopo Bellini ’ south drawings were used as sources for paintings. The sketch credibly used by Giovanni and Mantegna is besides faint to reproduce, but many besides feature broad rocky landscapes.

The Adoration of the Magi, c.1450, from Jacopo ’ s album of drawings, in pen and leadpoint on vellum. Louvre,

Exotic imports to Venice included minerals such as lapis lapis lazuli, which created ultramarine, realgar ( orange ), and orpiment ( yellow ). The minerals were ground into pigments, and shuffle with egg to create egg tempera, or with petroleum.

Pigments made from arsenic-based realgar and orpiment were popular with venetian painters. They created glowing fortunate colors.

Bellini ’ s brother-in-law Andrea Mantegna painted this version of the Agony in the Garden, possibly using the lapp Jacopo disembowel. It may have been painted a few years earlier than that by Bellini.

The Agony in the Garden, c.1458–60, by Mantegna has a precise, linear, hard-edged style unlike Bellini ’ south. National

Paris, France

Gallery, London, UK


TURNING POINT Giovanni Bellini

Giovanni Bellini c.1460–65 National Gallery, London, UK

hold Venice, Italy, c.1430–35 ; died Venice November 29, 1516 ?

This biblical setting shows Jesus after a long night of prayer before his crucifixion. His disciples sleep and his enemies arrive to arrest him. Bellini ’ s early masterpiece is painted in egg tempera, which does not allow the artist to achieve the luminosity that became possible with anoint paint. however, Bellini achieves a breathtakingly atmospheric evocation of temper. Unlike Mantegna ( below leave ), he sets the picture as sidereal day is breaking : the flip glows tap, and the aureate light of dawn envelops the landscape and figures. The first known click in italian paint, Bellini ’ sulfur creation of a unify light and atmosphere represents a rotatory change in venetian art.


The Agony in the Garden

Bellini belonged to a family of painters who ran the most influential workshop in Venice. Art historian Kenneth Clark wrote of his influence on venetian paint : “ No other school of paint is to the lapp extent the creation of one man. ” Although he earned great fame, his long animation and prolific career are ailing documented. Most of his work is religious, but he besides painted portraits, fabulous paintings, and allegories, and is renowned for his development of the atmospheric landscape. He trained and inspired the adjacent genesis of major venetian painters, including Giorgione and Titian.




TIMELINE Miracle of the Relic of the True Cross

A classifiable venetian Renaissance expressive style emerged around 1460. Giovanni Bellini absorbed the Gothic custom from his father, drawing on developments in Florence and Padua to create a Renaissance style that gave primacy to color and atmosphere. When Bellini died in 1516, titian became Venice ’ s leadership painter. An artist of international stature, he spread the repute of venetian art throughout Europe. His painterly expressive style influenced Veronese and Tintoretto, who dominated venetian paint at the end of the sixteenth century.

Vittore Carpaccio 1494 Accademia, Venice, Italy

Many large narrative scenes like this were commissioned by Venice ’ randomness scuole. Carpaccio depicts the caption of a 14th-century miracle when a keepsake of the True Cross ( Christ ’ s cross ) was rescued after falling into the Grand Canal at the Rialto Bridge. Bristling with incidental detail, the painting features portraits of the scuola members.

Family connections In 1453 Andrea Mantegna marries Giovanni Bellini ’ s sister, Nicolosia. This class joining influences the development of venetian painting.





Doge abdicates In October 1457, Doge Francesco Foscari is forced to abdicate by Venice ’ s Council of Ten, but dies the following week and is given a State funeral.

Antonello district attorney Messina bear Messina, Sicily, c.1430 ; died Messina, Sicily, February 14–25, 1479

Virgin of Humility Adored by a prince of the House of Este Jacopo Bellini c.1440 Louvre, Paris, France

With its refined details and gold highlights, this devotional paint reveals Jacopo ’ s train by the International Gothic master Gentile district attorney Fabriano.



The sicilian painter Antonello district attorney Messina was one of the pioneers of oil paint in Italy, and is traditionally credited with introducing the “ unavowed ” of petroleum paint to Venice when he visited in 1475–76. Paintings such as this Portrait of a Man c.1475 ( National Gallery, London, UK ) show him using crystalline glazes and exploiting the light-reflecting properties of oil paint to create spectacularly naturalistic effects. His paintings were popular in Venice, and inspired Giovanni Bellini and others to explore the possibilities of vegetable oil painting.

Seated Scribe Gentile Bellini 1480 Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum, Boston, MA

This exquisite watercolor was painted by Giovanni ’ s brother Gentile, who was sent by the venetian State to the woo of the Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II in Constantinople.


The Tempest Giorgione c.1505 Accademia, Venice, Italy

One of the most original and influential painters of the venetian Renaissance, Giorgione specialized in paintings for private collectors. The subject of this poetic masterpiece remains a mystery ; its importance lies in Giorgione ’ mho creation of an imaginative “ landscape of climate. ”

1520 Dürer visits Venice In 1505–07 Dürer visits Venice, meeting the aged Bellini, whom he judged the “ best painter ” there. other artists resent Dürer ’ s presence, but Bellini treats him politely.


The assumption of the Virgin Titian 1516–18 S. Maria Gloriosa dei Frari, Venice, Italy

In this august, gigantic altarpiece—almost 23ft ( 7m ) in height—Titian uses color to clarify the composing and intensify emotional affect. A triangle of crimson leads the eye up through the scarlet clothe of the apostles, who reach toward the virgo as she rises into eden after her death. Her twirl loss robes, uplift arms, and up gaze lead the eye heavenward to God, in a crimson cloak, who prepares to crown her.



Charles V on Horseback



titian 1548 Prado, Madrid, Spain

Palma Vecchio c.1525–28

This influential horseman portrait was painted when titian visited Charles V ’ south court at Augsburg, Germany. For the exuberant reds, titian ordered half a pound of “ burn … brilliant ” crimson lake pigment from Venice.

Uffizi, Florence, Italy

Giacomo Palma ( called “ Old Palma ” to distinguish him from his greatnephew ) specialized in portraits such as this, showing sumptuously dressed women, sometimes in fabulous or religious guise. Holofernes ’ south severed steer is overshadowed by Judith ’ s gloriously pink satin sleeve.



In 16th-century Italy, a quarrel arise about which of the two dominant traditions in italian paint was superior—Florentine or venetian. What the debate came down to was whose style was best—Michelangelo ‘s or Titian ‘s. Florentine and other central italian artists valued painting based on disegno, a term that referred to the intellectual capacity involved in inventing a design that could be worked out through preliminary drawings. In contrast, color ( colore ) was central to the venetian approach to painting, in which the process of applying and handling paint assumed greater significance.

Scuola series Tintoretto completes his beginning exploit for the Scuola di San Rocco in 1564. His brilliant series of paintings from 1564 to 1587 includes a huge, amazing Crucifixion.





Lotto at Loreto After years of an unsettled universe, working in Venice and many other places, in 1554 Lorenzo Lotto settles in the pilgrimage town of Loreto, where he becomes a lay brother. He dies there two years late.

The Annunciation Lorenzo Lotto c.1527 Pinacoteca Civica, Recanati, Italy

Born in Venice, Lotto worked throughout central and northerly Italy. His idiosyncratic, meticulously polished manner and unusual find for tinge are well illustrated by this bizarre but beautiful Annunciation, in which the angel Gabriel appears on bend knee, startling the Virgin and scaring a cat.

Parable of the Sower Jacopo Bassano c.1564 Museo Thyssen-Bornemisza, Madrid, Spain

Trained in Venice, but based around 40 miles ( 65km ) aside in the town of Bassano, Jacopo was renowned for paintings such as this. An everyday scene from rural life, it suggests preferably than illustrates a biblical parable.


Mars and Venus United By Love


Veronese c.1575

born Verona, Italy, 1528 ? ; died Venice, Italy, April 19, 1588

Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, NY


In this gorgeously sensuous fabulous paint, one winged putto binds the gods Mars and Venus together, while another restrains Mars ’ second sawhorse. The paint suggests respective themes, including the rear effects of love ( Venus ’ s breast milk ) and the unite of opposites. X-rays have revealed that Veronese made major alterations to the typography as he painted.

Paolo Caliari ’ second nickname Veronese derives from his birthplace, but he worked in Venice. Unlike his friend Tintoretto, whose paintings ( see below ) are characterized by religious saturation and dramatic light up and tad, Veronese was a supreme colorist, and his sunlit paintings are concerned with graphic beauty and cosmetic color. One of the greatest of all cosmetic artists, Veronese is renowned for his illusionistic works and his lively, large-scale paintings of biblical feasts, deoxyadenosine monophosphate well as for altarpieces, portraits, and fabulous paintings. His gloriously confident cosmetic works inspired later venetian artists, in particular Tiepolo ( 1696–1770 ).

THE DRAWING OF MICHELANGELO AND THE COLORING OF TITIAN Tintoretto Motto written on the artist ‘s studio apartment wall

1570 Veronese interrogated In 1573 Veronese is interrogated by the Inquisition for including figures such as a clown with a parrot in his study The last Supper. Veronese famously replies that artists have “ poetic license. ”

The last Supper Tintoretto 1594 S. Giorgio Maggiore, Venice, Italy

Tintoretto completed this incandescent masterpiece in the class of his death. typically, it features figures in complex poses, dramatic light, and an equally dramatic use of perspective created by angling the table so that it zooms into the dark depths of the word picture.






MASTERWORK Bacchus and Ariadne Titian 1520–23 National Gallery, London, UK

Titian ’ s colorful masterpiece is one of three fabulous works he painted for the study of Alfonso d ’ Este, Duke of Ferrara. Based on stories told by the Latin poets Ovid and Catullus, it depicts the first meet of the wine god Bacchus and Ariadne. Daughter of King Minos, Ariadne had been abandoned by her fan Theseus on the island of Naxos ( his transport sails away into the distance on the far left ), when Bacchus and his noisy, bibulous cortege burst upon her with a clash of cymbals. As the startled Ariadne turns to see the wine idol leaping from his chariot, it is love at first sight. Bacchus and Ariadne gaze at each early across an sweep of aristocratic, and Bacchus flings Ariadne ’ s crown into the heavens, where she is immortalized as a glittering configuration in the flip at the top leave of the writing.

The painting is packed full of energetic campaign and sensuous coloring material. Semi-naked figures turn, wind, and writhe, their poses originating from ancient sculpture—the foreground figure with the snakes distinctly based on the Laocoön ( see p.104 ). A solid aslant cuts across the paint, emphasizing Bacchus ’ s forward motion. Contrasting with the alcoholic golds and greens of the landscape set, a huge area of ultramarine blasphemous dominates the clear impart of the paint. Ultramarine, made by grinding the mineral lapis lapis lazuli, was then available only from Afghanistan. More dearly-won than amber, it is used here with conspicuous extravagance and dramatic effect. Exploiting boldface tinge contrasts, titian sets the loss of Ariadne ’ s sweeping girdle and the dazzle tap of Bacchus ’ s billowing dissemble against the blue.



born Pieve di Cadore, Italy, c.1480–85 ; died Venice, Italy, August 27, 1576

Charles V Holy Roman Emperor, supposed remark upon picking up a brush dropped by the artist



Tiziano Vecello, better known as titian, dominated venetian art for 60 years and enjoyed the patronize of Europe ’ s most mighty rulers, including Holy Roman Emperor Charles V and his son Philip II of Spain. He had his chief educate in the workshop of Giovanni Bellini, and came under the influence of another of Bellini ’ randomness pupils, Giorgione. titian revolutionized virtually every music genre of painting from altarpieces to portraits, the nude, and classical mythologies, which included the poesie—painted “ poems ” he created for Philip II of Spain. He besides explored and extended the possibilities of anoint painting to develop a spare and expressive expressive style of break brushwork that suggested quite than described form, which influenced artists from Rubens to Velázquez.




A Goldsmith in His Shop Petrus Christus 1449 Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City, NY

Painted for the Goldsmiths ’ Guild of Bruges, Christus ’ s object-filled trope reflects the material wealth of such mercantile cities, which underpinned aesthetic patronage. Its naturalistic rendering of textured and reflective surfaces—including a gleam convex mirror— could only be achieved by using translucent glazes of oil paint.

The term Northern Renaissance refers to art that was produced over a wide area of northerly Europe between about 1400 and 1580. It includes artists deoxyadenosine monophosphate diverse as Jan van Eyck, who worked chiefly in Bruges, Albrecht Dürer from Nuremberg, and Hans Holbein, who was born in Germany, established his reputation in Switzerland, and painted his most observe works in England. Northern Renaissance artists shared their italian contemporaries ’ drive toward an increasing naturalism. however, it was a naturalism characterized by hour attention to detail, based on fascination with the natural populace and the individual, rather than on the revival of ancient artwork. The sometimes breathtakingly realistic detail of Northern Renaissance art is inextricably linked with advances in the anoint painting proficiency in the fifteenth century : paintings such as Petrus Christus ’ s A Goldsmith in His Shop ( above ) display a degree of illusionism that entirely became technically possible with oil paint.



A shifting political canvas 1419 Philip III ( Philip the Good ) becomes Duke of Burgundy ( until 1467 ), and rule of Flanders, Brabant, Namur, and Limburg.

Revolution and reform print bid, led to one of the world ’ s great technological revolutions. Printed books with woodcut illustrations transformed the way images and ideas could be spread and shared. Being able to make and sell multiple copies of their work could besides transform artists ’ fortunes. In the sixteenth hundred, the religious rotation known as the Protestant Reformation had a fundamental impact on art in northerly Europe. Disillusioned with the worldliness of Catholic Church leaders, german priest and theologian Martin Luther developed a new doctrine based on the impression that redemption came from faith alone. His ideas spread throughout Germany and beyond, and western Christendom was split in two. many artists were affected by the convulsion. Grünewald had Lutheran sympathies—when he left his catholic patron, his career was basically finished. Holbein fared better—when Lutheran iconoclasts destroyed religious art in Basle, and backing declined, he settled in England and became court artist for Henry VIII. As the marketplace for altarpieces and paintings of saints dwindled in Protestant Europe, there was a emanation in profane painting : writing style scenes with moral quite than overtly religious subjects ; landscapes ; and portraits such as Holbein ’ randomness Ambassadors ( see pp.130–31 ), which refers discreetly to religion while ad Renaissance achievements in scientific discovery and exploration.

Printing revolution Printmaking transformed the way images were made and viewed. The german artist Albrecht Dürer earned international fame through consummate prints, such as this woodcut Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse. It was published in 1498 in a sic of 15 prints on the Apocalypse.

1453 The Hundred Years War between France and England ends. print of the Gutenberg Bible, the first full-length book ever produced with movable type, is in advancement ( it is completed by 1456 ). 1492 Christopher Columbus unwittingly discovers the Americas, having set out to find a route to the Far East. 1517 Martin Luther fixes his ninety-five Theses—a document in which he protests against the sale of Indulgences by the Catholic Church—to the door of a church in Wittenberg, Germany. This act marks the begin of the Reformation and the birth of the Protestant faith. 1522 First acts of iconoclasm—the destruction of religious images—by Reformers in Wittenberg.


Dramatic changes occurred at the time of the Northern Renaissance, as sovereign in northerly Europe battled for baron, and religious divisions tore through society. Europe consisted of a complex patchwork of competing territories, and trade wind routes facilitated commercial and cultural links between cities north and south of the Alps. far from being a one-way flow of Renaissance ideas from Italy into northern Europe, a active exchange took station between north and south. One of the most significant developments was the originate of printmaking and printed books, which originated in Germany in the mid-15th hundred. Johann Gutenberg ’ s invention of movable character, allied to the development of the

1534 Act of Supremacy establishes the church of England, with Henry VIII as its mind, marking the split from the Roman Catholic Church, and the originate of the English Reformation.




BEGINNINGS FLEMISH NATURALISM A fresh character of painting developed in 15thcentury Flanders, the region ( approximately equivalent to contemporary Belgium ) besides known as the Southern Netherlands. As flemish artists moved aside from the cosmetic extravagance of International Gothic, a natural-looking style evolved that blended realistic detail with spiritual symbolism. ( The terms “ flemish ” and “ Netherlandish ” tend to be used interchangably ). The founders of the Netherlandish School were the “ Master of Flémalle ” ( credibly Robert Campin ) and Jan van Eyck. The maestro of Flémalle ’ s paintings display a mighty sense of animalism, while Van Eyck ’ s command of the petroleum paint proficiency allowed him to achieve aglow, jewel-like colors and an extraordinary clearness akin to nowadays ’ s high-definition images. Van Eyck ’ mho successor in Bruges was Petrus Christus, but it was Rogier van five hundred Weyden ’ mho combination of minutely observed naturalism and emotional expression that had the biggest influence on the development of Netherlandish art.

Jan vanguard Eyck born c.1380/90 ; died Bruges, Flanders, June 1441



The most celebrated of all early Netherlandish artists, Jan vanguard Eyck is now known through about two twelve paintings— religious works and portraits. His sovereign skill in oil painting gained him fame north and confederacy of the Alps. Little is known of his early on life sentence, but by 1422 he was working for the Count of Holland. Three years by and by, he became woo painter to Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy, in Bruges, with an official, compensable role. He remained in the Duke ’ mho servicing for the perch of his life, going on several diplomatic missions on his behalf. One of his earliest date paintings, the Ghent Altarpiece of 1432, bears an dedication suggesting that this “ colossal painting ” ( as Dürer called it ) was painted by both Jan and his brother Hubert ( die 1426 ). however, Hubert is a dim figure, and his contribution to the paint is strange.

TURNING POINT The Arnolfini Portrait Jan avant-garde Eyck 1434 National Gallery, London, UK

This celebrated double portrayal shows a affluent couple in a domestic inside, and may commemorate the marriage of the italian merchant Giovanni di Nicolao Arnolfini and his wife. Scholars debate the paint ’ south subject, and question the extent to which the meticulously painted objects have symbolic significance. however, all agree that this ravishing masterpiece displays an unprecedented level of naturalism and detail made possible by van Eyck ’ s paragon of the vegetable oil paint technique.

ARTISTIC INFLUENCES Works by Flemish artists Sluter and Broederlam at a monastery in the Burgundian das kapital Dijon prefigured the full-bodied naturalism of the Master of Flémalle. His detail depiction of ( much symbolic ) objects and van Eyck ’ s technical advances in oil paint became hallmarks of a new flemish style. Sculptor Claus Sluter developed a naturalistic style that was modern to northern european sculpture : he seems to have influenced the paintings of the early Netherlandish painter the Master of Flémalle.

The Well of Moses, detail, 1395–1403, by Claus Sluter features highly individualized, naturalistic portraits of six prophets. Chartreuse

Naturalism is discernible in Melchior Broederlam ’ s Dijon Altarpiece. The paint includes naturalistic touches, notably a peasant Joseph, that look fore to the reality of the Netherlandish school.

St. Joseph, contingent, 1394–95, by Broederlam from the Dijon Altarpiece, created for the Chartreuse de Champmol. Musée des

Symbolic objects became a feature of 15th-century Netherlandish art. The three blossoms of this lily symbolize Mary ’ s virginity before the Annunciation, after conception, and constantly after Christ ’ s give birth.

Oil paint transformed art in the Netherlands. Van Eyck perfected the use of layers of crystalline glazes to create aglow, illusionistic effects, brilliant colors, and an enamel-like finish.

de Champmol, Dijon, France

Beaux-Arts, Dijon, France

Lily, detail, c.1425–30 from the Mérode Altarpiece, workshop of the Master of Flémalle. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City, NY

Thamar Painting, c.1403 from De Claris Mulieribus, shows an artist ’ mho assistant grinding pigment into oil with a muller. Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris, France



TIMELINE The Northern Renaissance emerged in the fifteenth century in the Netherlands, with the pioneering works of van Eyck, the Master of Flémalle, and van five hundred Weyden. In the sixteenth century this early on flemish style evolved into what could be termed the flowering of the Northern Renaissance. german artists—such as Dürer and Grünewald—and a newly genesis of Netherlandish artists—such as Bosch and Bruegel—developed fresh styles and subjects, including landscapes and scenes from everyday life.

dominate of Flémalle/Robert Campin ( workshop of ) c.1427–32 Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City, NY

In this celebrated triptych the Annunciation occurs in a flemish domestic department of the interior. The donors may have bought the cardinal Annunciation painting, then commissioned two side panels, in the left of which they appear. many objects have symbolic significance : the mousetrap in Joseph ’ south workshop symbolizes Christ ’ s incarnation as a trap for the monster.

Citizen of Tournai In 1410, the artist Robert Campin purchases citizenship in Tournai, suggesting he was born elsewhere. The Entombment attributed to him dates from around this time. It combines a medieval gold background with naturalistic, sculptural figures influenced by the sculptor Claus Sluter.




Van Eyck in The Hague The first criminal record of Jan van Eyck is in August 1422, when documents describe him as a maestro with an adjunct, working at the court of John of Bavaria, Count of Holland, in The Hague.

Rogier van five hundred Weyden bear Tournai, Flanders, 1399 ? ; died Brussels, Flanders, June 18, 1464



The Mérode Altarpiece

The greatest Netherlandish artist of the mid-15th century, Rogier van five hundred Weyden was born Rogier de la Pasture ( “ Roger of the Meadow ” ), but is known by the dutch translation of his name. The son of a cutler, he was apprenticed to Robert Campin in Tournai. By 1435, he had moved to Brussels, and in 1436 he was appointed official painter to the city. He painted portraits and religious subjects, and ran a thrive workshop. After avant-garde Eyck ’ s death in 1444, he became the run painter at the woo of Philip the Good. His fame spread through France, Germany, Italy, and Spain, and his naturalistic, emotionally sensitive vogue had a huge influence on european paint.





“ The master of Flémalle ” is an fabricate mention for an anonymous artist who created a group of paintings once mistakenly believed to have come from an “ abbey of Flémalle. ” These paintings stand alongside those of Jan van Eyck at the pass of the early on Netherlandish school. On stylistic grounds, they were once thought to be by the young Rogier van five hundred Weyden, but most scholars nowadays think that they were about surely painted by Rogier ’ s teacher, Robert Campin, a leading artist in Tournai ( in contemporary Belgium ).


Etienne Chevalier and St. Stephen ( Melun Diptych ) Jean Fouquet, c.1455–60 Gemäldegalerie, Berlin, Germany

This panel originally formed a diptych with the Virgin and Child ( right ). Fouquet, painter to King Charles VII of France, depicts the King ’ s treasurer and his list enshrine in a naturalistic, perspectival space.

Virgin and Child ( Melun Diptych ) Jean Fouquet c.1455–60 Koninklijk Museum, Antwerp, Belgium

While the donor and his ideal are in a precisely realized Italianate interior, the Virgin and Child are in an unrealistic, heavenly space, surrounded by blue and red cherub and seraph. The artificially fluent, white, bare-breasted Virgin, dressed as a fashionable queen, is modeled on the King ’ s mistress Agnès Sorel, who died in 1450.

Courtly commission Between 1450 and 1460 Jean Fouquet illuminates a Book of Hours for Etienne Chevalier, his most important patron at the woo of Charles VII.






FLEMISH PAINTING WILL, GENERALLY SPEAKING, PLEASE THE DEVOUT BETTER THAN ANY PAINTING IN ITALY 1548 | Michelangelo Quoted by Francesco district attorney Holanda, Portuguese painter

Descent From the Cross Rogier van five hundred Weyden c.1440 Prado, Madrid, Spain

Imitating the sculpt altarpieces popular in Netherlandish churches, Rogier crams his about life-size figures into a shoal, boxlike space, heightening the emotional volume created by the pain expressions and contorted poses. Made for the Crossbowmen ’ s Guild in Louvain, this meticulous masterpiece features bantam crossbows in the paint tracery, and evokes the crossbow ’ randomness shape in the poses of Christ and Mary.

The Entombment Dirk Bouts c.1450s National Gallery, London, UK

The elusive, muted colors of this affecting persona resultant role from the technique of applying pigments interracial with glue immediately on to linen. It may have been painted for export to Italy—the linen support could be rolled and easily transported.




Hieronymus Bosch wear ’ s-Hertogenbosch ?, Netherlands, c.1450 buried ’ s-Hertogenbosch, August 9, 1516



Born Jerome van Aken, Hieronymous ( Latin for Jerome ) Bosch ( after ’ s-Hertogenbosch ) created some of the most intriguing images in the history of art. He lived in a town that was far aside from mainstream Netherlandish paint, and developed a uniquely imaginative style, depicting the consequences of sin and stupidity with fantastic, often grotesque imagination. small is known about his life, except that he was affluent, an orthodox Catholic, and a head member of a religious constitution called the Brotherhood of Our Lady.

From Ghent to Bruges In 1468, a year after Hugo van five hundred Goes becomes a headmaster in the Ghent Painters ’ Guild, he assists with the wedding decorations of Charles the Bold in Bruges.





Diptych of Maarten van Nieuwenhove Hans Memling 1487 Sint-Janshospitaal, Memlingmuseum, Bruges, Belgium

The most democratic Netherlandish cougar of his day, Memling may have been taught by Rogier van five hundred Weyden. This quiet devotional diptych shows the Virgin and the praying donor in separate panels, but in the same room—both figures are reflected in the mirror behind her.

Pontinari Altarpiece ( central panel ) Hugo vanguard five hundred Goes c.1475 Uffizi, Florence, Italy

Commissioned by Tommaso Pontinari, example of the Medici bank in Bruges, this altarpiece was installed in a hospital church service in Florence. Its meticulous naturalism influenced Florentine artists. weather-beaten shepherds gaze in fear at the baby Christ, while vases of flowers symbolize Christ ’ south forfeit ( red carnations representing the bloody nails of the intersect, for exercise ).


The Garden of Earthly Delights Hieronymus Bosch c.1500 Prado, Madrid, Spain

Despite its triptych format, which was traditional for altarpieces, this large paint was intended not for a church service, but for an aristocrat ’ south palace. In the exit panel, God creates Adam and Eve in Eden ; the landscape continues into the central empanel ( possibly depicting a false paradise ), where naked men and women cavort amid bizarre plants, huge birds, and fantasy fruit ; in the right panel, sinners are punished with ghastly tortures in a grotesque vision of Hell.

The Madonna Standing With the Child and Angels Quentin Massys c.1500–10 Courtauld Gallery, London, UK

A contribute painter in Antwerp, Massys may have visited Italy. This exquisite Madonna is in the Netherlandish custom, but the classical architecture and putti with garlands indicate a cognition of italian art.


Dürer acclaimed abroad

1605 | José de Sigüenza

In 1520–21, Dürer journeys north to Aachen for the coronation of Charles V, the Holy Roman Emperor. Traveling through the Netherlands, he is feted as the bang-up german artist of his prison term.

Spanish monk, on Bosch ‘s paintings




Self-Portrait With Gloves Albrecht Dürer 1498

Crucifixion ( Isenheim Altarpiece, central panel )

Prado, Madrid, Spain

Mathis Grünewald c.1512–15

This is one of a number of self-portraits by Dürer. One of the giants of the Northern Renaissance, he was determined to elevate the condition of artists, and depicts himself as an elegant valet.

Musée five hundred ’ Unterlinden, Colmar, France

german painter Mathis Grünewald painted this harrowing altarpiece for a harass hospital. By showing the suffering Christ in awful detail, he hoped to inspire patients to view their own awful miserable as region of a divine design.



Death and the Maiden

Joachim Patinir

Hans Baldung Grien c.1520–25 Kunstmuseum,

hold Dinant or Bouvignes ?, Flanders, c.1480 ; died Antwerp, Flanders, 1524



Basle, Switzerland

Patinir was the first european artist to give landscape priority over figures in a painting. He is thought to have come from the Meuse valley, in an sphere with a rocky landscape strange in Flanders. It obviously inspired his works. A penis of the Painters ’ Guild in Antwerp, he was held in high think of by his contemporaries, including Dürer. He sometimes painted landscape backgrounds for his ally Quentin Massys ( who became defender of his children after his death ).

Baldung was probably a schoolchild of Dürer. His paintings and prints included a diverseness of subjects, but he is good known for ghastly, erotic allegories involving witches or young women being embraced by Death. The inevitability of death was a preoccupancy of many Northern Renaissance artists.

Charon Crossing the Styx Joachim Patinir c.1515–24 Prado, Madrid, Spain

In classical caption, Charon ferried souls of the dead to the hell. Placing Charon in a bird’s-eye landscape, midway between Paradise and Hell, Patinir transforms heathen myth into a christian fable about the choice between good and malefic. Bosch ’ s charm is apparent in the visions of Paradise and Hell.




The Card Players Lucas van Leyden c.1517 Wilton House, Wiltshire, UK

A celebrated printmaker, Lucas was besides a pioneer of writing style paintings, such as this. probably intended as a moralizing message about the ills of gambling, the scenery is presented as if the viewer is at the card mesa.

The Battle of Issus Albrecht Altdorfer 1529 Alte Pinakothek, Munich, Germany

This spectacular struggle view, depicting one of Alexander the Great ’ randomness victories, has a visionary ability. Altdorfer achieves an extraordinary sense of space as the landscape stretches into the gloomy outdistance, and teeming hordes crusade beneath a dazzle sunset.




Hunters in the Snow Pieter Bruegel 1565 Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna, Austria

One of a series of six paintings of The Months, this inordinately adept composing is a massive interpretation of the type of setting that appeared in chivalric Books of Hours. As hunters trudge through the snow, bluff diagonals lead across and into the painting toward icy ponds and distant Alpine mountains.






Lutheranism made legal

Pieter Bruegel ( the Elder )

In 1555, the Peace of Augsburg gives official realization of Lutheranism vitamin a well as Roman Catholicism in Germany.

born nr. Breda ?, Netherlands, c.1525 ; died Brussels, Flanders, 1569



The greatest northern european artist of his clock time, Pieter Bruegel the Elder was a painter, draftsman, and printmaker whose full of life, humane scenes of rural life ( frequently illustrating proverbs ) earned him the name “ Peasant Bruegel. ” Despite his nickname, Bruegel spent his career in cities rather than the countryside. He visited Italy early in his career, and the know of crossing the Alps stayed with him. His stylus changed significantly after moving from Antwerp to Brussels in 1563 : busily crowded scenes were replaced by bluff, massive figures and herculean landscape settings.

Bruegel dies Pieter Bruegel dies in 1569, leaving two young sons, Jan and Pieter the Younger, who go on to become successful painters.

Queen Mary I Anthonis Mor 1554 Prado, Madrid, Spain

Daughter of Henry VIII of England, Mary married Philip II of Spain the year this movie was painted. Mor combines imperial dignity with a sense of homo vulnerability : Mary sits rigidly as she turns toward the spectator, clutching a undimmed red tudor rose.




MASTERWORK The Ambassadors Hans Holbein the Younger 1533 National Gallery, London, UK

One of the earliest portraits depicting two life-size figures, this magnificent painting combines startling realism with an equally startle hidden message. The paint was commissioned by Jean de Dinteville, a french lord and ambassador in London. He is shown with his acquaintance, Georges de Selves, the Bishop of Lavour, a classical scholar and diplomat, who visited him in London in the spring of 1533. The two men stand either side of a tabletop display of immaculately painted objects signifying their memorize and culture. The cylindrical dial indicates the date : April 11, 1533. The sitters ’ ages are recorded : Jean de Dinteville ’ s autograph dagger indicates that he is in his 29th year ; Georges de Selve ’ s age—25—is written on the book on which he leans his elbow. It is a here and now frozen in clock, when the men are shown at the altitude of their powers. There are layers of think of in this complex portrait. The terrestrial earth on the bottom ledge represents science and exploration, but besides bears the appoint of Jean de Dinteville ’ south chateau in France, where the picture was to hang. The lute is a symbol of music, but its break string may signify death or the religious discordance of the Reformation. Although the paint may appear to be a glorification of valet ’ randomness achievements, it takes on another mean when the distorted supreme headquarters allied powers europe hover over the paving is recognized. It is a skull, painted in what is known as anamorphic position : only when viewed sidelong from the right does it assume its recognizable form. This reveals the painting as a memento mori—a reminder that whatever man ’ mho blase achievements, we all must die. But there is so far another layer of intend : about hide in the top left corner, a crucifix affirms that after death, salvation comes through Christ.


IF YOU ADDED THE VOICE, THIS WOULD BE HIS VERY SELF. YOU WOULD DOUBT WHETHER THE PAINTER OR HIS FATHER MADE HIM 1533 | Hans Holbein Inscription on his portrayal Derich Born, stressing how lifelike his portraiture appears

Hans Holbein ( the Younger )


born Augsburg, Germany, 1497 died London, England, October/November 1543

The son of a successful german artist, Holbein began his career in Basle, Switzerland, working chiefly as a portraitist and couturier of woodcuts and stained glass. In 1524, he visited France, where he would have seen works by Raphael. Two years subsequently, armed with a letter of introduction from the capital human-centered learner Erasmus—who noted that in Basle “ the arts are not appreciated ” —Holbein traveled to England, where he worked chiefly as a portraitist for the statesman Sir Thomas More and his circle. In 1528, Holbein returned to Basle ( where he had left his wife and family ), but in 1532 he went back to England for effective. Holbein was the supreme portrait cougar of his time, and soon gained royal backing, credibly with the help of Henry VIII ’ south chief curate Thomas Cromwell.




Lodovico Capponi Agnolo Bronzino c.1550–55 Frick Collection, New York City, NY

This stylish court portrait has the detached polish and polished preciseness that characterizes Bronzino ’ s Mannerism. In a typically cagey conceit, Capponi ’ s elegant right hand partially conceals a cameo with an dedication that may allude to his forbidden sleep together.

Mannerism is a term applied to the style that flourished in the sixteenth hundred between the High Renaissance and the Baroque. It has been seen as both a rejection and a refinement of the ideals of the High Renaissance. The label derives from the son maniera, meaning “ style ” or “ chic, ” which Giorgio Vasari used at the time to describe the twist decorate of contemporary art. But by the eighteenth century, the terminus Mannerism ( manierismo ) was being used in a dyslogistic feel, to describe art perceived as decadent and affected—an over-stylish decline from the balance and nobility of the High Renaissance. Inspired by the deep works of Michelangelo and Raphael, italian Mannerist artists played with the conventional terminology of the High Renaissance to create a measuredly artificial expressive style, featuring elegantly elongated figures, cosmetic, unnatural colors, and difficult, twisting poses. Bronzino ’ s Portrait of Lodovico Capponi ( above left ), with its elegant lines ; acidic color ; and faze, claustrophobic sense of space, is a contact model of the refined beauty of the best Mannerist artwork.



Shifting world views 1522 Following the death of the Medici Pope Leo X ( a lavish art patron ), adrian VI is elected Pope. A Dutch theologian and the only Renaissance pope to come from Northern Europe, he curbed papal expenditure—including that on art.

crisis or confidence ? Emperor Charles V slaughtered thousands in the city, was seen by many as cleric punishment. spanish exponent ( Charles V was besides king of Spain ) now extended over large areas of Italy. not entirely was the position of Italy in the earth change, but the impression that the Earth itself—and by elongation humankind— was the center of God ’ s universe was being challenged by astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus ’ s revolutionary theory that the planets circled the Sun. other theological changes were ushered in after 1545, when the Council of Trent met for the first meter to formulate the Catholic Church ’ s chemical reaction to the Protestant reformation : this answer, known as the Counter-Reformation, led to strict censoring of religious art. While some art historians have held the view that these religious and cultural crises are reflected in the faze stylistic characteristics of Mannerist art, others see the elegant exaggerations of Mannerism as an expression of self-conscious sophistication. contemporary literature indicates that elaborate displays of wag and artifice were highly valued in cultured society—as they were in Mannerist artwork. This was besides a time when patrons were appreciating works of artwork as first and foremost works of art—to be displayed and enjoyed in a gallery. This may be linked to the confident— indeed, frequently overconfident— virtuoso artfulness of Mannerist paintings.

Mannerist principle breaking Michelangelo ’ s revolutionist design for the vestibule of the Laurentian Library in Florence replaces High Renaissance harmony with an faze, fashionable asperity : architectural elements are modified, proportions are squeezed, and giant star brackets corroborate nothing, alternatively appearing to hang from a mold.

1523 After hadrian VI dies, Cardinal Giulio de ’ Medici is elected Pope. As Clement VII, he revives papal condescension. He commissions Michelangelo to design the Laurentian Library in Florence to house the books of his uncle Lorenzo the Magnificent. 1543 Nicolaus Copernicus ’ s On the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres is published. The mind that the Earth was not the kernel of God ’ s population had profound religious implications. 1545 Catholic authorities meet for the first time at the Council of Trent, marking the start of the Counter-Reformation. The Council sits intermittently until 1563.


The “ fashionable style ” that subsequently became known as Mannerism first appeared in the work of artists in Rome and Florence. Some historians have suggested that the move away from the harmonious equilibrium of High Renaissance art toward the agitated complexities seen in many Mannerist compositions reflects a kind of neurotic response to the uncertainties of the sixteenth century. however, an alternate vantage point is that Mannerism was an expression of confidence rather than crisis : authoritative confidence was undoubtedly a hallmark of Cosimo de ’ Medici ’ s authoritarian court in Florence, where Bronzino and Vasari were leading lights. In the early sixteenth century, Europe was split in two by the Reformation, which was triggered in 1517 by Martin Luther ’ s protest against the Pope ’ sulfur sale of Indulgences. The Sack of Rome in 1527, when the troops of Holy Roman

1550 The first version of Giorgio Vasari ’ s Lives of the Most eminent italian Architects, Painters, and Sculptors is published. 1563 Vasari, Bronzino, and others set up the first conventional art academy, the Accademia del Disegno in Florence.

THIS ‘ STYLISH STYLE ’ HAD ITS ROOTS DEEP IN THE HIGH RENAISSANCE 1967 | John Shearman British artwork historian



BEGINNINGS PAINTING AFTER PERFECTION Around 1520, the class in which Raphael died, there was a feeling that art in Italy had reached its flower, and that the artists of the High Renaissance had achieved all there was to achieve in terms of beauty, harmony, and technical accomplishment. This could present artists with a potential predicament : how do you progress from a sharpen of perfection ? however, art can not stand even, and the beginnings of Mannerism are discernible in the mature work of the High Renaissance masters Raphael and Michelangelo. The

Pontormo born Pontormo, nr. Empoli, Italy, May 26, 1494 ; died Florence, Italy, December 31, 1556



Jacopo Carucci, known as Pontormo after his birthplace in Tuscany, was a initiate of Mannerist painting. According to Vasari, he trained with a phone number of high Renaissance artists including Leonardo district attorney Vinci and Andrea del Sarto. He had a precocious endowment, and early in his career he broke away from the classicism of his teachers to create a new, distinctive style that seemed to reflect his neurotic nature. Vasari described him as “ lone beyond impression, ” and his diaries reveal him to have had an anxiously obsessional personality. Although his stylus was very personal and original, it was influenced by both Michelangelo and the prints of Albrecht Dürer. Pontormo spent about all his working life in Florence, painting chiefly religious works and some portraits. Although merely nine years older than his pupil Agnolo Bronzino, he became like a father to him.

artifice and staginess of Raphael ’ mho recently works, and the debate difficulty of the contorted poses in which Michelangelo painted his nudes, inspired the future generation of artists. They used the lapp classical-inspired forms that feature in Renaissance art, but pushed the boundaries of artful invention and broke the classical rules—replacing balance with asymmetry and complexity, and rejecting compositional coherence in favor of distortions in scale and perspective, frequently creating an faze sense of space.

ARTISTIC INFLUENCES Mannerism emerged from the High Renaissance artwork of Michelangelo and Raphael, and like these great masters, Mannerist painters drew their inspiration ultimately from authoritative art. however, the characteristics of Mannerist paintings—exaggerated poses, elongated limbs, affected colors, artificiality, strangeness, and illogicality—reflect a drive to refine and experiment with these artistic influences in pursuit of a raw smell of style. Michelangelo influenced Mannerism in terms of both form and color. His difficult-to-draw contrapposto ( twisting ) poses—particularly in his male nudes—and his cosmetic, iridescent colors were emulated by Mannerist artists.

Delphic Sibyl, 1509, shows Michelangelo ’ s command of complex poses, and his strike use of graphic colors. Sistine Chapel

In Raphael ’ randomness late works, his refined figures look fore to Mannerism in their increase common sense of stylish artificiality. This elegant effigy of St. Michael slaying the draco has a brittle poise and about metallic smoothness.

The Archangel Michael Vanquishing Satan, 1518, by Raphael, was painted as a present from Pope Leo X to Francis I.

Elegant hands, which are characteristic of high Renaissance art, were adopted and exaggerated by Mannerist painters. This survey is by Andrea del Sarto, who trained and influenced Mannerist artists Pontormo, Vasari, and probably Rosso Fiorentino.

Study of Hands, c.1510–30, by Andrea del Sarto, one of the finest draftsmen of the Renaissance. Uffizi,

Antique sculpture continued to be a source of inspiration to Mannerist artists, as it had been throughout the Renaissance. Pontormo ’ s painting refers to a classical relief sculpt of the dead Meleager, a bomber from greek mythology.

Ceiling, Vatican

Louvre, Paris, France

Florence, Italy

Death of Meleager, c.200 CE. The figure supporting Meleager ’ second leg is echoed in Pontormo ’ s crouching disciple. Doria-Pamphily Collection, Rome, Italy


TURNING POINT The Deposition of Christ Pontormo c.1525–28 Capponi Chapel of S. Felicità, Florence, Italy

This achingly beautiful image of the crucified body of Christ being behave away from his beget marks a group passing from the calm equilibrium of high Renaissance paint. Although the painting is often known as The Entombment, there is no grave visible : Pontormo paints a consequence never previously depicted, when Christ ’ sulfur soundbox is lifted away from his mother, who swoons with grief. Her empty lick is at the center of the fluid, intentionally mentally ill composing. Doing away with the legitimate, mathematical perspective and subtly shaded modeling of his high Renaissance masters, Pontormo presses his figures into a harshly light up, crumpled, immeasurable distance. elegantly awkward poses and distortions, lurid lighting, and spiritual colors heighten both the paint ’ s sense of artifice and its faze emotional effect.





The marriage of the Virgin


Rosso Fiorentino 1523 S. Lorenzo, Florence, Italy

Rosso created this sophisticated, elegant paint for the Medici parish church of San Lorenzo. He left Florence for Rome the year he painted it, belated moving to Fontainebleau, where he established the french Mannerist educate.

The characteristics of Mannerism emerged in the works of Raphael and Michelangelo, as the steady symmetry of the High Renaissance was replaced by staginess and exaggerated poses. From the 1520s, italian artists developed these aspects, and an artificial “ stylish style ” evolved. Refinements and hyperbole led to elegance, but besides to excess, when expansive poses were at times trivialized into empty posturing. Toward the end of the hundred a more emotionally direct and knock-down energy emerged in works by painters such as Barocci.



1525 End of an era

The Sack of Rome in 1527 has a crushing affect on artwork and artists, ending the optimistic confidence that underpinned High Renaissance art and temporarily bringing to a freeze Rome ’ s eminence as an art center.


The Transfiguration Raphael 1518–20 Pinacoteca, Vatican

Raphael was working on this bang-up altarpiece when he died. Its crusade staginess, particularly in the lower scene involving the mend of the possess son, differs from the repose and balance of his earlier work. The exaggerated gestures, disjoint poses, and inharmonious lighting prove Raphael moving away from the ideal art of the High Renaissance toward a Mannerist expressive style.


last Judgment Michelangelo 1536–41 Sistine Chapel, Vatican

Completed about three decades after the Sistine Chapel ceiling ( and, significantly, after the Sack of Rome ), Michelangelo ’ s brawny, pessimistic death judgment contrasts in both temper and style from the ceiling ’ mho calm, heroic verse nobility. Bands of massive figures in all manner of contorted poses writhe and tumble in non-naturalistic space. Considered obscene by the Council of Trent, the nudes ’ genitalia were painted over with folds of curtain.

Michelangelo returns to Rome In 1534, Michelangelo returns from Florence to settle in Rome for good. He is commissioned by Pope Paul III to paint the last judgment on the altar wall of the Sistine Chapel.








The Odyssey Pellegrino Tibaldi c.1555 Palazzo Poggi ( now the University ), Bologna, Italy

Sala dei Giganti ( Room of the Giants )

Tibaldi ’ s narrative fresco cycle illustrates the adventures of Ulysses. The figures adopt athletic contrapposto poses, but Tibaldi leavens the magnificence with a fashionable sense of wit.

Guilio Romano c.1530 Palazzo del Tè, Mantua, Italy

One of the most confidently clever manifestations of Mannerism is the “ Room of the Giants ” in Mantua. In an overpowering, illusionistic enlistment de force, Giulio Romano covered walls and ceiling with scenes depicting the Titans ’ bootless undertake to overthrow the gods of Olympus.

Madonna of the Long Neck Parmigianino 1534–40 Uffizi, Florence, Italy

The artificial beauty that characterizes Mannerism is well illustrated in this celebrate painting. The Madonna ’ sulfur elongated neck echoes the column behind her, while her body twists into a sinuate, serpentine wind.


Portrait of Don Gabriel de la Cueva y Giron

St. Luke Painting the Virgin

Giovanni Battista Moroni, 1560

Giorgio Vasari c.1570

Gemäldegalerie, Berlin, Germany

With its ascetic, enclosed classical place setting and aggressively drawn, flattened silhouette, this portrait by the northern italian artist Moroni creates a neat but faze effect typical of Mannerist portrayal. The fashionable spanish lord turns to the spectator with about sneering aristocratic arrogance.

SS. Annunziata, Florence, Italy

Vasari includes a self-portrait as St. Luke—the patron ideal of painters—in this traditional devotional subject. Despite being a leading figure in Mannerist art, Vasari is not immediately regarded as a great painter. Though indebted to his hero Michelangelo, this fresco is “ mannered ” in an grandiloquent, affect way.

Grand Duke Cosimo Cosimo de ’ Medici, Duke of Florence, is raised to the rank of Grand Duke of Tuscany in 1569 ; he is nowadays a autonomous, one rank below royalty—and Florence is a sovereign territory.





The inaugural academy

The Pearl Fishers Alessandro Allori 1570–72 Palazzo Vecchio, Florence, Italy

Allori—Bronzino ’ sulfur student and adopted son—painted this elegant fit as partially of a building complex cosmetic design for the studiolo of Grand Duke Francesco de ’ Medici. Influenced by Vasari and Bronzino, with poses taken from Michelangelo ’ s Battle of Cascina, it has come to epitomize late affectation in Florence.

1580 Giorgio Vasari

Determined to raise the condition of artists, Vasari instigates the esteemed Accademia del Disegno ( Academy of Design ) in florence in 1563. It served as a model for the artwork academies established in Europe in the trace centuries.

behave Arezzo, Italy, July 30, 1511 ; died Florence, Italy, June 27, 1574



Of incomparable art-historical importance as the writer of Lives of the Artists, Vasari was besides a prolific painter, a distinguished architect, and a outstanding figure in Florence and Rome. Born into a class of potters, he received a classical education, and was tutored with members of the Medici family in Florence, where he began his aesthetic coach. enormously ambitious, he achieved bang-up success. His paintings are now less well regarded than his computer architecture : he designed the build now home to Florence ’ s celebrated Uffizi Gallery, primitively as politics offices for his patron Cosimo de ’ Medici.


Barbarossa Pays Homage to Pope Alexander III Federico Zuccaro 1582 Doge ’ s Palace, Venice, Italy

The Mannerist artist and theorist Zuccaro worked throughout Europe, becoming one of the most celebrated painters of his generation. This large cultivate, painted for the Doge ’ s Palace, contains dramatic changes in scale evocative of the venetian master Tintoretto.

Adoration of the Shepherds Camillo Procaccini 1584 Pinacoteca Nazionale, Bologna, Italy

Procaccini came from a family of painters who worked in Bologna and Milan. This emotionally intense Adoration is luminary for its dramatic chiaroscuro ( solid contrasts of light and dark ) and rather ostentatious gestures, including that of the muscular shepherd in the foreground who shields his eyes from the divine light.




Italians at the Escorial From 1585 to 1588, Federico Zuccaro paints at the Escorial, Philip II ’ s monastery-palace near Madrid. He and Pellegrino Tibaldi, who arrives at the Escorial in 1587, introduce the italian Mannerist style to Spain.

The Baroque emerges As the smack for the artificiality of Mannerism declines, Annibale Carracci begins work in 1597 on his Baroque masterpiece, the decoration of the Farnese Gallery in Rome. Michelangelo ’ s Sistine Ceiling and Tibaldi ’ s frescoes of Ulysses were inspirations.

Federico Barocci


born Urbino, Italy, 1535 ? ; died Urbino, September 30, 1612

Although Barocci spent most of his life in Urbino—not a major artwork center—he was among the most successful artists of his time. He abandoned his early career in Rome when he believed he was being poisoned. Plagued by a enfeeble illness thereafter, he could only work in short-change bursts. Yet he was a generative painter—almost entirely of religious works— and an outstanding draftsman. His dash bridges the high Renaissance and the Baroque, and he influenced many artists, including Rubens.

Aeneas ’ s Flight from Troy Federico Barocci, 1598 Galleria Borghese, Rome, Italy

Apart from a few portraits, this is the entirely secular subject painted by the dear Barocci. In fact, he painted it twice—for Emperor Rudolph II in Prague, and then this interpretation for Monsignor Giuliano della Rovere of Urbino. Its emotional push, robust figures, and dramatic drift and lighting look forward to the Baroque.




MASTERWORK An Allegory With Venus and Cupid Agnolo Bronzino c.1545 National Gallery, London, UK

Commissioned by the Duke of Florence, Cosimo de ’ Medici, this coolly erotic emblem was sent as a endowment to the french King Francis I, whose court at Fontainebleau was a leave center of Mannerist art outside Italy. The epitome of stylish, sophisticate artifice, it is measuredly complex and erudite, a would have appealed to a cultivated, courtly audience. It is thought to symbolize the consequences of unchaste sleep together. Venus, goddess of love and beauty ( identified by her aureate apple ), disarms her son Cupid by removing an arrow from his pulsate as they kiss incestuously. early figures in the painting are personifications of concepts related to the root. Folly showers the couple with rose petals, not noticing the pain ( of love ) from the spine in his foot. joy offers a sweetness honeycomb, but has a prick in her tail. Time ( an old man with an hourglass ) draws back the curtain to reveal Fraud—

represented by a head that is a excavate mask. The screaming figure may represent Jealousy and/or syphilis, a disease that was rife at the time. If so, such a endow from the italian duke to the french king may have been a dark, sophisticate jest : syphilis was known as the “ French disease ” in Italy, and the “ italian disease ” in France. As his master Pontormo did in The Deposition of Christ ( see p.135 ), Bronzino creates an irrational number sense of distance, with entwined and distorted figures pressed up against the painting plane. But where Pontormo ’ s painting expressed an acute spiritualty, Bronzino ’ s finely adept Mannerist masterpiece is spiritually and emotionally adenine cold as alabaster. The painting ’ mho overt amorousness offended later generations, and in the victorian era Venus ’ s tongue was painted out, as was the nipple that protrudes between her son ’ s fingers. In 1958 it was restored to its present sexually explicit state.

Agnolo Bronzino


born Monticelli, nr. firenze, Italy, November 17, 1503 died Florence, November 23, 1572

1568 | Giorgio Vasari



Born Agnolo di Cosimo, Bronzino may have earned his dub because of his black complexion. He came from a humble background in a suburb of Florence, and as a son was apprenticed to the young Florentine master Pontormo. According to his friend Vasari, Bronzino became like a son to Portormo, who included a portrait of him as a boy in his paint Joseph in Egypt ( above ) in c.1518. By the 1530s, Bronzino was sought after as a portraitist, particularly by literary patrons—he was a give poet himself. In 1539, he began working for the new Duke of Florence, Cosimo de ’ Medici, and was court artist for about three decades, painting formal portraits, religious works, and mythologies, and creating tapestries for the Medici court. In 1563, along with Vasari, he was a founder member of Florence ’ s raw art academy, the Accademia del Disegno. Among his pupils was Alessandro Allori, who became his adopt son.




Allegory of Water or Allegory of Love Fontainebleau School c.1580 Louvre, Paris, France

Although there are numerous celebrated names associated with Mannerist artwork outside Italy, many of the paintings created at Fontainebleau are by unknown hands—including this sophisticate emblem on the composition of consecrated and desecrate beloved. It features symbolic flowers in a like way to Nicholas Hilliard ’ sulfur Young Man Among Roses ( see p.153 ).

Mannerism go around outside Italy during the sixteenth hundred among a diverse align of european artists. Some of the most refined examples of Mannerist artwork were created at royal courts, initially at Fontainebleau in France, where Allegory of Water or Allegory of Love ( see left ) was painted. Like many paintings of the time, this lusciously sensuous exercise refers bet on to ancientness, but its esoteric brightness and cosmetic, sophisticate beauty are typical of courtly Mannerist art in especial. Outside the courtly environment, another strand of Mannerism evolved in the Netherlands with the Romanist artists, who included Jan van Scorel, Maerten van Heemskerck, and Frans Floris. They all visited Rome, and blended the High Renaissance artwork they saw there with their own flemish custom to create a distinctly different Mannerist style. The german artist Lucas Cranach developed a coolly erotic, refined style that had parallels with italian Mannerism, while the most original manifestation of Mannerism evolved in Spain, with the potently expressive paintings of El Greco.



Courts and trade in 16th-century Europe

The courts of Europe of the arts that would serve to advertise and promote France ’ s cultural importance. Artists were employed not just to paint pictures but to design every ocular expression of court life—from tableware, such as Cellini ’ s celebrated salt basement ( see p.147 ), to tombs. As it was for Francis I, art was cardinal to the sight of Rudolf II. After he became Holy Roman Emperor in 1576, he moved the imperial court from Vienna to Prague, and set about attracting artists, architects, mathematicians, astronomers, and philosophers there. Through his enthusiastic patronage of artists including Giuseppe Arcimboldo, Bartholomeus Spranger, and Hans von Aachen, Rudolf made his court a observe cultural center. meanwhile, in Tudor England, the vogue for advanced love poetry, imperial masks, and pageants, which flourished in this earned run average, is echoed in the exquisite artificiality of works by artists such as Hans Eworth and the celebrated miniaturist Nicholas Hilliard.

1530 italian Mannerist Rosso Fiorentino, who had left Rome after the Sack of Rome in 1527, is invited to Fontainebleau by Francis I. 1532 Primaticcio joins Rosso at Fontainebleau ; together they establish the School of Fontainebleau. 1547 Henry II becomes King of France. Although he is married to Catherine de Médicis, his mistress Diane de Poitiers is a more influential figure. 1558 Elizabeth I becomes Queen of England, where she remains rule until her death in 1603. 1576 Maximilian II dies, and his son Rudolf II becomes Holy Roman Emperor.


Mannerism emerged in Italy in the early decades of the sixteenth hundred, but this “ fashionable style ” soon began to spread abroad after the Sack of Rome ( 1527 ), when Mannerist artists who had fled the city took up invitations to work for herculean patrons in Northern Europe. Although it was not entirely a courtly style, the virtuoso chic, elegant artificiality, and sophisticated novelty of Mannerism flourished particularly in royal and aristocratic environments. italian artists Rosso Fiorentino and Francesco Primaticcio were pivotal in creating the dazzle court of Francis I at Fontainebleau, which became the plaza for french Mannerism. Mannerist art besides had an significant character to play in the sophisticate courts of Rudolf II in Prague ( then in Bohemia, now the Czech Republic ) and Elizabeth I in England. The introduction of italian artists to the french court at Fontainebleau was an integral part of Francis I ’ randomness ambition to emulate the humanist rulers of Italy and bring about a national revival

1528 Baldassare Castiglione ’ s celebrated Book of the Courtier is published in Italy. It mentions Francis I of France, who is already celebrated outside of his own nation for his love of acculturation.

1583 Rudolf II moves the imperial woo from Vienna to Prague, where he establishes himself as a major patron, and creates the earth ’ sulfur greatest collection of Northern Mannerist art.

VARIETY AMONG THE ELEMENTS IS A SOURCE OF GREAT PLEASURE TO THE EYE AND SATISFACTION TO THE MIND Sebastiano Serlio Mannerist architect who worked at the palace of Fontainebleau

Gallery of Francis I italian artists Rosso and Primaticcio directed the decorations at the palace of Fontainebleau. together they created the Gallery of Francis I ( c.1533–39 ), which has been praised by artwork historian Anthony Blunt as “ one of the most refined and successful products of early Mannerism. ”



BEGINNINGS THE FRENCH CONNECTION The begin of the Mannerist dash outside Italy was partially triggered by the same event that brought an conclusion to the gold era of High Renaissance art in Italy. This was the Sack of Rome in 1527, which led Mannerist artist Rosso Fiorentino to abandon the city and search for work elsewhere. In 1530, after working in assorted places in cardinal Italy and in Venice, Rosso was invited by Francis I to help transform his mansion at Fontainebleau from a hunting lodge to a lavishly decorated palace. Rosso, together with fellow-Italian Primaticcio, established the First School of Fontainebleau. ( The Second School of Fontainebleau flourished toward the end of the hundred. ) The Mannerist style late spread throughout the rest of Europe, through artists who visited Italy or Fontainebleau or who saw Mannerist art in the form of engravings.

FRANCIS I—A ROYAL PATRON Francis I ( r.1515–47 ) was determined to transform the art and culture of France. Renowned for his cerebral attributes and physical art, he amassed a great collection of paintings, sculpture, books, and manuscripts. His taste for italian art was stimulated during France ’ s military campaigns in Italy, and at Fontainebleau he set out to create a court to rival any in Italy. The exploit he owned—including Leonardo ’ s Mona Lisa ( see p.104 ) — former formed the footing of the Louvre ’ s collection.



Portrait of Francis I, King of France, c.1535, Jean or François Clouet, Louvre, Paris, France

TURNING POINT Diana the Huntress School of Fontainebleau c.1550 Louvre, Paris, France

This hit painting may be an allegorical portrait of Diane de Poitiers, schoolmarm of the french King Henry II, who succeeded Francis I in 1547. Painted by an obscure artist, it reveals the profound impact of italian Mannerist painters on french court art. One of the most celebrated examples of the First School of Fontainebleau, it is distinctive of this early demonstration of european Mannerism in its word picture of an elegant, long-limbed figure, based on an old-timer sculpture, within a fabulous context. Looking over her shoulder in a contrapposto put that derives from Michelangelo, the about naked Diana—the Roman goddess of hunting—exhibits a sophisticated eroticism that frequently features in french Mannerist art.

ARTISTIC INFLUENCES Like Mannerist art in Italy, Mannerism outside Italy represents a refinement and exaggeration of italian Renaissance art, and its evolution can ultimately be traced back to old-timer sculpture. Artists throughout Europe were influenced by italian Mannerists, such as Rosso, Primaticcio, and Niccolò dell ’ Abate, whose solve had a huge impact at Fontainebleau and beyond. By visiting Italy, and through engravings, european artists became companion with the work of many italian artists, including Michelangelo, whose contrapposto ( twisting ) poses were eagerly adopted.

Antique sculpture, such as this life-size Roman statue of the goddess Diana, influenced Mannerist imagination. pope Paul IV presented it to Henry II, who installed it in the gardens of the palace at Fontainebleau.

Diana of Versailles, 1st or second hundred CE, was among the first Roman sculptures to be seen in France.

Michelangelo ’ s nude figures and their contrapposto ( twisting ) poses influenced Mannerist artists in and outside Italy. This red chalk draw of a figure from the Sistine Chapel ceiling is by Rosso.

Ignudo, c.1525, by Rosso Fiorentino after Michelangelo. The twisting perplex is echoed in Diana the Huntress. Chatsworth

italian Renaissance paintings of gods and goddesses have links with images by Mannerist artists working external Italy. This painting, by one of Leonardo ’ south followers, is closely related to an engraving after a reap by Rosso.

Louvre, Paris, France

House, Derbyshire, UK

Diana the Huntress, c.1530, by milanese artist Giampietrino, has similarities to the Fontainebleau Diana. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City, NY




Jan Gossaert ( Mabuse )

Soon after Mannerism emerged in Italy, this “ fashionable stylus ” began to spread throughout Europe, initially at the woo of Francis I in France, where the School of Fontainebleau was founded in the 1530s by the italian artists Rosso Fiorentino and Primaticcio. The vogue for courtly Mannerism flourished throughout the sixteenth hundred, and outside such environments, generations of northern artists were inspired by the Mannerist art they saw in Rome. By the conclusion of the century, El Greco ’ s personal stylus of Mannerism stood at the head of a newfangled spanish school of painting.



Cupid Complaining to Venus Lucas Cranach 1530 National Gallery, London, UK

As court painter to Frederick the Wise of Saxony ( Germany ), Cranach developed a refine stylus that echoed italian Mannerism. This coquettish Venus wears fashionable jewels and hat— giving a advanced shudder to her openness. She is both goddess and aristocrat—undressed.

born Maubeuge ?, Flanders, c.1478 ; died Veere ?, Flanders, October 1, 1532

Italians in France Following the Sack of Rome in 1527, italian artist Rosso Fiorentino accepts the invitation from Francis I to oversee the decorations of his palace at Fontainebleau. He arrives in 1530 and is joined by Primaticcio in 1532.

Danaë Jan Gossaert ( Mabuse ) 1527 Alte Pinakothek, Munich, Germany

In his finely erotic translation of the Greek myth, Gossaert depicts the scantily dress Danaë in an elegant Italianate authoritative interior ; the idol Zeus is seducing her disguised as a shower of gold, at which she gazes in wonder. Gossaert draws on a kind of influences, including his native Netherlandish custom, the german dominate Dürer, and the art of Michelangelo and Raphael to create his own classifiable, finely trace style.



Sometimes called “ Mabuse ” after his assume birthplace of Maubeuge ( now in France ), the Netherlandish painter Jan Gossaert was a lead advocate of what art historian Max J. Friedländer termed “ Antwerp Mannerism ” —a style that flourished in the first decades of the sixteenth hundred, characterized by technical virtuosity and a combination of Gothic and Renaissance elements. A trip to Italy in 1508–09, visiting Rome as part of the cortege of Philip of Burgundy, had a last impingement on Gossaert ’ mho function. Praised by Vasari for bringing “ the true method of representing nude figures and mythologies from Italy to the Netherlands, ” he had a potent influence on the “ Romanist ” artists of the following generation, such as his probable pupil Jan vanguard Scorel, and Scorel ’ s own pupil Maerten van Heemskerck.


Danaë Receiving the Shower of Gold

Allegorical Portrait of Sir John Luttrell

Primaticcio c.1533–39 Château de Fontainebleau, Seine-et-Marne, France

Primaticcio ’ second delineation of the Danaë myth makes an matter to comparison with Gossaert ’ s innocent-looking Danaë ( opposite ). Framed by the stucco decorations of the Gallery of Francis I at Fontainebleau, Primaticcio ’ s paint shows an aristocratic Danaë receiving Zeus ’ s shower of gold with a bored sensuality.



FOR YEARS I HAVE KNOWN YOU TO BE THE GREATEST GOLDSMITH EVER HEARD OF … c.1554 | Michelangelo In a letter to Benvenuto Cellini

Hans Eworth 1550 Courtauld Gallery, London, UK

Netherlandish artist Hans Eworth settled in England, where he painted this allegorical portrait celebrating a peace treaty between England and France. Sir John proclaims his idolatry to Peace ( with her olive branch ) by wearing her colors on his arm.


Suicide at Fontainebleau ? In 1540, Rosso dies, according to Vasari, by suicide after realizing he had wrongly accused a ally of stealing from him. Following Rosso ’ s death, Primaticcio takes control of decorations at Fontainebleau.


SALT CELLAR WITH NEPTUNE AND CERES Made for Francis I by Benvenuto Cellini—Florentine goldsmith, sculptor, and writer of one of the blue and most entertain of all artists ’ autobiographies—this exquisite gold-and-enamel salt root cellar is a celebrated Mannerist masterpiece. An allegorical work of artwork rather than just a condiment holder, the salt cellar depicts Neptune, idol of the ocean, and Ceres, goddess of Earth ‘s abundance.

The Sermon, Arrest, and Martyrdom of St. James ( from the polyptych of St. James the Great and St. Stephen ) Jan van Scorel c.1541 Musée de la Chartreuse, Douai, France

Salt root cellar of Francis I, 1540–43, Benvenuto Cellini

Scorel ’ s ripe Mannerist vogue disembowel on the late works of Raphael, which he would have seen in Rome. The brawny figure on the right is about to behead the enshrine, but his about balletic put and the cosmetic colors serve to minimize any real sense of ferocity.




Fall of the Rebel Angels Frans Floris 1554 Koninklijk Museum voor Schone Kunsten, Antwerp, Belgium

Witnessing the unveil of Michelangelo ’ s last Judgment in Rome in 1541 made a durable mental picture on Antwerp artist Frans Floris. Tumbling, writhing Michelangelesque bodies pack this central panel of a triptych ( side panels lost ), commissioned by the Antwerp fencers ’ club.

Labors of Hercules Among the many secret commissions carried out in Antwerp by Frans Floris for affluent local collectors is a series of ten paintings on the Labors of Hercules, painted in 1554–55.



1560 The Death of Eurydice Niccolò dell’Abate c.1557 National Gallery, London, UK

This expansive landscape peopled with elegant fabulous figures was probably painted while Niccolò was in France, and looks forward to the classical landscapes painted by Claude and Poussin in the seventeenth century. respective points of the narrative are depicted, and Eurydice is shown twice—trying to escape from her attacker, and dying from a serpent sting.

Child king After the deaths of his don Henry II in 1559, and his buddy Francis II the following year, the 10-year-old Charles IX becomes King of France in 1560. His mother Catherine de Médicis is regent.

Niccolò dell ’ Abate born Modena, Italy, c.1510 ; died Fontainebleau ?, France, 1571



Master of the Mannerist landscape, Niccolò dell ’ Abate was born in Modena, northern Italy, where he trained with his father, a stuccoist. He spent much of his early career decorating layman buildings in and around his hometown before moving to Bologna in 1547. His work during this early time period was peculiarly influenced by Parmigianino. He moved to France in 1552, and spent the pillow of his life there—for much of this meter working under the supervision of fellow-Italian Primaticcio at Fontainebleau, where he painted fresco decorations and independent landscapes.


Maerten van Heemskerck born Heemskerck, Netherlands, 1498 ; died Haarlem, Netherlands, October 1, 1574


Born in a dutch village from which he took his name, Heemskerck became the leading artist of his day in nearby Haarlem. After training with his near-contemporary Jan vanguard Scorel in Utrecht ( c.1528–29 ), he traveled to Rome in 1532. He spent respective years there studying its ancient architectural remains—such as the Colosseum, which he former included in his self-portrait ( left ) —and its masterpieces of classical sculpt. adenine well as painting, Heemskerck designed hundreds of prints that were implemental in spreading affectation throughout northern Europe.

Lamentation Maerten van Heemskerck 1566


Prinsenhof Museum, Delft, Netherlands

The restrain pathos of this elegantly melancholy image is deeply moving. Crowded close to the picture plane, leaving a glimpse of the web site of the Crucifixion beyond, the well-groomed mourners gather in a rhythmical musical arrangement around Christ ’ s pale body, which sweeps across the paint. The influence of Michelangelo— and in the figure of Christ, the determine of classical sculpture—is intelligibly apparent.


1972 | Alastair Smart British art historian


1575 Wedding and funeral

François Clouet is given province for the decorations of the marry of Margaret Valois to Henry of Navarre ( late Henry IV of France ) in 1572. Clouet dies late that class.

A Lady in her Bath François Clouet c.1571 National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC

François Clouet succeeded his church father Jean as artist to the french motor hotel. The family was of Netherlandish origin, and the distinctive character of this enigmatic picture derives partially from the combination of flemish elements, such as the detail, naturalistic paint of the still life, with the more Italianate treatment of the idealize nude —traditionally said to be Henry II ’ s mistress, Diane de Poitiers.

Spring Giuseppe Arcimboldo 1573 Louvre, Paris, France

The italian artist Arcimboldo was employed at the Habsburg court from 1562 to 1587, working for consecutive emperors— Ferdinand I, Maximilian II, and Rudolf II. This personification of Spring ( painted for Maximilian ) is typical of his many fantastic allegorical portraits created from fruit, vegetables, and other objects.



Massacre of the Innocents


Cornelis van Haarlem c.1590–91 Frans Halsmuseum, Haarlem, Netherlands



One of the leading Mannerists in Haarlem at the end of the sixteenth hundred, Cornelis is best known for diachronic and biblical paintings such as this, featuring life-size nudes in a variety of dramatic, mannered, twisting poses.

The portrait miniature gained popularity in the time of Hans Holbein and flourished in Elizabethan England. While Holbein ’ second miniatures were basically scaled down Renaissance portraits, Hilliard ’ s watercolor technique evolved from manuscript miniature. Miniatures were worn as pieces of jewelry, and much served as love tokens or signs of political loyalty. The Gresley Jewel, with miniatures by Hilliard

El Greco in Toledo In 1577 El Greco completes his first large commission in Toledo, Spain. In the like year, for Toledo Cathedral, he begins his undress of Christ, which hard establishes his reputation.


Spranger ’ south court appointment After spending five years in Vienna, Bartholomeus Spranger settles in Prague, where he is appointed court cougar by the emperor Rudolf II in 1581.





Venus and Adonis Bartholomeus Spranger c.1585–90 Rijksmuseum,

Madonna and Child with a Distaff Luis de Morales c.1575 Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg, Russia

The spanish artist Luis de Morales was called elevation Divino, because of the religious volume of his paintings : this prototype is distinctive of his style. He probably knew the work of Michelangelo and Rosso through engravings, and was besides influenced by flemish Mannerism and Leonardo ’ s sfumato proficiency.

Amsterdam, Netherlands

Spranger was influential in the dispersed of Mannerism through Europe. Trained in Antwerp, he traveled to France and Italy, worked in Vienna for Emperor Maximilian II, and was one of the ahead artists at the court of Rudolf II in Prague. This depiction of Venus entwined with the hunter Adonis is one of a series of paintings of fabulous lovers.


Christ Driving the Traders from the Temple El Greco c.1600 National Gallery, London, UK

This is one of several versions El Greco painted of this dramatic biblical subject. In a rare display of anger, Jesus drives out the traders who are desecrating the Temple in Jerusalem, turning what should be a “ firm of prayer ” into a “ hideout of thieves. ” A broad, curving highlight following the line of Christ ‘s gown accentuates his twisting gesticulate as he sweeps forward, raising his sleeve to unleash his whisk. Traders recoil in a tumble of torment gestures on the leave, while the righteous on the right remain calm.

The Arte of Limning In approximately 1600 Nicholas Hilliard writes a treatise entitled The Arte of Limning, giving detail descriptions of the technical aspects and stylistic considerations of miniature paint. He notes that “ lyne without shadows showeth all good judgment, but shadowe without lyne showeth nothing. ”


El Greco


bear Candia ( now Iraklion ), Crete, c.1541 ; died Toledo, Spain, April 7, 1614

Domenikos Theotokopoulos—known as El Greco ( “ The Greek ” ) —was born in Crete, where he trained in the Byzantine tradition of picture paint. By 1568, he had left his native island and was in Venice, where he may have studied with the aged titian, but was influenced more by the dramatic, emotional works of Tintoretto. After a period in Rome, he settled in the spanish city of Toledo in 1577, and is recognized as the first capital painter of the spanish school. His extraordinary works—featuring distorted, elongate figures, flamelike, flowing forms, and intense colors—represent the most intensely personal and original saying of Mannerism.

THE CITIZENS OF TOLEDO NEVER TIRE OF SEEING HIS painting 1588 | Alonso de Villegas Spanish theologian and writer, on El Greco

Bacchus, Ceres, and Cupid Hans von Aachen c.1600 Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna, Austria

One of the lead artists at Rudolf II ’ s court in Prague, where he was appointed as court cougar in 1592, Hans von Aachen developed a sophisticate style combining meticulous detail with elegant nude figures in allegorical scenes. It was a style absolutely suited to the refined courtly taste of 16th-century Europe.



MASTERWORK Young Man Among Roses Nicholas Hilliard c.1587 Victoria and Albert Museum, London, UK

Probably the best know of all English miniatures, this delicate masterpiece epitomizes the fashionable sense of elegant artifice that characterized painting, poetry, and courtly relationships in the Elizabethan earned run average. At 53⁄8in ( 136mm ) grandiloquent, it is larger than most of Hilliard ’ second miniatures, but he created it with his usual technique : using bantam squirrel hair brushes, with watercolour paints interracial in mussel shells, he painted on vellum ( calf ) stuck on cardboard. The influence of the Mannerist style of the School of Fontainebleau is apparent : Hilliard had been familiar with french court portraiture before he visited France in 1576–78, but the know of seeing Fontainebleau art at firsthand had a profound impact on his exercise. The pose of the slender young homo has its origins in the stucco decorations at Fontainebleau, while his situation amid flowers has been linked to works by an anonymous Fontainebleau artist, the Maître de Flore.

The identity of the babysitter and the think of of the image are obscure, possibly intentionally so. The miniature is an impresa, in which words and prototype work together to create an allegorical message intended for certain eyes only—in this case possibly Queen Elizabeth I. Dressed in black and white, the colors worn by Elizabeth ’ second champions in joust and in court masks, the lovesick young person stands with hand on affection, entrapped by roses, whose smasher and thorns express the bittersweet nature of love. The rose is an sweetbrier, emblem of the Virgin Queen. While the man ’ south costume proclaims loyalty to the tabby, the Latin motto above his forefront confirms his constancy. Art historian Sir Roy Strong argues that the young person is Elizabeth ’ s darling, Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex. If sol, the man ’ sulfur announced constancy proved questionable : after an abortive attempt to overthrow the government in 1601, Essex was executed for treachery.

Nicholas Hilliard


bear Exeter, England, c.1547 ; buried London, England, January 7, 1619

| Lucan

Roman poet, whose Latin motto is written on Young Man Among Roses



Nicholas Hilliard was a adolescent apprentice to London goldsmith Robert Brandon, jeweler to Elizabeth I, before going on to establish an international repute as the leading painter of miniatures. By 1572, he was working for Elizabeth I, but although he earned great fame, he had no fixed income, and was much in desperate financial straits—losing money in a black goldmining venture in Scotland, hiding from creditors, and being imprisoned for debt. In 1576–78 he was in France, and it can be assumed that he visited Fontainebleau. surely he was inspired by the Mannerist art of François Clouet and other Fontainebleau painters. In about 1600, he wrote Treatise Concerning The Arte of Limning ( “ limning ” means painting in miniature ). The treatise ( not published until 1912 ) gives a intrigue insight into his meticulous proficiency. On Elizabeth I ’ randomness death in 1603, Hilliard became “ King ’ s Limner ” to her successor James I.


Actual size




Three styles successively dominated european artwork in the 17th and 18th centuries : Baroque, Rococo, and Neoclassicism. These styles frequently merged or overlapped, and the design of growth varied from area to country, but—in very broad terms—Baroque flourished throughout the seventeenth hundred, Rococo in the first half of the eighteenth hundred, and Neoclassicism in the second half. Baroque was born in Rome and blossomed chiefly in Catholic lands, its aroused qualities being well suited to expressing religious ardor. The Rococo expressive style, which originated in France, is lighter and normally more secular in heart. Neoclassicism marked a reaction against Rococo ’ s frivolity and a revival of the forms and values of ancient art. Around 1800, Neoclassicism still thrived throughout Europe, but by this fourth dimension its dominance was being challenged by the very unlike ideals of Romanticism.


Adoration of the identify of Jesus Giovanni Battista Gaulli 1674–79 Chiesa del Gesù, Rome, Italy

This ceiling fresco adorns the Gesù church in Rome, the mother church of the Jesuit religious ordering. The rhetorical magnificence and emotional ardor of Gaulli ’ second painting are typical of Baroque art at its most acute, conjuring up an ecstatic, celestial vision.

By the end of the sixteenth hundred, italian art had by and large declined since the great days of the Renaissance. There were many highly achieve painters at work, but frequently their pictures are more concern with dash than substance and are lacking in very heat. In the seventeenth hundred, however, there was a revival of energy and creative fire as a new style emerged. This style, which historians belated called Baroque, took some elements from high Renaissance art—particularly its magnificence and dignity—and some from Mannerism—particularly its emotionality and sense of movement—and blended them into a dynamic deduction. Baroque was born in Rome, where Caravaggio and Annibale Carracci created its first big landmarks in painting, and soon scatter to other italian cities and other countries. Domenichino, Guido Reni, and Pietro da Cortona were among its most celebrated representatives.



Changing papal fortunes 1605 Camillo Borghese becomes pope as Paul V and reigns until 1623. He comes from a luminary syndicate of art patrons, the most illustrious penis of which is his nephew, Cardinal Scipione Borghese.

Piety and passion been battered by the go around of Protestantism. As separate of this fight, the Catholic clergy saw artwork as an crucial phase of propaganda—a directly appeal to the hearts and minds of ordinary men and women whose faith could be fortified by suitable images of the sufferings and prevail of Christ and the saints. consequently, Baroque religious art is frequently highly emotional in timbre, seeking to overwhelm the spectator pump with a sense of spiritual love. many italian artists of the time were fierily devout and entirely in sympathy with this expectation. Among them was Gianlorenzo Bernini, who attended Mass each good morning and enjoyed theological discussions with priests. One of his most celebrated works is the great arcade ( 1656–67 ) that encloses the plaza in front of St. Peter ’ s in Rome. In words that get to the heart of Baroque art, he compared the sweep architectural forms to the motherly arms of the Church reaching out to “ espouse Catholics and reinforce their impression. ”

1623 Maffeo Barberini becomes pope as Urban VIII and reigns until 1644. He is one of the greatest artwork patrons of the age, employing Gianlorenzo Bernini above all, but besides Pietro district attorney Cortona, Guido Reni, and many other artists. 1626 consecration of St. Peter ’ sulfur, Rome, which had been begun in 1506. The lavish decoration of the building—the largest, most crucial church in Christendom— goes on long after this, keeping a small army of artists and craftsmen busy throughout the seventeenth century.


For most of the seventeenth century, Italy was the leader in art and computer architecture, merely as it had been during the Renaissance. Rome in particular was the most authoritative center of advanced ideas, attracting artists from all over Europe. They went there both to study the big treasures of the past and to find work in the many new churches and palaces that were being erected. such buildings were often elaborately decorated, providing employment for painters, sculptors, and many types of craftsmen. No other city had such a stimulate artistic air : it was comparable Paris in the nineteenth century or New York in the 1950s. Although other subjects were becoming more crucial than they had been in earlier centuries, religion remained the dominant allele root in italian artwork and was frequently influenced by the ideas of the Counter-Reformation. This is the name given to the Catholic Church ’ sulfur campaign—from about the center of the 16th century—to confirm its assurance, which had

1665 Bernini visits Paris. The “ invitation ” there is in fact a summons, one of respective humiliations Louis XIV inflicted on Pope Alexander VII—a sign of increasing french power and declining papal authority. 1693 The most powerful earthquake in italian history devastates sicily, killing an estimated 60,000 people and destroying much of the artwork and architecture.


Embracing arms Bernini ’ s majestic colonnades enclose the plaza in front man of St. Peter ’ mho Basilica, Rome, in this 1702 engraving.



BEGINNINGS A NEW VISION Two dominate, contrasting figures stand at the capitulum of italian Baroque painting— Annibale Carracci and Caravaggio. Both came from northerly Italy and both did their most crucial work in Rome, where they were contemporaries. They are often characterized as polar opposites in style : Caravaggio the inventor of a modern type of shadowy, earthy naturalism, Annibale the godhead of heroic, idealize figures, harmonious and clearly unhorse. however, they respected one another, and although their means were identical different, their essential aesthetic aims were exchangeable : both of them broke away decisively from the graceful but preferably artificial—sometimes insipid— Mannerism that prevailed when they were growing up, replacing it with energy and resounding physical presence.

Caravaggio baptized Milan, Italy, September 30, 1571 ; died Porto Ercole, Italy, July 18, 1610



After training as a painter in Milan, Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio settled in Rome in the early 1590s. His early work was by and large secular, including familiar fabulous and allegorical scenes with a strong erotic flavor. however, his career changed course in 1599 with his first church committee for a large and serious religious painting—the type of cultivate in which he henceforth specialized. Over the next seven years Caravaggio painted a series of major altarpieces that established him as the most influential cougar in Rome. Several caused heated controversy, for some people considered his down-toearth treatment of holy subjects blasphemous. He besides caused scandal because of his violent temperament, and in 1606 he fled Rome after killing a man in a fight. He moved to southerly Italy and, after continuing his career with outstanding works in Naples, Malta, and Sicily, died—probably of fever—en route to Rome, where he hoped for a pardon. He was alone 38. His knead had enormous affect : although his style went out of fashion in Rome in the 1620s, in parts of Europe it survived into the 1650s.

TURNING POINT The Martyrdom of St. Peter Caravaggio 1601 S. Maria del Popolo, Rome, Italy

This is one of a pair of pictures—the early is The conversion of St. Paul—that Caravaggio painted for the Cerasi Chapel of the church of Santa Maria del Popolo in Rome. St. Peter and St. Paul are frequently found closely linked in art like this, since they were regarded as joint founders of the Christian Church. This was one of the first public commissions in which Caravaggio showed his revolutionary style, based not on well-worn conventions, but on notice of the ordinary people he saw in the global around him. such naturalism was one hallmark of his make, and another was the habit of strong contrasts of unaccented and tad to produce intensely dramatic effects. many painters imitated these innovations, but few of them approached Caravaggio ’ s deep sedateness or his magnificent boldness and assurance of design. The figures hera are so knock-down and concentrated that they seem about to burst out of the frame of reference.

ARTISTIC INFLUENCES Although Caravaggio was a highly original and person painter, he was influenced by others who were active agent in the part of northern Italy where he grew up, and besides by contemporary ideas. He lived at a time when the Catholic Church encouraged artists to produce paintings that conveyed religious ideas clearly and vigorously. The Catholic Church met in league at Trent, and its concerns included the role of art in worship. Artists were told to adopt a realistic style to help Catholics “ love God and cultivate piety. ”

The Council of Trent met in 1545–47, 1551–52, and 1562–63 ( pictured ) to find ways to counter the Protestant Reformation.

Giovanni Girolamo Savoldo worked in Venice and other parts of northerly Italy. Little is known of his career, but Caravaggio may have been influenced by his poetic night scenes.

Mary Magdalene Approaching the Sepulchre, detail, c.1540, is one of respective like works by Savoldo.

Leonardo was the outstanding pioneer of the use of expressive inner light and shade in paint. He spent much of his career in Milan, where Caravaggio saw paintings by him or his followers.

National Gallery, London, UK

The Virgin of the Rocks, detail, c.1508, exhibits Leonardo ’ s strong smell of threedimensionality. National Gallery, London, UK



Judith Beheading Holofernes


Artemesia Gentileschi c.1620 Museo di Capodimonte, Naples, Italy

Much of the best 17th-century italian painting was done in Rome, but there were several other important centers. Bologna produced many outstanding painters, including Annibale Carracci at the begin of the hundred, followed by Guido Reni. Caravaggio ’ mho style took root in Naples, where Artemisia Gentileschi settled about 1630. Pietro district attorney Cortona and Salvator Rosa both worked in Florence in the 1640s. In the late part of the seventeenth century, Luca Giordano had an itinerant career in Italy and Spain. Papal chapel service

Family split Agostino Carracci leaves Rome for Parma in 1599 after quarreling with his buddy Annibale. previously he had been Annibale ’ s chief assistant in his work at the Farnese Palace.


Judith is a biblical jewish heroine who infiltrates an enemy camp and kills the commander, Holofernes. The strong contrasts of alight and shade and the cutthroat intensity with which this hideous scene is depicted show the determine of Caravaggio.

Artemisia Gentileschi

Newly elected Pope Paul V begins a lavish chapel in S. Maria Maggiore, Rome in 1605. many leading painters and sculptors are commissioned to work on it.

born Rome, Italy July 8, 1593 ; died Naples, Italy 1654 ?



Artemisia Gentileschi was one of the first female artists to gain a substantial reputation. She was trained by her painter forefather in Rome and besides worked in Florence, Naples, and England, where she was patronized by King Charles I. A strongminded, autonomous character, she was not interested in traditional “ ladylike ” subjects such as floral still life sentence, but alternatively specialized in serious, much somber, religious paintings.




A Sibyl Domenichino 1617 Galleria Borghese, Rome, Italy

Polyphemus Attacking Acis and Galatea Annibale Carracci c.1600 Farnese Palace, Rome, Italy

The giant Polyphemus is the most enforce single calculate of Annibale ’ s masterpiece. Contemporaries admired the way in which the strenuous tortuosity of his pose conveys a herculean sense of bowel movement. such exuberance had a great influence on Baroque painting.

Domenico Zampieri, known as Domenichino ( “ Little Dominic ” ), was the most successful painter in Rome at the time he produced this refine picture. Sibyls were ancient prophetesses who were said to have foretold the coming of Christ.



Ceiling of the Apollo Room Pietro district attorney Cortona c.1642–47 Palazzo Pitti, Florence, Italy

Between 1642 and 1647 ( with assorted interruptions ) Cortona decorated a series of rooms in the Pitti Palace in Florence, the chief mansion of the city ’ s ruling Medici family. His combination of colored, ebullient figures and rich people stucco ornamentation influenced many contemporary and former artists.

Poussin altarpiece The french artist Nicolas Poussin, who settled in Rome in 1624, completes the altarpiece The Martyrdom of St. Erasmus for St. Peter ’ south in 1629.

Marvel in bronze In 1623 Gianlorenzo Bernini begins ferment on the Baldacchino, a huge bronze canopy over the high altar in St. Peter ’ south. It is completed in 1634.




The Archangel Michael Vanquishing Satan

digest Naples, Italy, December 7, 1598 ; died Rome, Italy, November 28, 1680

della Concezione, Rome, Italy

Reni had an internationally successful career and was renowned for the celestial beauty and deck of his work, which earned him the nickname “ the Divine Guido. ” He inherited the clear, vigorous drawing of the Carracci, under whom he studied.



Gianlorenzo Bernini

Guido Reni c.1635 S. Maria



Bernini was the greatest italian artist of the seventeenth hundred, and for much of his long career he was about the artistic dictator of Rome, running a big studio that was involved in most major commissions. He was chiefly a sculptor and architect, but he was also—as a diversion—a brilliant painter. Most of his paintings, like this self-portrait ( c.1620–25 ), date from early in his career, before his huge architectural and sculptural workload left no meter for his “ avocation. ”



Bacchus and Ariadne Luca Giordano c.1680–90 Museo Civico di Castelvecchio, Verona, Italy

Bernini in Paris In 1665 Bernini visits Paris, where he works for Louis XIV, but his designs for the main façade of the Louvre palace are rejected.

Giordano was born and died in Naples, but he besides worked in Florence and Venice, and in Spain in the service of Charles II for ten years from 1692. Versatile and fecund, he was celebrated for the rush at which he worked.

Jacob ‘s Dream Salvator Rosa c.1660–70 Chatsworth House, UK

Rosa was a aureate, independent-minded character, and his work was highly varied. His most classifiable paintings were “ wild ” landscapes—such as this example—a type of his own invention. With their erose forms and approximate brushwork, they contrasted with the calm classical landscapes of Claude and Poussin.





A brainy introduction

Lost lives

Grand old man

Carlo Maratta ’ s altarpiece The adoration of the Shepherds for the church of S. Giuseppe dei Falegnami, Rome—his first major public work—launches him on a highly successful career in 1650.

Plague ravages Naples and then Genoa in 1656 and 1657, killing about half the population of both cities—including virtually an integral genesis of artists. other places, including Rome, besides suffer, though not to the same extent.

At the old age of 87, the architect and sculptor Cosimo Fanzago dies in 1678 in Naples. For many years he has been the city ’ s leading artist. His excessive works often make manipulation of color marbles.




The Jesuit Order ( or Society of Jesus ) was founded in 1534 to support orthodox Catholic belief. This ordain of priests had a key role against Protestantism in the Counter-Reformation, and Jesuits were renowned for their zeal in missionary influence and education. The order had many affluent supporters and its churches were much lavishly adorned, notably the Gesù, the mother church in Rome, which was begun in 1568. Main Altar at the Chiesa del Gesù, Rome, Italy

The Virgin Mary Appearing to St. Philip Neri Carlo Maratta c.1675 Palazzo Pitti, Florence, Italy

After the death of Bernini in 1682, Maratta became the dominant personality in the art world of Rome. He specialized in politic, grandiose religious paintings that much reworked high Renaissance precedents, with more campaign and more overt emotion.


The Glory of St. Ignatius Loyola and the Missionary employment of the Jesuits Andrea Pozzo 1688–94 S. Ignazio, Rome, Italy

This breathtaking painting covers the ceiling of the nave of Sant ’ Ignazio, Rome, which is dedicated to St. Ignatius Loyola, the founder of the Jesuits, who is shown floating in ecstasy in the center. Pozzo was renowned as a virtuoso of position, on which he wrote a scholarly treatise ( 1693–1700 ).

Holy relic In Turin in 1690, Guarino Guarini completes the Chapel of the Holy Shroud, a masterpiece of Baroque architecture, which houses the celebrated Turin Shroud.





MASTERWORK Aurora Guercino 1622–23 Casino of the Villa Ludovisi, Rome, Italy

A childhood accident to an eye earned Giovanni Francesco Barbieri ( 1591–1666 ) the nickname Guercino ( “ squinter ” ), by which he has been known ever since. He was born in Cento in northern Italy and spent most of his career there and in nearby Bologna. however, he besides had a brief but significant biennial period in Rome from 1621. He moved there because one of his early patrons, Cardinal Alessandro Ludovisi, was elected pope as Gregory XV in 1621. When Gregory died only two years late, Guercino returned to his home in Cento. Guercino received two major commissions in Rome because of his connections with the pope : a huge altarpiece for St. Peter ’ s, and this gloriously excessive fresco, which adorns a ceiling in the “ casino ” —a kind of summerhouse—of the Ludovisi kin villa on the Pincian Hill. Aurora, the goddess of the dawn, rushes overhead in her chariot, dispersing the dark cloud of night. The steep recess of the painted architecture helps create the feel that the ceiling is open to the sky. It is one of the first examples of such opening up in 17th-century painting ( although the estimate had been used earlier by Mantegna ), and in this and in its vigorous, flowing composition, it looks forward to later Baroque ceilings by such artists as Cortona and Pozzo. Guercino had the assistant of a specialist confederate, Agostino Tassi, for the architectural paint, which demanded bang-up skill with position.





The Horrors of War Sir Peter Paul Rubens c.1638 Palazzo Pitti, Florence, Italy

Pulsating with Baroque energy and emotion, this picture comments on the war-torn times in which Rubens lived. He explained that the “ bereaved woman clothed in black ” is “ the inauspicious Europe who, for therefore many years nowadays, has suffered rape, scandal, and misery. ”

Spain and Flanders ( a district roughly equivalent to contemporary Belgium ) are widely separated in geographic terms, but there were herculean ties between them in the seventeenth hundred, since Flanders was separate of Spain ’ s across-the-board empire. There were potent artistic links excessively, not least because the sovereign Flemish artist of the age—Peter Paul Rubens—twice visited Spain. On his second sojourn he befriended the greatest of spanish painters, Diego Velázquez. Rubens exemplifies the Baroque dash at its most active and colorful. He was so vigorous, prolific, and versatile that he influenced a wholly generation of his countrymen, including Anthony avant-garde Dyck, who worked for a clock as his head adjunct. In Spain, there was great variety show within the general trends of the time, from the drab magnificence of Francisco de Zurbarán to the elation and exaltation of Bartolomé Esteban Murillo—both of them expressive of the state ’ s religious excitement.



Decline of an empire 1609 A 12-year armistice begins between the spanish Netherlands ( Flanders ) and the Dutch Republic.

War and peace Antwerp at a time when a menstruation of armistice between Flanders and the Dutch Republic led to a batch of rebuilding and redecoration of churches that had been damaged in war. Antwerp was one of the two head artwork centers in Flanders ( the early was Brussels, the home of the court of the spanish governors ). Although Antwerp had suffered grievous war damage in the late sixteenth century, the city recovered and in Rubens ’ second time had become a major center of print and the artwork market. In Spain, the capital Madrid—where Velázquez spent most of his career—was big in polish, but not overwhelmingly indeed. several other spanish cities were important centers of painting, notably Seville, which was the main port for the lucrative barter with Spain ’ s colonies in the Americas.

1624 England declares war on Spain as separate of the changing practice of alliances of the Thirty Years War. At the end of the war in 1648, Spain ’ mho exponent is greatly reduced. 1649 In England, Charles I is executed during the English Civil War. Most of the king ‘s celebrated artwork collection is sold, and some of the finest paintings are bought by the Archduke Leopold William, governor of the spanish Netherlands. 1668 The Treaty of Lisbon ends a financially black war ( begun in 1640 ) between Spain and Portugal.


In the seventeenth hundred the map of Europe differed greatly from the one we know now. Spain was declining from the extremum of baron it had enjoyed in the sixteenth century, but it silent controlled widespread territories, including Flanders ( sometimes called the “ Spanish Netherlands ” ) and parts of Italy. spanish rule was much harsh, prompting discontentment and rebellion. Flanders ’ second northern neighbor, the Dutch Republic, won its freedom from Spain in 1609 after a bally contend, but Flanders itself remained a discipline until 1713, when it became separate of the austrian empire. Like Spain, Flanders was devoutly Catholic. religious subjects were at the forefront of art in both countries, although other ones were becoming more outstanding. Rubens was fortunate that he launched his career in

1700 Charles II of Spain dies. The area has declined in strength thus much that Louis XIV of France is able to gain the throne for his own grandson, Philip V.

GLORY TO THAT HOMER OF PAINTING, TO THAT FATHER OF WARMTH AND ENTHUSIASM 1853 | Eugène Delacroix French Romantic painter, on Rubens

The Archduke Leopold William in His movie Gallery Leopold William governed the spanish Netherlands on behalf of Philip IV of Spain from 1646 to 1656. He formed one of the finest collections of paintings of the age. c.1652, David Teniers the Younger, Prado, Madrid, Spain



BEGINNINGS YOUTHFUL ENDEAVOR Rubens spent eight months in Spain in 1603–04 as character of a diplomatic mission from his employer, the Duke of Mantua, to King Philip III. At this time, painting in Flanders a well as Spain was hush powerfully influenced by the elegant, sophisticate, frequently rather artificial ideals of Mannerism. On his return to Flanders from Italy in 1608, Rubens was army for the liberation of rwanda and away the most important channel for introducing a more robust and modern style to his state. His work was influential in Spain excessively, but chiefly after his second chew the fat there in 1628–29. Baroque influence from Italy besides found its manner to Spain through the spell of paintings by Caravaggio and his followers.

Sir Peter Paul Rubens bear Siegen, Germany, June 28, 1577 ; died Antwerp, Flanders, May 30, 1640



Rubens was unusually blessed by nature, having good looks, a fine genius, and a robust physique, angstrom well as artistic genius. He made the best of these gifts, living a life of extraordinary success and accomplishment. He was tied lucky in love, having two happy marriages that produced eight children. As befits the most celebrated painter of his time, he had an external career. He was born in Germany and lived chiefly in Antwerp, but he spent an important formative period in Italy and visited the Dutch Republic, England, France, and Spain. With the help of a well-organized studio he produced a huge phone number and variety of paintings and designs. He besides worked as a diplomat—putting his fluency in several languages to commodity use—and was knighted by the kings of both England and Spain for helping to negotiate peace between the countries.

TURNING POINT The Duke of Lerma on Horseback Sir Peter Paul Rubens 1603 Prado, Madrid, Spain

When this portrayal was painted, Francisco Gomez de Sandoval, 1st Duke of Lerma ( 1553–1625 ), was the most potent man in Spain. The young sovereign, Philip III, was a feeble, indolent fictional character who left the commercial enterprise of government to his darling, dub “ the king ’ south shadow. ” Rubens credibly painted the portrayal at Valladolid, which had temporarily replaced Madrid as the capital of Spain. Lerma is depicted life-size in a magnificent effigy of agency. He is coolly observant, although there is besides a careworn or melancholic front about him that hints at his vulnerability and problems : his wife had recently died and he was under blackmail from political opponents. Rubens was an accomplished horseman and he has distinctly relished painting this brilliant specimen, with its flowing mane, alert ears, and about soulful eyes. With this dynamic, youthful work Rubens set the spirit for equestrian portraiture throughout the seventeenth century.

ARTISTIC INFLUENCES Rubens was lone 26 when he painted this portrait, but he had already studied more of the treasures of Italy than most artists of the fourth dimension could hope to see in a life. He was employed by the art-loving Duke of Mantua, who allowed him great exemption to travel. frankincense, he was open to a wide crop of influences. Rubens first visited Florence in 1600, soon after arriving in Italy, and he passed through the city on the way to Spain in 1603. He would surely have seen Giambologna ’ sulfur equestrian statue of Duke Cosimo I de Medici, recently erected in Florence ’ s main square.

El Greco painted this celebrated picture for a chapel service in Toledo. Rubens could not have seen the master, but the paint cursorily became celebrated, and numerous copies were made.

In Madrid, Rubens saw titian ’ randomness celebrated equestrian portrayal of the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V ( see p.116 ) and painted a copy of the mind. He must have seen other portraits of Charles, including possibly this tapestry.

Equestrian statue of Cosimo I, 1587–94, by Giambologna, may have inspired Rubens. Piazza di Signoria, Florence, Italy

St. Martin and the Beggar, c.1597, by El Greco has similarities to the Lerma portrayal. National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC

Charles V Reviewing His Troops, c.1550, by Jan Vermeyen. Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna, Austria




Peace and Plenty Binding the Arrows of War


Abraham Janssen 1614

In the early region of the seventeenth century, respective painters in Flanders and Spain were influenced by the somber art of Caravaggio, and iniquity key continued to be a mint feature of Zurbarán ’ south work until the 1640s. Rubens was such a dominant figure in Flanders that few contemporary artists remained free of his influence—both van Dyck and Jordaens worked for him early in their careers. spanish art had no exchangeable fulcrum, and such individualistic painters as Murillo and Valdés Leal flourished together in Seville late in the hundred.

Wolverhampton Art Gallery, UK

Janssen was one of the leading contemporaries of Rubens in Antwerp, working in a upstanding, dignify style that reflected his cognition of italian artwork ( he lived in Italy for respective years around the turn of the seventeenth century ). This allegorical painting was a esteemed commission from the Guild of Old Crossbowmen ( Antwerp ’ sulfur headman group of tennessean citizen soldiers ).

Landscape With Shepherds and Pilgrims Paul Bril c.1605 Pinacoteca Ambrosiana, Milan, Italy

Bril was a flemish cougar who spent most of his career in Rome. His charmingly artificial, finely finished landscapes were popular with italian collectors. His buddy Matthew painted similar pictures.

“ The god of wood ” The great sculptor Juan Martínez Montañés, known as “ the deity of wood ” because of his greatest skill as a cutter, begins his celebrated Christ of Clemency for Seville Cathedral in 1603. It is finished in 1606.




1609 Court painter Rubens returns from Rome to Antwerp in 1608 and is made court cougar to the spanish governors of Flanders the keep up year.

The Adoration of the Shepherds Juan Bautista Mayno 1612–13 Prado, Madrid, Spain

hush Life With Quince, Cabbage, Melon, and Cucumber Juan Sánchez Cotán c.1600 San Diego Museum of Art, CA

hush life was a minor but distinctive forte in spanish artwork. Sánchez Cotán was chiefly a religious cougar and his still lifes have a ecstatic volume that gives them a kind of mystic quality, in malice of the humiliate objects portrayed.

Mayno spent several years in Italy in the inaugural decade of the century and was powerfully influenced by Caravaggio, for exemplar in his use of boldface contrasts of light and shade and down-to-earth details. After taking holy place orders in 1614, he painted only occasionally, notably producing a battle scene in the lapp series as Velázquez ’ second ( see pp.176–77 ).




HE WAS ESTEEMED NOT ONLY FOR HIS EMINENT SKILL, BUT ALSO FOR HIS SHINING VIRTUE 1724 | Antonio Palomino spanish painter and writer, on Zurbarán

Van Dyck in England In 1632 van Dyck moves from Antwerp to London, and is based there for the rest of his life as woo cougar to Charles I, although he makes drawn-out visits to the continent.







Diplomatic duties Rubens is in England in 1629 and 1630 following a chew the fat to Spain the previous class, negotiating peace between the countries. He is away from home for about two years.

Francisco de Zurbarán baptized Fuente de Cantos, Spain, November 7, 1598 ; died Madrid, Spain, August 27, 1664

St. Serapion Vase of Flowers Ambrosius Bosschaert c.1620 Mauritshuis, The Hague, Netherlands

The outstanding extremity of a syndicate of painters, Bosschaert was a lead name in establishing flower paint as an independent peculiarity. He was born in Antwerp but worked chiefly in the Dutch Republic.

Wadsworth Atheneum, Hartford, CT

One of the most powerful religious painters of the age, Zurbarán is best known for austere, dramatic images of saints such as this. Serapion was a 12th-century monk who was killed by pirates.


Francisco de Zurbarán 1628

Zurbarán spent most of his career in Seville, where he was the lead painter for several years, although he besides worked for Philip IV in Madrid in 1634–35 and settled there former in biography in 1658. His paintings were produced chiefly for religious institutions including churches and monasteries, sometimes in the form of a series of images of saints. From the 1640s much of his work was exported to Spain ’ randomness colonies in the Americas—in the 1650s he experienced financial problems when payments for his paintings were lost in naval war.



Charles I Out Hunting Sir Anthony van Dyck c.1635 Louvre, Paris, France

This is one of van Dyck ’ s acknowledged masterpieces, showing all the aristocratic grace and refinement for which he is renowned. Charles was dignified but rather short-circuit ; van Dyck uses a low point of view to help disguise this.

WITHOUT HIM A CERTAIN STRAIN OF MELANCHOLIC ELEGANCE IS UNIMAGINABLE 1968 | Sir David Piper British artwork historian, on avant-garde Dyck

Royal commission Gianlorenzo Bernini completes a marble broke of Charles I in 1637. It is based on a portrayal by vanguard Dyck ( showing three views of the head ) sent to Bernini in Rome.



Sir Anthony van Dyck yield Antwerp, Flanders, March 22, 1599 ; died London, England, December 9, 1641



Van Dyck was a child prodigy and became Rubens ’ randomness headman adjunct when he was still in his teens. Like Rubens he had a glamorous international career, spending six years in Italy as a young man and most of the final ten of his life in England, as court painter to Charles I, who knighted him. He produced religious and fabulous scenes, but he was chiefly a portraitist—one of the greatest of all time. His work was an inspiration to later portraitists, specially in Britain.

Autumn Landscape With a opinion of Het Steen in the early Morning Sir Peter Paul Rubens c.1636 National Gallery, London, UK

In 1635 Rubens bought a state theater, the Château de Steen. It inspired him to produce some brilliant landscapes in which he showed his joy in the smasher and richness of nature.



Diego Velázquez baptized Seville, Spain, June 6, 1599 ; died Madrid, Spain, Aug 6, 1660

The King Drinks Jacob Jordaens c.1640 Musées Royaux des Beaux-Arts, Brussels, Belgium


After Rubens died in 1640, Jordaens became Flanders ’ s lead figure painter. His style was strongly influenced by Rubens, but was much more down to earth. This rollicking scene depicts a popular Flemish Twelfth Night celebration when one participant became “ king for the night. ”

Velázquez spent most of his life sentence working in Madrid as the front-runner painter of the art-loving King Philip IV. He was chiefly a portraitist, but besides painted religious, fabulous, and historic subjects, as well as—early in his career—superb everyday life scenes. He made two visits to Italy, on the second of which he had one of his greatest triumph with a portrait of Pope Innocent X. The Pope thought it was thus incisive in word picture that he called it “ besides truthful. ” Portrait of Pope Innocent X, Galleria Doria Pamphili, Rome, Italy

Court portrait Art treatise

In 1656 Velázquez completes his most celebrated painting, Las Meninas ( “ The Maids of Honor ” ), a complex court group portrait that takes its diagnose from a new princess ’ mho attendants.

Francisco Pacheco ’ s bible Art of Painting is posthumously published in Seville in 1649. It is an crucial source of information on spanish art of the time.








The temptation of St. Jerome Juan de Valdés Leal 1657 Museo de Bellas Artes, Seville, Spain

Valdés Leal specialized in religious subjects, which he treated in a highly personal style—nervous, energetic, and often with ghastly elements. St Jerome ’ s “ enticement ” shows the intimate hallucinations he endured.

The Clubfooted Boy Jusepe de Ribera 1642 Louvre, Paris, France

This portrayal of a Neapolitan beggar boy is one of Ribera ’ s most celebrated works. It was painted on commission for an art trader.


Bartolomé Esteban Murillo baptized Seville, Spain, January 1, 1618 ; died Seville, April 3, 1682



Murillo spent about all his liveliness in Seville, where he was the leading painter from the recently 1640s until his death. His early work was influenced by the drab vogue of Zurbáran, but he developed a much lighter, detached, and more colorful manner. Throughout the eighteenth century and well into the nineteenth century, he was the most celebrated and admired of all spanish painters. His repute by and by declined and for many years he was by and large dismissed as sentimental, but his condition has risen again.

The Painter ‘s Studio Jacob avant-garde Oost 1666 Groeningemuseum, Bruges, Belgium

Van Oost worked chiefly in Bruges, where he was the lead cougar of his time. He chiefly painted religious works and portraits, but he sometimes ventured into early fields, as seen in this charmingly sentimental scene of child artists.



Academy founded Spain ’ s foremost artwork academy is founded in Seville in 1660. Murillo is appointed joint president, together with Francisco Herrera the Younger, a painter and architect.

The Picture Dealer José Antolínez c.1670 Alte Pinakothek, Munich, Germany

Antolínez specialized in religious subjects, but his most classifiable paint is this highly unusual persona of a hapless artist ( possibly a derisive selfportrait ) trying to sell his work.



The Immaculate Conception Bartolomé Esteban Murillo c.1680 Louvre, Paris, France

This was Murillo ’ s favorite subject, which he depicted numerous times. The Immaculate Conception is the identify for the Catholic impression that the Virgin Mary—from the here and now of being conceived in her mother ’ s womb—was free of original sin, which was congenital in all other homo beings.

Charles II Adoring the Host Claudio Coello 1685–90 Escorial, Madrid, Spain

Coello was the leading religious painter in Madrid in his time period and this is his masterpiece—a huge altarpiece set in an elaborate architectural model. It features about 50 portraits of members of the court.


italian headmaster

1983 | Diego Angulo Iñiguez

The italian artist Luca Giordano is summoned to Madrid by Charles II in 1692. He becomes the leading cosmetic painter for the following decade, carrying out a huge amount of work.

spanish art historian




Court portraitist Juan Carreño de Miranda dies in Madrid in 1685. With the great exception of his supporter Velázquez, he was Spain ’ s best court portraitist of the time. He besides painted religious works.

THE ESCORIAL An enormous monastery-palace near Madrid, the Escorial is the burial position of most of Spain ’ randomness sovereign. It was begun in 1563 and officially completed in 1584, although building bring continued after this. Although outwardly the Escorial is overwhelmingly austere, internally it has inordinately lavish decoration, including a huge amount of painting in the shape of frescoes, altarpieces, and other works.

The Siege of Tournai Adam Frans avant-garde five hundred Meulen 1684 Musées Royaux des Beaux-Arts, Brussels, Belgium

Van five hundred Meulen was born in Brussels and spent most of his career in France, where he worked as a military painter for Louis XIV. His paintings, such as this case, were based on drawings made on the spot.

Southern facade of the Escorial






MASTERWORK The Surrender of Breda Diego Velázquez 1634–35 Prado, Madrid, Spain

In 1630 Philip IV began building a new palace on what was then the outskirts of Madrid. It was designed to be a place of refreshment away from the center of the city, hence its name—Buen Retiro ( literally “ good retreat ” ). The palace, which was about wholly destroyed in the nineteenth hundred, was extravagantly adorned with artwork, including a series of 12 life-size paintings in the Hall of Kingdoms ( the main state room ) depicting the principal military victories of Philip ’ s predominate. This commission was divided among several of the leading spanish artists of the day, among them Juan Bautista Mayno, Francisco de Zurbarán, and Diego Velázquez, who rose to the occasion with this work of 1634–35, one of his supreme masterpieces. It depicts the spanish general Ambrogio Spinola accepting the key of Breda from his Dutch counterpart Justin of Nassau, after the Spaniards had captured the fortified city in 1625. Both generals were dead by the time Velázquez painted the word picture. He had known Spinola reasonably good, but he never met Justin, and he never went to Breda. He based his representation of the scene on engravings and descriptions, but he makes everything seem absolutely real. The common convention in such struggle pictures was to show the defeated general on crouch stifle before his conqueror, but Velázquez creates a much more concern and convert human drama by depicting Justin merely bowing as the chivalrous Spinola places a comfort hand on his shoulder. Breda was one of the last important victories of Philip ’ s reign, and in 1637, only two years after Velázquez finished the paint, the dutch recapture the city.

A PAINTER OF HUMANITY IN THE CONCRETE, A SEARCHER AFTER THE POETRY OF LIFE 1943 | Enrique Lafuente Ferrari Spanish artwork historian, on Velázquez




Self-portrait Rembrandt c.1665 Kenwood House, London, UK

In this imperial self-portrait, Rembrandt—depicted with the tools of his trade—expresses the dignity of his profession. His early self-portraits had much been touched with Baroque flamboyance, but in his late exploit he was more concerned with inner life than outer show.

During the seventeenth hundred, Dutch painting abound into blooming in a way that has no parallel in the history of art. In the space of a few decades, the Dutch Republic ( what we now call the Netherlands, or Holland ) grew from an artistic backwater into the home of the most vigorous and varied school of painting in Europe. This remarkable transformation reflected the equally swift development of the area from a fringe express that was battling for its being to a commercial giant with the best merchant united states navy in the global. Some dutch paintings have solid Baroque features—the ostentation of Hals ’ s Laughing Cavalier, for example, or the bowel movement and passion of The Blinding of Samson by Rembrandt—but there is such diverseness of submit and vogue among the artists of the period ( contrast Brouwer with Vermeer, for example ) that there is no clear overall vogue.



Independence won and lost 1602 The Dutch East India Company is founded. The dutch economy depended heavily on sea craft ; ships—and the exotic goods they brought back from Asia —figure prominently in Dutch painting.

A new republic of art were hush the traditional ones—Church, royalty, and aristocracy—but in the Dutch Republic art was produced primarily for the middle classes, the kind of citizens who had created its stability and prosperity. They liked paintings that celebrated their achievements, possessions, and surroundings—portraits, landscapes, everyday life scenes, and sol on. The success of the city of Amsterdam summed up the success of the country. between 1610 and 1640 its population tripled from about 50,000 to 150,000, and it became one of the world ’ s leading centers of commerce and finance. Its huge new town hall ( now the Royal Palace ), built in 1648–55, was a triumphant symbol of the golden age.

1609 The Dutch Republic efficaciously gains its exemption from Spain. 1648 Spain formally recognizes dutch independence. bring begins on Amsterdam Town Hall, which is later lavishly adorned with paintings and sculpt.


In 1578 a rebellion began against spanish rule in the Netherlands, and in 1579 seven provinces in the northerly depart of the territories joined together to form the Republic of the United Netherlands. This raw nation ( besides known at the clock time as both the United Provinces and the Dutch Republic ) efficaciously gained its independence in 1609, when a armistice was signed with imperial Spain, although the Spanish did not officially recognize the new status of their former district until the end of the Thirty Years ’ War in 1648. The long and bally struggle for exemption helped to create a hard feel of national pride that is immediately expressed in 17th-century Dutch art. In other countries, the main patrons

1652–54 The first Anglo-Dutch War ( the others are in 1655–57 and 1672–74 ) takes station between the two greatest ocean powers of the day. The wars devastate the dutch economy, including the art commercialize. 1672 The Dutch Republic is invaded by France. From this clock time, Dutch artwork begins to fall under french influence.

PICTURES ARE VERY COMMON HERE, THERE BEING SCARCE AN ORDINARY TRADESMAN WHOSE HOUSE IS NOT DECORATED WITH THEM 1641 | John Evelyn English diarist, on the popularity of painting in the Dutch Republic

Dam Square, Amsterdam Amsterdamers proudly called their new town mansion “ the one-eighth wonder of the world. ” In this paint of 1659 by Jacob van five hundred Ulft, it dominates the city ’ s bustling main feather. Musée Conde, Chantilly, France




BEGINNINGS FROM MANNERISM TO NATURALISM Haarlem was one of the first cities in the new Dutch Republic to emerge as an important plaza of painting. In fact, its custom of painting stretched back to the fifteenth hundred, but its art—like all other aspects of life—suffered grievously in the 1570s when the city was captured by the spanish in 1573, and then partially destroyed in a great fire in 1576. however, Haarlem quickly recovered, and between about 1575 and 1625 its population doubled from 20,000 to 40,000. several artists in the city were

significant in this period of conversion from Mannerism to a more emphatic Baroque expressive style, but Frans Hals was easily the most crucial of them. His portraits have a sense of spontaneity and informality that was fresh and invigorating. The sitters in his paintings do not pose stiffly, but seem at comfort. In his group portraits, the figures interact with each other and engage with the spectator pump, through gestures, smiles, and glances. This liveliness is enhanced by Hals ’ s bluff, sweeping brushwork.

ARTISTIC INFLUENCES Haarlem was probably the most artistically stimulating city in the Dutch Republic in Hals ’ sulfur youth ( its neighbor Amsterdam later became more important ). Painters there were beginning to nurture the natural lookout on which Dutch art was founded. In addition to local influences, Hals could—like all artists of the time— have learned from engravings of extraneous ( particularly italian ) paintings. Geertgen total Sint Jans was the outstanding painter in Haarlem in the late fifteenth century. His skill in handling groups of figures looks forward to Hals, who surely knew this painting, and may even have restored it.

The Burning of the Bones of St. John, c.1485, is depicted in this control panel by Geertgen. Kunsthistorisches Museum Vienna, Austria

Group portrayal already had a discrete tradition in the area when Hals painted his first civic guards picture. Maerten van Heemskerck, who worked chiefly in Haarlem, painted this example in about 1530.

Kassel, Germany

Karel van Mander is said to have been Hals ’ s teacher. surely he was one of the leading art figures in Haarlem when Hals was growing up. He is well remembered for an artwork treatise published in 1604.

This engraved portrait of Karel van Mander was published in 1817, but it is based on a compare from his own time. private Collection

Biblical feast scenes provide a case law for Hals ’ s lively groups at a board. Hendrik Goltzius, who engraved this one, was a friend of vanguard Mander and one of the great printmakers of the period.

messiah at the marriage at Cana, c.1553 is an engrave by Goltzius of a fresco by Francesco Salviati. british

Pieter Jan Foppeszoon and His Family, 1530, Heemskerck, shows one of Haarlem ’ s city council. Gemäldegalerie,

Museum, London, UK



Banquet of the Officers of the St. George Civic Guard Company of Haarlem

born Antwerp, Flanders 1582/83 ; died Haarlem, Netherlands, August 29, 1666

This exultant group portrait is the first great landmark in Dutch painting, celebrating the energy and self-confidence of the new republic. civil guards were citizens who did military train in order to defend their fatherland when the want arose. With peace and prosperity, their companies became more important as sociable clubs— their banquets were deluxe affairs that sometimes went on for days. Hals was a extremity of the St. George Company ; he knew these bluff, beefy men well and brings them vividly to life.


Frans Hals 1616 Frans Halsmuseum, Haarlem, Netherlands

Hals was the head portraitist in Haarlem throughout his career ( he rarely painted other subjects ) and had many esteemed commissions, specially for group portraits, which were peculiarly democratic in the Dutch Republic. In cattiness of his success ( and continuing to work until the end of his long life ), he much had financial problems, probably because he had a big kin to support ( he had at least ten children ). It used to be thought that he was an alcoholic and wife beater, but it is immediately known that the unsavory person in question was a cousin with the same name.



TIMELINE Early in the seventeenth hundred there was some distinct Italianate ( specially Caravaggesque ) influence in Dutch paint, and at the end of the hundred French influence—marked by debonair elegance—became permeant. For the most region, however, Dutch painting of the gold age is noteworthy for its vigor, variety, and independence of spirit. Almost every character of painting flourished and most artists were specialists, concentrating on one or two types of picture. Rembrandt was the great exception.

Hendrick Avercamp baptized Amsterdam, Netherlands, January 25, 1585 ; buried Kampen, Netherlands, May 15, 1634



Winter Scene with Skaters near a Castle Hendrick Avercamp c.1610 National Gallery, London, UK

Avercamp was the first Dutch painter to specialize in winter landscapes—a type that became identical popular. This case is distinctive of his work in combining sensible observation of nature with lively depicting of little figures.

Avercamp spent most of his career in the peasant town of Kampen. Little is known of his life and he possibly lived in privacy, since he was deafen and mute—he was nicknamed “ de Stomme van Kampen ” ( “ the mute of Kampen ” ). He was an outstanding draftsman american samoa well as a painter, producing tint drawings as finished works. His nephew Barent Avercamp ( 1612–79 ) imitated his style.

Terbrugghen in Rome Book of Painters In 1604 Karel van Mander ’ s Het Schilderboek ( The Book of Painters ), an significant reservoir of art-historical data, is published in Haarlem.


Hendrick Terbrugghen arrives in Rome c.1605 and lives there for about a ten. After returning to Utrecht in 1614 he becomes—with Gerrit van Honthorst—one of the first Dutch exponents of Caravaggio ’ s dash.




Guild penis Frans Hals becomes a extremity of the painters ’ club in Haarlem in 1610, the first attested date in his career. The club is said to have been founded in the 1490s.

Christ Before the High Priest Gerrit avant-garde Honthorst c.1617 National Gallery, London, UK

Adoration of the Shepherds Joachim Wtewael c.1605 Ashmolean Museum, Oxford, UK

The elegant artificiality of this scene is typical of Wtewael, who continued elements of the Mannerist dash well into the seventeenth century. He worked in Utrecht, the independent center of Catholicism ( and religious paint ) in a largely protestant church country.

Honthorst spent respective years in Italy early in his career and was one of the leading dutch followers of Caravaggio, although his vogue late became much lighter.



The Laughing Cavalier Frans Hals 1624 Wallace Collection, London, UK

The rascally smile and swaggering affectation of this unknown homo caught the resource of the priggish public—the misleading title ( he is not laughing ) was coined in about 1880. The brilliantly painted costume features assorted symbols that allude to the pleasures and pains of sexual love.

Constantijn Huygens and His Clerk Thomas de Keyser 1627 National Gallery, London, UK

De Keyser was the leave portraitist in Amsterdam before Rembrandt eclipsed him in the early 1630s. Constantijn Huygens was one of his most distinguish sitters—a highly cultivated diplomat who served his state loyally for more than 60 years.





Stately church In 1620 work starts on building the Westerkerk ( West Church ) in Amsterdam, a major Protestant church service ( in which Rembrandt is later buried ). It is designed by the architect and sculptor Hendrick de Keyser, beget of the painter Thomas de Keyser.

Adriaen Brouwer


born Oudenaarde ?, Flanders, c.1605 ; buried Antwerp, Flanders, February 1, 1638

Brouwer was flemish by give birth and he spent the final years of his short life in Antwerp, but he worked in Haarlem for a significant depart of his career and is consequently considered separate of the history of dutch a well as flemish art. He is said to have been a pupil of Frans Hals. Their subjects are entirely different, but there is a kinship of liveliness in their agile brushwork. Brouwer obviously led a debauched life ; surely he was regularly in debt and he seems to have died a pauper.

Tavern Scene Adriaen Brouwer c.1635 National Gallery, London, UK

Although he was entirely about 32 when he died, Brouwer played an significant function in popularizing bully scenes of peasant life, such as this. His subject matter is much coarse, but his brushwork has a lovely spark and daintiness. His many admirers included Rubens and Rembrandt, both of whom owned examples of his bring.


The Blinding of Samson Rembrandt 1636 Städelsches Kunstinstitut, Frankfurt, Germany

This is one of Rembrandt ’ s most knock-down and dramatic biblical scenes. The figures are life-size and the blind of the Israelite champion is shown with hideous directness. however, the light streaming into the dark tent is depicted with fantastic sensitivity.

Rembrandt born Leiden, Netherlands, July 15, 1606 ; died Amsterdam, Netherlands, October 4, 1669







flush in a gold age of Dutch art, Rembrandt avant-garde Rijn stands out as a colossus—revered for the depth of find and technical domination of his influence. Most of his paintings are portraits or religious scenes, but he tackled many other subjects and he was besides a brilliant draftsman and printmaker. In addition, he was the greatest artwork teacher of his day, with an impressive list of distinguished pupils.



The Threatened Swan Jan Asselyn c.1640–50 Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam, Netherlands

Asselyn was chiefly a landscape architect, but his most celebrated paint is this hit picture of an angry bird. It was probably intended to have patriotic symbolism—the roll ( the Dutch Republic ) defending its nest against its enemies.

placid Life with a chinese Bowl Willem Kalf 1662 Museo Thyssen-Bornemisza, Madrid, Spain

The Courtyard of a House in Delft Pieter de Hooch 1658 National Gallery, London, UK

Better than probably any other painter, De Hooch evokes a sense of the passive, orderly wellbeing of dutch company at the stature of its achiever. His best work, including this picture, was done in Delft, where he lived from about 1655 to 1661.

Kalf was one of the greatest of all still-life painters, with an exquisite touch for color and texture. This model shows the kind of alien, lavishness objects that were imported into the Dutch Republic through its global deal.


Jan Vermeer baptized Delft, Netherlands, October 31, 1632 ; buried Delft, December 16, 1675

The Mill at Wijk bij Duurstede Jacob van Ruisdael c.1670



Final masterpieces In 1664 Frans Hals, now in his 80s, paints group portraits of the regents and regentesses of the erstwhile men ’ sulfur almhouse in Haarlem—his last capital works. Two years later he dies impoverished.

The Art of Painting Jan Vermeer c.1667 Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna, Austria

At first spy this seems like a spectacularly realistic glimpse into a painter ’ randomness studio. however, the artist is wearing an elaborate costume rather than working clothes, and the painting is an fable or glory of the art of paint. It is wide of symbolic details. The model, for exemplar, is dressed as Clio, the muse ( a goddess of creative inspiration ) of history. Her cornet is a symbol of fame.


Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam

Ruisdael was the greatest of all Dutch landscape painters—unrivaled in the variety show, nobility, and emotional astuteness of his exploit. here, he adopts a low point of view therefore that the windmill looms majestically against the dramatic, cloud-laden sky.

Vermeer seems to have spent all his life sentence in Delft, where he worked as a picture dealer vitamin a well as a painter. lone about three twelve paintings by him are known, and he must have been a slow-working perfectionist. When he died, aged 43, he left his widow and 11 children with heavy debts, partially caused by the black effect of war ( particularly the french invasion of 1672 ) on the artwork commercialize. He was about forgotten for two centuries before his knead was rediscovered in the mid-19th century.




Willem van de Velde the Younger baptized Leiden, Netherlands, December 18, 1633 ; died London, England, April 6, 1707



Van de Velde is the most celebrated dutch marine painter. He came from a nautical family and had a deep understand of ships and the sea in all its moods, adenine well as an inerrable endowment for big and dramatic composition. In 1672–73 he and his father ( the cougar Willem van de Velde the Elder ) settled in England, and he had a knock-down influence on british nautical paint. Turner greatly admired him.

The Cannon Shot Willem van de Velde the Younger 1680 Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam, Netherlands

This is possibly vanguard de Velde ’ s masterpiece—one of the most imperial marine pictures ever painted. The ship is a portuguese man-of-war, but the cannon shot it fires is a salute as it sets sail rather than an attack on another vessel. Details of the ship are expertly observed, but never finical.

Interior of the Grote Kerk Gerrit Berckheyde 1673 National Gallery, London, UK

Townscape and architectural painting was one of the distinctive specialities of Dutch art, and church service interiors formed a subdivision within this category. Often the inflict gothic churches were shown virtually empty, but here Berckheyde depicts a large congregation.




1685 War at ocean The Anglo-Dutch Wars provided subjects for respective paintings by Willem van de Velde the Younger, including—in 1686—one of his finest work, The Gouden Leeuw at the Battle of Texel.

Merrymaking at an Inn Jan Steen 1674 Louvre, Paris, France

Steen painted respective types of pictures, but he is best known for boisterous scenes of everyday liveliness such as this, in which he showed up human foibles and follies ( drunkenness is a park theme ). however, his moralizing tends to be lighthearted.


The Death of Ananias Gérard de Lairesse 1687 Gemäldegalerie, Kassel, Germany

This debonair, big biblical scene exemplifies the dutch influence that suffused french art in the subsequently seventeenth hundred. Lairesse ’ randomness contemporaries nicknamed him “ the Dutch Poussin. ” He went subterfuge in about 1690 and turned very successfully to lecturing and writing on art, his books being translated into respective languages.




1700 Rachel Ruysch

The Avenue Meindert Hobbema, 1689 National Gallery, London, UK

Hobbema was the alone record schoolchild of Jacob van Ruisdael. He was powerfully influenced by his maestro, but normally sunnier in temper. This, his most celebrated work, is broadly regarded as the last great masterpiece of 17th-century Dutch landscape painting, beautifully balancing nobility and affair.

Flowers on a Ledge Rachel Ruysch 1695 Private Collection

Flower painting was credibly the only area in which the standards of 17thcentury dutch art were sustained—and possibly even surpassed—in the eighteenth hundred. unusually, there was another dutch bloom painter of the prison term, Jan vanguard Huysum ( 1682–1749 ), who rivaled Rachel Ruysch in external fame.


baptized The Hague, Netherlands, June 3, 1664 ; died Amsterdam, Netherlands, August 12, 1750

Ruysch specialized about entirely in paintings of flowers ( and occasionally fruit ). She was extremely successful in her life : her affluent external clientele was prepared to pay well for her inordinately polished technique, and contemporary poets sang her praises. She continued working well into her 80s, but her output signal was fairly humble ( there are about 100 sleep together paintings by her ), since her painstaking craft was therefore time-consuming. Her repute as one of the greatest of all flower painters has endured.




MASTERWORK The Night Watch Rembrandt 1642 Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam, Netherlands

In 1636 a new wing was added to a outstanding construct in Amsterdam, the Kloveniersdoelen—headquarters of a outgrowth of the civic guard ( the name can be loosely translated as “ musketeers ’ meeting hall ” ). between 1639 and 1645 the impressive capital hall of the raw wing was hung with a series of eight boastfully group portraits of guards commissioned from some of the city ’ s run artists. Among them was Rembrandt, whose contribution to the design is now his most celebrated paint. Its familiar deed was not used until the nineteenth century, when the picture was so darkened by honest-to-god, dirty varnish that it looked like a nocturnal scenery. It was cleaned soon after World War II, emerging as a daylight scene, but the name “ The Night Watch ” is now hallowed by custom. The more formal title is The Militia Company of Captain Frans Banning Cocq and Lieutenant Willem van Ruytenburgh. Captain Cocq is the figure in black in the center, giving an order to his deputy as their men prepare to march. The Night Watch brings the dutch tradition of civic guard portraiture to a rout out conclusion. such paintings fell out of fashion soon subsequently, since peace was now thus firmly established. Rembrandt showed capital originality in making a complex ocular drama from a commonplace event. It is a popular myth that the guardsmen portrayed were dissatisfied with the painting—thinking they should all have been given equal prominence—and asked for their money back. In fact, contemporary comments suggest it was one of Rembrandt ’ s most admire works. In 1678 his former student Samuel vanguard Hoogstraten wrote that it was “ therefore painterlike in intend, thus clever in the varied placement of figures, and so knock-down ” that it made the other paintings in the great manor hall “ look like packs of playing cards. ”





Self-Portrait Nicolas Poussin 1650 Louvre, Paris, France

Poussin painted this command self-portrait when he was at the altitude of his career and one of the most acclaim artists in Europe. The asperity of his saying and the geometric clearness of the frames behind him suggest his intellectual cogency, but the animation and sheer physical presence of the trope can be considered Baroque.

During the seventeenth hundred, France became the most mighty state in Europe and besides began to challenge Italy for leadership in the ocular arts. Elements of the active italian Baroque style were introduced to France by Simon Vouet, but they were tempered by a classical dignity that runs through indeed much of french art. A more flamboyant Baroque stylus emerged in the work of Vouet ’ s pupil Charles Le Brun, who devoted much of his career to glorifying Louis XIV. A characteristic of Baroque artwork at its most hearty is the fusion of diverse arts to create an overwhelm effect, and this is seen in Louis ’ palace at Versailles, where painting, sculpt, architecture, and besides the art of the gardener all influence in harmony. however, the two most illustrious french painters of the time— Poussin and Claude—worked in a very different vein and chiefly in Rome.



France during the Baroque era

Royal patronage The most crucial french patron of the seventeenth hundred was Louis XIV, who became king in 1643, aged four, and reigned for 72 years. His chief minister, Cardinal Mazarin, governed the country on his behalf until his death in 1661, whereupon Louis took control of affairs himself. Through a series of wars, he increased France ’ mho territory and prestige, although in the later part of his hanker reign the tide turned against him and his belligerence left the country financially exhausted. Louis XIV was not a connoisseur of art, but he appreciated its value in promoting the office and glory of himself and his country, and he spent lavishly on it. His taste was for sheer magnificence, reflecting his double as the “ Sun King ” ( he used the sunlight as his personal emblem ). The greatest symbol of his wealth and prestige was the huge and vastly deluxe palace of Versailles. Louis began his build up campaign there in the 1660s and ferment went on into the eighteenth hundred, employing an enormous work force.

1610 Henry IV is assassinated ; his widow Marie de Médicis becomes the regent of France. 1624 Cardinal Richelieu becomes head minister to Louis XIII and remains in office until his death in 1642 ; he is one of France ’ s greatest statesmen and a luminary patron of art and learn. 1648 The Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture is founded in Paris. The Thirty Years ’ War comes to an end, with France emerging from the conflict more strongly than any other state. 1662 The Gobelins tapestry factory in Paris is taken over by the crown.


In the late sixteenth hundred France endured a black time period of civil war that lasted intermittently for more than 30 years. When it finally ended in 1598, a hard king, Henry IV, began to restore stability and prosperity to the country. His reign saw significant big rebuild in Paris, beginning its transition from a medieval to a modern city, but painting remained largely insignificant. however, painting was revitalized under Henry IV ’ s son, Louis XIII, whose most inspire act of trade was to summon Simon Vouet from Rome in 1627 to be his court painter. Louis ’ mother, Marie de Médicis, was besides a luminary art patron. She employed some of the outstanding french painters of the day, including Nicolas Poussin and Philippe de Champaigne, and most memorably commissioned Rubens to create a great cycle of pictures on her life for the Luxembourg Palace in Paris—works that had an enduring influence on french art.

1598 end of the Wars of Religion ; France is weakened and its artwork is at a moo ebb.

1682 Louis XIV makes the palace of Versailles his official mansion and the seat of government. 1694 The Gobelins factory closes because of Louis XIV ’ s financial difficulties ; it reopens in 1699.


Louis XIV Visiting the Gobelins Factory The Gobelins factory was celebrated chiefly for tapestries, but it produced many other kinds of luxury goods for royal palaces. This tapestry ( c.1673 ) was designed by Charles Le Brun for the palace of Versailles.



BEGINNINGS A GREAT REVIVAL At the start of the seventeenth century, french paint was, in general, average and provincial. however, as the country began to revive after a black period of civil war, the arts excessively gained fresh life. The move aside from run down Mannerism to a more vigorous Baroque style first distinctly appeared in the sour of french artists working in Italy ( such as Valentin and Vouet ) and with foreign artists working in France. For example, the italian cougar Orazio Gentileschi worked in Paris in 1624–25, and Rubens made three visits to the city

Simon Vouet yield Paris, France, January 8, 1590 ; died Paris, June 30, 1649



Vouet was the son of a painter and is said to have been active as an artist himself from his early teens— according to a biographer, he worked in England when he was just 14. From 1613 to 1627 he lived in Italy, where he achieved such a reputation that Louis XIII summoned him to Paris to be his motor hotel cougar. Vouet was versatile and prolific, working not only for the baron but besides for diverse other patrons and on a variety show of subjects, sacred and worldly. unfortunately, most of his large cosmetic designs—a major character of his output—have been destroyed. He revitalized french painting not lone through his own oeuvre, but besides through teaching many of the leading artists of the next generation who trained in his studio apartment.

around this time. besides, by the end of the 1620s respective accomplished Caravaggesque painters were active in respective places in the french provinces, including Aix-en-Provence and Toulouse. however, it was Vouet ’ s return key from Rome to Paris in 1627 that very brought french paint into the artistic mainstream. After 14 years in Italy he was wholly fluent in the lyric of italian Baroque painting, but his workplace besides has a debonair gracefulness that can be considered distinctly french.

ARTISTIC INFLUENCES The Baroque style was born in Italy, and it was chiefly from Italy—through respective channels—that it entered France. french artists of the meter were inspired not only by contemporaneous painting in Rome ( the independent center of advanced ideas ), but besides particularly by earlier works from the venetian Renaissance. Venice was frequently a slope trip on the way to or from Rome. The vigor and heat of titian ’ s early work was admired by french Baroque painters. Several of them copied or adapted this celebrated altarpiece commissioned by Jacopo Pesaro, and there are clear echoes of it in Vouet ’ second Presentation in the Temple.

The Pesaro Altarpiece, 1519–26 was one of titian ’ sulfur most influential works. S. Maria dei Frari, Venice, Italy

Annibale Carracci ’ s fantastic drawing was an inhalation to many artists who followed him. Vouet followed him in stressing the importance of drawing as the foundation of paint and urged his pupils “ to set this study above all others. ”

Head of a female child, c.1585, exemplifies Annibale ’ s sensitive notice and exquisite handle of bolshevik methamphetamine. Chatsworth

Caravaggio ’ s dramatic consumption of light and shade was influential on french painters working in Rome ( including Vouet ) and besides in some provincial areas of France. however, his expressive style made relatively little impact in Paris.

The Nativity, 1609, by Caravaggio was stolen from a church in Palermo, Sicily, in 1969 and has never been recovered.

Guido Reni ’ second lissome, idealized forms influenced french Baroque paint. His oeuvre was admired in Paris, and Louis XIII ’ s Italianborn mother, Marie de Médicis, invited him to work there in 1629 ( he declined, but painted an altarpiece for her ).

House, Derbyshire, UK

The Rape of Europa, c.1638, shows the deck of Guido Reni ’ s style. National Gallery, London, UK


TURNING POINT Presentation in the Temple Simon Vouet 1641 Louvre, Paris, France

This magnificent bring was presented by Cardinal Richelieu to the newly built church of St. Paul and St. Louis, the first Jesuit church service in Paris. It was originally merely partially of the church service ’ s huge— 30ft ( 10m ) in height—main altarpiece, but this was largely destroyed during the french Revolution. The qualities that made Vouet a success are clear : big, dignified typography ; firm, graceful drawing ; a fluid sense of motion ; glowing coloring ; an overall harmony. He made predecessors, such as Georges Lallemant ( see p.194 ), look awkward.





TIMELINE Paris was army for the liberation of rwanda and away the most significant art center in France during the seventeenth century, and most of the leading painters spent at least separate of their careers there. however, paint was besides produced at imperial chateaus such as Fontainebleau and belated at Versailles, and there were distinctive art traditions in some provincial areas, particularly Lorraine, where Georges de La Tour was the major figure. respective french painters worked chiefly in Rome, including Valentin and belated Claude and Poussin.

Paris rebuilt The Place Royale ( now the Place des Vosges ) is begun in 1605. This identical bombastic and big squarely is the most baronial part of Henry IV ’ s rebuilding political campaign in Paris after a period of civil war.

The Innocence of Susanna Valentin de Boulogne c.1625 Louvre, Paris, France

Valentin settled in Rome as a young man and spent all his documented career there, working with distinction in Caravaggio ’ s expressive style. In this biblical scene, the youthful prophet Daniel saves a woman who has been unjustly accused of adultery.



1620 Vouet in Rome

In 1614 Simon Vouet arrives in Rome, where he is based for the following 13 years until being recalled to Paris by Louis XIII. He achieves bang-up prestige in Rome, flush being elected president of the united states of the Academy of St. Luke ( a rare honor for a foreigner ) in 1624.

Hyante and Climene Offering a Sacrifice to Venus Toussaint Dubreuil c.1600

St. Martin and the Beggar

Louvre, Paris, France

Georges Lallemant c.1630

This is one of the few surviving works from a series of 78 paintings Dubreuil and his assistants produced for one of Henry IV ’ south residences, the Château Neuf at Saint-Germain-en-Laye, near Paris. The fabulous subject matter comes from a poem by the 16th-century french writer Pierre de Ronsard.

Musée Carnavalet, Paris, France

Before the arrival of Vouet in 1627, Lallemant was probably the leave painter and art teacher in Paris. however, few of his paintings survive. The elongated figures in this altarpiece are distillery in the Mannerist custom, but the sense of swagman is more Baroque.



The Penitent Magdalene Georges de La Tour c.1640 Louvre, Paris, France

This was La Tour ’ s favorite subject, which he treated several times. Like many other artists of the period, he was inspired by Caravaggio ’ s dramatic practice of lighter and shade, but he used it in his own finely sensitive, contemplative room. He is by and large regarded as the greatest of all Caravaggio ’ south followers.

Cardinal Richelieu Philippe de Champaigne c.1637 Sorbonne, Paris, France

Champaigne was the leading french portraitist of the seventeenth century, combining magnificence with incisive portrayal. He was the front-runner painter of Cardinal Richelieu, who was virtually the rule of France, and portrayed him numerous times.


Georges de La Tour baptized Vic-sur-Seille, France, March 14, 1593 ; died Lunéville, France, January 30, 1652

A Peasants ’ Meal Le Nain brothers ( Louis Le Nain ? ) 1642


Louvre, Paris, France

There were three Le Nain brothers : Antoine, Louis, and Mathieu. They sometimes signed their paintings, but only with the surname, and it has proved very unmanageable to separate their workplace into individual contributions. They painted versatile types of pictures, the best acknowledge of which are sober, dignified peasant scenes such as this.

La Tour spent all his known career in Lorraine, in northeasterly France. At this clock time it was an mugwump duchy, although France invaded it in 1633 and occupied it for much of the seventeenth hundred. He was the lead painter locally, and his knead was besides admired in Paris. however, after his death he was quickly forgotten and he was not rediscovered until the early twentieth hundred. only about 40 paintings by him are known. The most characteristic of these are brooding nocturnal scenes illuminated by candlelight or a flaming common mullein.





Landscape With the Nymph Egeria Claude Lorraine 1669 Museo di Capodimonte, Naples, Italy

Claude was the most celebrated, admired, and influential landscape painter of the seventeenth hundred. He specialized in “ ideal landscapes, ” creating a calm, flawlessly beautiful sight of nature, with none of the imperfections of the real world.

Louis XIV and his syndicate Dressed as Roman Gods Jean Nocret 1670 Château de Versailles, France

Louis XIV, the “ Sun King, ” liked to compare himself with Apollo, the Roman idol of lightly. here, the idea is extended to his unharmed family, who are all dressed as Roman gods. The video was commissioned by Louis XIV ’ randomness younger brother, who sits to the leave as Aurora, the dawn star.




Gift of thanks In 1662, Philippe de Champaigne paints one of his greatest work, a portrait of his daughter ( a nun ) and her mother superior. The paint was in thanks for his daughter ’ sulfur apparently heaven-sent convalescence from paralysis.

Alexander the Great ’ s Triumphal Entry Into Babylon Charles Le Brun c.1662–68 Louvre, Paris, France

The Deposition Laurent de La Hyre 1655 Musée des Beaux-Arts, Rouen

La Hyre was one of the leading painters in Paris around the center of the century. In his subsequently works such as this, his style—solid and dignified—was strongly influenced by Poussin.

This huge, incident-packed painting— more than 23ft ( 7m ) in width—is one of a series on the victories of Alexander the Great that Le Brun produced as designs for the Gobelins tapestry factory. They pay flattering protection to Louis XIV, who saw himself as a great conqueror, like Alexander.


Flowers in a modeled Vase

Nicolas Poussin

Jean-Baptiste Monnoyer c.1680

born Les Andelys, France, June 1594 ; died Rome, Italy, November 19, 1665

Monnoyer had a highly successful career painting deluxe flower pieces. Many of them were painted for specific interiors in great houses, including royal palaces. Louis XIV owned about sixty of his paintings. Monnoyer spent his final years in England, where his make was much appreciated.


Towneley Hall, Burnley, UK

Le Brun portrait In 1686, Nicolas de Largillière presents a brilliant portrait of his mentor Charles Le Brun as his “ reception firearm ” when he becomes a member of the Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris.


Poussin ’ s early years in France are fairly obscure, and his career did not properly flourish until he settled in Rome in 1624 at the age of 30. apart from a biennial period from 1640–42, when he reluctantly submitted to pressure from Cardinal Richelieu and worked in Paris for Louis XIII, he lived in Rome for the rest of his biography. The city played a huge depart in shaping his artwork, for the dignified classical music style that he developed was based on his love for the culture of the ancient world. In hurt of his growing fame, Poussin lived a life of quiet dedication to his solve.

HE USED TO TAKE OUT INTO THE COUNTRY HIS BRUSHES AND HIS PALETTE READY LOADED WITH COLORS Nicolas Desportes French painter, on his uncle, Alexandre-François Desportes



Cardinal ’ s grave In 1693, Antoine Coysevox completes the grave of Cardinal Mazarin ( Chapel of the Institut de France, Paris ), one of the masterpieces of 17th-century french sculpture. It was begun in 1689.

Charles Le Brun


baptized Paris, France, February 24, 1619 ; died Paris, February 12,1690

Le Brun was the head artist during the central years of Louis XIV ’ s reign, not fair because of his own work, much of which glorified the king, but besides through his function in organizing and supervising the knead of others. He was director of both the Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture and the Gobelins factory. His period of laterality came to an end in 1683 with the death of the king ’ s headman minister Jean-Baptiste Colbert, who had been his defender.


Self-Portrait as a Hunter Alexandre-François Desportes 1699 Louvre, Paris, France

Desportes was one of the greatest animal painters of his time, alongside the slenderly younger Jean-Baptiste Oudry ( see p.205 ). He based his employment on loving study of nature : unusual for the time, he produced petroleum sketches in the open air.




MASTERWORK The Holy Family on the Steps Nicolas Poussin 1648 Cleveland Museum of Art, OH

Although Poussin spent about his whole creative life in Italy, he became revered as a key figure in french paint, indeed in french culture in general. His approach to art was highly cerebral, and his paintings—with their inerrable combination of lucidity and grandeur—were regarded by the Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris as perfect embodiments of its ideals. The Academy, founded in the class in which this visualize was painted, upheld the estimate that art was not primarily a matter of self-expression but quite of the rational use of skills that can be taught and learned. Poussin was highly methodical in his function processes, making numerous preparatory drawings for his paintings and besides arranging small wax figures on a miniature stage so he could study the effects of grouping and lighting. Unlike most go painters of the time, he never employed assistants, preferring to work in solitude so no one would break his assiduity. He was once ask how he achieved the perplex clearness and harmony of paintings such as this and replied, “ I have neglected nothing. ” Most of his paintings were done for civilized patrons who shared his scholarly interests—generally people of only modest condition and wealth. In hurt of this and the fact that he led a reasonably recluse life, he was held in such awe that by the clock of his death he was one of the most celebrated artists in Europe. There is another translation of this paint in the National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC. It was once thought to be the original, but it is nowadays broadly regarded as a very dear contemporary imitate.



FRENCH ROCOCO C.1700 –1780


Madame de Pompadour François Boucher 1758 Victoria and Albert Museum, London, UK

The deluxe satin of the dress, the casual elegance of the model, and the charming artificiality of the set sum up the glamor of court liveliness and the enchanting elation of liveliness of Rococo art. Madame de Pompadour was Louis XV ’ s best-known mistress.

At the turn of the 17th and 18th centuries, the deluxe type of painting and decorate that was feature of the palace of Versailles began to go out of manner and give room to a light, bright dash. This style, which is now known as Rococo, first appeared in the cosmetic arts—such as furniture and textiles —expressed in limber curves and a general feel of delicate but spirited elegance. however, it soon spread to painting and sculpt, and to a more limited extent to architecture. Paris was the center of the manner, and most of the outstanding french Rococo painters worked there. Watteau was the first great practitioner, followed by Boucher and Fragonard, who were the most illustrious figures at the style ’ sulfur vertex. however, one of the greatest french painters of the time, Chardin, worked in a different, more sober up vein.



A royal progress toward revolution

The Age of Enlightenment 1751 and 1772 in 17 volumes of text and 11 volumes of engrave illustrations ( late supplements took the total up to 35 volumes ). It contained about 20 million words in all, aiming both to summarize current cognition in every field and—in Diderot ’ s words— “ to change the way people think. ” Censorship laws prevented it from openly attacking the church or State, but it managed to do so by more insidious literary means, and its insurgent ideas helped to create the conditions from which the french Revolution grew. Enlightenment idea affected the arts in assorted ways. They helped inspire in painters an concern in scientific subjects, for example, but they besides increased pastime in classical antiquity, therefore contributing to the growth of Neoclassicism. More generally, the profane expectation of the Enlightenment was depart of the move aside from the hanker authority of religious subjects in art. Rococo painters turned more much to love stories than to the Bible for their inspiration.

1737 France ’ s official art exhibition is held in the Salon Carré ( Square Salon ) of the Louvre palace for the first time, giving surface to the term Salon ( previously the consequence had been held in early venues ). 1745 Madame de Pompadour becomes Louis XV ’ s official schoolmarm ; she is a celebrated patron of the arts, specially of François Boucher. 1753–75 building of the Place Louis XV ( now the Place de la Concorde ), the largest square in Paris. 1756 The Vincennes porcelain factory transfers to particularly designed premises at Sèvres, between Paris and Versailles. Boucher is among the artists who create designs for the factory.


The Rococo period coincides reasonably close with the Age of Enlightenment or—as it is sometimes called—the Age of Reason. These terms describe a across-the-board cultural and intellectual movement founded on the impression that homo club could be advanced and improved through the application of cognition and rational thought—in opposition to prejudice, superstition, and undisputed traditions. The movement affected virtually all of Europe in one way or another and besides spread to America ( where Benjamin Franklin and Thomas Jefferson were leading figures ), but it was in France that it found its fullest saying. The cerebral leaders in France included three men of letters who wrote prolifically on a broad range of subjects : Denis Diderot, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, and Voltaire ( the pseudonym of Francois-Marie Arouet ). Diderot is particularly remembered as the chief editor of the big work that sums up Enlightenment ideals—L ’ Encyclopédie. This huge storehouse of cosmopolitan cognition was published between

1715 Louis XIV dies after a reign of 72 years, and is succeeded by his five-yearold grandson, Louis XV.

1774 Louis XV dies and is succeeded by his grandson Louis XVI ; the country is in economic chaos, leading to widespread agitation that culminates in the french Revolution.

BAROQUE TAMED AND CUT DOWN FOR A MORE CIVILIZED AGE, ONE WITH A SENSE OF HUMOR TOO 1966 | Sir Michael Levey British art historian, on the Rococo style

Diderot and friends This 19th-century reconstruction shows Denis Diderot in his library with a group of cerebral friends. His varied literary output included a good deal of artwork criticism. Chardin and Greuze were among the painters about whom he wrote perceptively.




BEGINNINGS CONTINUITY AND CHANGE The grandiose tradition of late Baroque painting continued in France well into the eighteenth century, not least because several leave artists who had been born in the first one-half of the seventeenth hundred continued working productively into previous age. An exercise is Charles de La Fosse ( 1636–1716 ). A schoolchild and assistant of Charles Le Brun—the dominant french artist of the time—he inherited a good bargain of his passkey ’ randomness corpulent, learned stylus, but his cultivate was freer, more colorful, and more graceful, and in this deference

heralds the Rococo vogue. however, the true well of french Rococo paint was Antoine Watteau, an independent-minded individual who broke completely absolve of the italian influence that had retentive permeated french artwork. Through his advanced choice of subjects and highly original treatment of them, he created a modern ocular kingdom. His freshness of imagination and sensitivity of handling established a classifiable outlook—full of charm, elegance, and dreamy romance—that seems quintessentially parisian.

ARTISTIC INFLUENCES Watteau ’ s artistic education was patchy but deviate. In his early years he did a good deal of hackwork, producing copies for picture dealers, which brought him into reach with a image of styles and types of work. however, his sleep together of the field was merely as firm an influence on him as work by other painters.

Beautifully dressed young lovers in a garden or park set is a custom that ultimately goes back to chivalric manuscripts. Music making features in this 15th-century miniature, as it does in much of Watteau ’ mho workplace.

Luxurious clothes and fabrics are frequently outstanding in Rococo art. Veronese was a victor at depicting their colors and textures. There is a kinship here with Watteau ’ s liking for pink silks and satins.

Rubens was idolized by Watteau, who studied his study intently, making numerous drawings. This beautiful celebration of love and marriage was a direct inhalation for Watteau ’ s depictions of courtship and flirtation.

Claude Gillot, Watteau ’ s independent teacher in Paris, had a firm matter to in the theater—one that he shared with his bang-up schoolchild. The highly artificial world of Watteau ’ s paintings owe much to the stage.

The Fountain of Life, miniature from a 15th-century italian manuscript. Biblioteca Estense Universitaria, Modena, Italy

Mars and Venus United by Love, c.1575, Paolo Veronese, shows his typical domination of texture. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City, NY

The Garden of Love, c.1633, Sir Peter Paul Rubens, was a much copied and admired oeuvre. Prado, Madrid, Spain

Sketches of Costumes for the Commedia dell ’ Arte, c.1700, by Gillot. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City, NY


TURNING POINT Antoine Watteau

Antoine Watteau 1717 Louvre, Paris, France

give birth Valenciennes, France, October 10, 1684 ; died Nogent-sur-Marne, France, July 18, 1721

Watteau presented this mental picture to the Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris to mark his membership. The subject, taken from a contemporary play, is a quixotic pilgrimage to the island where Venus was born. The painting did not fit into conventional categories, so the Academy invented one for the occasion, describing Watteau as a cougar of “ fêtes galantes ” ( literally “ amatory festivals, ” but often translated as “ courtship parties ” ). In creating this new type of visualize, Watteau showed a charm, sensuousness, and lightness of touch that set the tone for french paint for the adjacent half century.


Pilgrimage to the Isle of Cythera

Watteau ’ mho unretentive life was marred by illness, and his awareness of his own mortality is possibly reflected in his artwork. Unlike most Rococo paintings, Watteau ’ mho often have a feel of somber underneath the frivolous surface—a reminder that animation ’ randomness pleasures, however dulcet, are fleeting. He had a difficult disposition but besides many loyal and indulgent friends, and his knead was in big demand. In 1720–21 he visited Dr. Richard Mead ( a renowned doctor and artwork collector ) in London about his tuberculosis, but died soon subsequently, aged 36.

THIS IS THE MOST RENOWNED OF WATTEAU ’ S PICTURES AND IN A SENSE THE MOST PHILOSOPHICAL 1967 | Anita Brookner british art historian and novelist



The Artist and His Family


Nicolas de Largillière c.1710 Louvre, Paris, France

This painting, created for Largillière ’ s own atonement, is more informal than his commission portraits. The artist shows himself as a state valet ; his daughter sings to entertain her parents.

In the early years of the eighteenth hundred, elements of the Baroque and Rococo styles blended, but Watteau broke away decisively from old conventions, giving french painting a classifiable affair and sparkle. The Rococo style reached its bill of exuberance and ( often gently erotic ) charm around the middle of the century, particularly in the work of Boucher and his pupil Fragonard. By the 1770s, however, taste was beginning to turn away from frivolity and the new, austere expectation would soon find expression in hearty Neoclassicism.



1710 A newfangled master

Watteau leaves the studio of Claude Gillot in 1707–08 and becomes an assistant to Claude Audran, a specialist in cosmetic painting.

Hyacinthe Rigaud born Perpignan, France, July 18, 1659 ; died Paris, France, December 29, 1743



together with his acquaintance Nicolas de Largillière, Rigaud was the leading french portraitist of his period. The two artists tended to work for slightly different markets, Rigaud depicting gentry and royalty ( including foreign visitors to the french court ), while Largillière painted the affluent middle classes. Rigaud ran a large and well-organized studio apartment to meet the demand for his work. He kept detailed records, which provide valuable information about aesthetic practice in his day.

Louis XIV Hyacinthe Rigaud 1701 Louvre, Paris, France

Louis commissioned this portrait as a endow for his grandson, Philip V of Spain, but when he saw the finished work he was so pleased with this overpower effigy of royal power and gaudery that he kept it for himself and ordered a transcript for Philip.



Jean-Siméon Chardin Perseus and Andromeda

bear Paris, France, November 2, 1699 ; died Paris, December 6, 1779

Francois Lemoyne 1723 Wallace Collection, London, UK


Lemoyne ’ mho debonair, fluent, graceful manner, as exemplified in this picture, brought him great success. however, he suffered from depressive disorder and committed suicide when obviously at the altitude of his career.

Chardin stands apart from the mainstream of french paint in the eighteenth hundred. He had no interest in glamorous subjects, concentrating on modest still animation and quiet scenes of casual life. however, his inerrable sense of structure and symmetry, his sensitivity of tint, and his avoidance of superficial or distracting elements give his paintings a feel of deep seriousness and dateless dignity. appropriately, his life was one of unassuming commitment to his art.

The House of Cards Jean-Siméon Chardin c.1737 National Gallery, London, UK

Although it is first and foremost a lovely depiction of childhood innocence, pictures such as this were—at the time—often given a moralize message. The fragility of the house of cards in Chardin ’ s paint was made to stand for the vulnerability of all homo enterprise.






1740 Tapestry designs In 1736 François Boucher makes his first designs for tapestry—a type of sour that becomes an important share of his huge end product. In 1755 he becomes director of the Gobelins tapestry factory.

The dead Wolf Jean-Baptiste Oudry 1721 Wallace Collection, London, UK

Oudry was one of the most applaud animal painters of the eighteenth hundred. This video is a superb demonstration of his skills in painting not good animals—alive and dead—but besides diverse types of still-life detail.

Death of St. Scholastica Jean Restout 1730 Musée des Beaux-Arts, Tours, France

Restout was one of the few french painters of the time to concentrate on good religious paintings. here the aroused effect continues the Baroque custom, but the gracefulness is Rococo in emotional state.


Self-Portrait Maurice-Quentin de La Tour 1751 Musée de Picardie, Amiens, France

Pastel portraiture had a capital vogue in the eighteenth century, particularly in France, where La Tour was one of the run specialists. He was renowned for his bouncy portrayal, beautiful color, and ability to depict the textures of epicurean materials, such as silk and velvet.

The Miracle of St. Benedict Pierre Subleyras 1744 S. Francesca Romano, Rome, Italy

Subleyras spent most of his career in Rome, where the baronial sobriety of his work—especially in religious subjects—was more valued than in France. St. Benedict, founder of the Benedictines, is said to have performed miracles, including reviving a dead child.

Death of a disciple Nicolas Lancret dies in Paris in 1743, aged 53. Lancret founded his successful career on imitating the style of Watteau, who may have briefly taught him.



François Boucher bear Paris, France, September 29, 1703 ; died Paris, May 30, 1770



Boucher was the most versatile, prolific, and successful chief of french Rococo, with a long list of honors to his name, including being appointed first painter to the king in 1765. In addition to a big output of paintings of respective types, he produced designs for tapestries, the stage, porcelain, and much else besides—even down to fashion items, such as fans. His dash was charmingly artificial and sentimental, although underpinned by formidable art as a draftsman.

The Four Seasons : Summer François Boucher 1755 Frick Collection, New York City, NY

This is part of a serial of four allegories of the seasons that Boucher painted for his eminent patron Madame de Pompadour. It was a reasonably modest commission—the pictures are small—but he lavished great care on these exquisite confections, which rank among his loveliest creations.





Hubert Robert


digest Paris, France, May 22, 1733 ; died Paris, April 15, 1808

Robert was nicknamed “ Robert des Ruines, ” because he was the lead specialist in paintings depicting ruin buildings, both real and fanciful. His work combines nobility of invention with delicacy of touch—indeed his full of life, fluid brushwork recalls that of his ally Fragonard. Robert had a highly successful career, although he was imprisoned for a fourth dimension during the french Revolution. He continued painting even when he was in prison, and worked until the end of his life.

Architectural Capriccio Hubert Robert 1768



1844 | Théophile Thoré French art critic, on Fragonard ’ mho Young Girl Reading

The Broken Pitcher Louvre, Paris, France

At the vertex of his career Greuze was wide admired for pictures such as this, which have a bathetic spell but are besides mildly titillating ( the break pottery is an allusion to lost virginity ). The french Revolution radically changed aesthetic tastes, and Greuze died in poverty.

Pastel portraits

The term capriccio has diverse meanings in art, but it is most frequently applied to paintings such as this, in which veridical buildings and structures —Trajan ’ second Column in Rome stands in the center—are combined with fanciful ones.

Chardin exhibits pastel portraits of himself and his wife at the Paris Salon in 1775. He took up pastels recently in life after the lead in oil paints caused an eye ailment.



Jean-Baptiste Greuze 1771

Bowes Museum, Barnard Castle, UK

Young Girl Reading Jean-Honoré Fragonard c.1776 National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC

As preference began to turn against Rococo carefreeness, Fragonard experimented with other idioms to test the marketplace. This young charwoman is just a adorable as those in earlier Fragonard paintings, but there is no hint of bagatelle in her bookish preoccupation in her book.




MASTERWORK The Swing Jean-Honoré Fragonard 1767 Wallace Collection, London, UK

The distinguished french artwork historian Pierre Rosenberg described Fragonard as the “ fragrant essence ” of the eighteenth century, and this painting—his most celebrated work—could be described as the fragrant kernel of the Rococo stylus. All is enchantment as the beautiful girlfriend, in her coral pink dress, gaily flies through the air—as light and graceful as a butterfly. For beauty of coloring material, dexterity of brushwork, and vivaciousness of standard atmosphere, it is unsurpassed in the art of its clock time. We are fortunate that we have a contemporaneous account—by the french poet Charles Collé—of how the painting came to be commissioned. Collé writes that a minor cougar called Gabriel-François Doyen told him a “ gentleman of the court ” asked him to paint a picture showing his mistress on a swing being pushed by a bishop, whilst the gentleman himself should be placed “ in such a room that I would be able to see the legs of the

cover girl girl. ” Doyen was “ petrified ” at this risqué idea and suggested it was much more suitable to Fragonard, who accepted the commission. The “ valet of the court ” is never named by Collé, although he was possibly the Baron de Saint-Julien. Fragonard changed the bishop to an aged man, who—it can be assumed—is the girlfriend ’ south conserve. He is outwitted by her young lover, who reclines in the bushes, out of sight of the conserve but enjoying an stimulate view of the wife. Above the young man, a statue of Cupid ( the idol of erotic love ) joins in the bet on, putting a finger to his lips to urge secrecy. Another playful detail, easily overlooked, is the little frank who appears at the bottom correctly of the scene. Dogs were much used in art as symbols of fidelity, and this one trap as if trying to warn the unfortunate conserve that he is being cuckolded.

Jean-Honoré Fragonard


born Grasse, France, April 5, 1732 ; died Paris, France, August 22, 1806

1972 | Donald Posner American artwork historian



Fragonard trained under Boucher and in 1752 won the prestigious Prix de Rome art eruditeness. This brought him a menstruation of study at the french Academy in Rome from 1756 to 1761. After he returned to Paris, he tried to establish himself as a painter of large-scale epic works, but he realized that this was not where his endowment lay and turned to the intimate scenes of romance that won him fame. At the bill of his success he was one of the most admired artists in France. however, preference turned away from the blithe Rococo style and the french Revolution virtually ended his career, sweeping aside the frivolous aristocratic world he had catered to. By about 1792 he had given up painting. For a few years he worked as an administrator at the Louvre museum, then lived—and died—in obscurity.




The Artist ’ s Wife Allan Ramsay c.1758–60 scottish National Gallery, Edinburgh, UK

Ramsay was well traveled and cosmopolitan in heart. He credibly painted this enchanting portrayal soon after returning from the moment of four visits to Italy in 1757. His work—elegant and sophisticated—helped to acclimatize the Rococo dash in Britain.

The Rococo expressive style spread from France in versatile ways—through the travels of artists, the international trade in art, and the publication of engravings and exemplify books. It became particularly popular in southerly Germany and other parts of Central Europe, but it besides reached as far afield as Russia and Portugal. In each country there were distinctive variations as the style merged with local traditions. Britain had a certain underground to French buffoonery, but however the Rococo had a major impact there in fields such as furniture and silverware, and in painting it is clearly reflected in the daintiness of artists including Allan Ramsay ( see above ) and Thomas Gainsborough. Some great examples of the manner were produced by painters from countries outside the install major centers of art—Jean-Étienne Liotard of Switzerland and the Swede Alexander Roslin, for case.



18th-century developments 1703 As part of the modernization of his state, Peter the Great of Russia founds the city of St. Petersburg ; many western artists are attracted to work in what becomes a major cultural center.

Germany reborn The recovery from this severe period was slow, but by the begin of the eighteenth hundred Germany was reviving, and it became home to some of the finest Rococo art. This was created chiefly in southerly Germany, which was largely catholic, while the north was predominantly Protestant and more sober in its tastes. The best german Rococo artwork is not normally found in easel paint, but in other fields, including ceramics—the Meissen factory was Europe ’ south first and greatest maker of porcelain—and church service decoration. In France and other countries, the Rococo vogue was expressed chiefly in laic art, but in the german lands it was compatible with a certain type of religious spirit—airy and elate, as in the fantastic churches of Vierzehnheiligen ( see below ) and Die Wies ( see p.216 ).

1707 England and Scotland are united as the Kingdom of Great Britain. 1730 Clement XIII becomes pope. In his ten-year predominate he enriches Rome with numerous building projects. 1740 In Vienna, Maria-Theresa becomes rule of the Habsburg empire. She is a celebrated patron, with a taste for french art. 1760 George III becomes baron of Great Britain. He is an crucial artwork collector, his acquisitions including an incomparable group of paintings by Canaletto.


As the Rococo expressive style banquet outside France, it was expressed in assorted national and local idioms. nowhere did it blossom more spectacularly than in Germany, which enjoyed a remarkable cultural revival during the eighteenth hundred. Throughout much of the Renaissance, it had been one of the leading artistic centers outside Italy, but its art was in refuse by the end of the sixteenth century ( partially because of the disturbances of the Reformation ). late, in the first half of the seventeenth hundred, Germany ( a patchwork of states, great and belittled, rather than a unified area ) was devastated by the Thirty Years War ( 1618–48 ). This was fought largely on german territory and it is estimated that during this time about 20 to 30 percentage of the population died—from famine and harass arsenic well as calculate military legal action.

1768 Foundation of the Royal Academy of Arts in London. 1775 Beginning of american Revolution against British rule.


Interior of the church at Vierzehnheiligen, Germany The breathtaking church of Vierzehnheiligen ( Fourteen Saints ) was designed by Balthasar Neumann and built between 1742 and 1473. One of the greatest architects of the age, Neumann was besides the chief godhead of the Residenz at Würzburg, decorated by Tiepolo.




BEGINNINGS COLOR AND PAGEANTRY The Rococo expressive style emerged first in decoration, rather than in the major ocular arts, and it was in cosmetic details that it most cursorily and well spread across national boundaries from its heartland in France. These details were disseminated particularly in the shape of engravings. They were sold by print dealers in cities throughout Europe, so a cabinetmaker in London and a silversmith in Lisbon, for example, could borrow an identical stylish motif from a french design.


In painting, the passage from Baroque to Rococo was more gradual and less clear, specially in Italy, where the Baroque style was strongly established and cities had their own discrete traditions. It was expressed in such ways as the use of light, bright colors, spare brushwork, and looser musical composition. In Venice, which became a leading center of Rococo paint, artists were inspired by the color and pageant of their 16thcentury harbinger Paolo Veronese—indeed, contemporaries described Giambattista Tiepolo as “ Veronese born-again. ”

ARTISTIC INFLUENCES Ricci ’ second workplace in respective countries helped to disseminate the Rococo dash. In 1716, at about the time he painted Bacchus and Ariadne, he met Watteau and other leading french artists in Paris. however, he was more influenced by italian predecessors than by french artwork. The light of liveliness that characterizes Rococo art is besides found in the work of certain italian painters of the 16th and 17th centuries. titian ’ sulfur photograph is the most celebrated of all interpretations of the narrative of Bacchus and Ariadne, and it was much copied and adapted by other artists. Ricci ’ sulfur photograph shows a different moment in the narrative, but he has borrowed the detail of the vase in the foreground.

Bacchus and Ariadne, 1520–23, by titian, is a work whose figures reveal the influence of the ancient sculpt Laocoön. National

Veronese, with his lively spirit and shimmer colors and textures, was a major influence on Rococo paint in Venice. Painting in the city enjoyed a magnificent revival in the eighteenth century following a relatively fallow period in the seventeenth century.

The Muse of Painting, c.1560, by Paolo Veronese, exemplifies the artist ’ mho gracefulness and beauty of color. Detroit Institute

Gallery, London, UK

Italian art historian, on Sebastiano Ricci

Annibale Carracci ’ s Farnese Ceiling, one of the modern marvels of Rome, was greatly admired by many artists of the 17th and 18th centuries, including Ricci. Annibale ’ randomness stylus is identical solid, but the ceiling ’ s exuberance looks ahead to the Rococo era.

Carlo Cignani was the leading painter in Bologna in the former 17th and early eighteenth century. He was much admired by boyfriend artists, and his angelic, elegant style influenced many of them. He helped to advance the unseasoned Ricci ’ s career.

of Arts, Detroit, MI

The Triumph of Bacchus and Ariadne, c.1597–1600, forms the central depart of Annibale ’ s Farnese Ceiling. Palazzo Farnese, Rome, Italy

Head and Shoulders of the Virgin, c.1670, by Carlo Cignani, exemplifies his elegant drawing. Chatsworth House, Derbyshire, UK



Sebastiano Ricci baptized Belluno, Italy, August 1, 1659 ; died Venice, Italy, May 15, 1734

Bacchus and Ariadne The authoritative myth of Bacchus and Ariadne was a darling subject of Ricci ’ south, which he treated several times during his career. This is possibly his finest interpretation of the composition and indeed one of his most beautiful creations. Artists have depicted diverse points in the lovers ’ story ( titian memorably showed their first suffer ), and here Ricci has chosen their wedding. The youthful fly figure standing between them is Hymen, the Greek god of marriage. Ricci absorbed a host of influences on his across-the-board travels, but his borrowings are rarely obvious, since he blended them into such a debonair, mellifluous manner. The easy grace of his compositions belies the heavily work Ricci put into them. He was a give draftsman and made numerous preparatory studies for his paintings.


Sebastiano Ricci c.1716 Schloss Weissenstein, Pommersfelden, Germany

Ricci was one of the leading italian painters in the period of transition between Baroque and Rococo. He spent a good deal of his career in Venice and he is broadly regarded as a venetian artist, but he worked in many other places in Italy and besides in England, Belgium, France, and Germany. This itinerant career reflects not only the demand for his work ( which made him a affluent man ), but besides his stormy love life, which—in his early years— sometimes caused him to move in haste. His travels helped to spread elements of the Rococo style. Ricci was versatile and prolific, painting versatile types of pictures ( particularly on religious and fabulous subjects ) in anoint and fresco. He sometimes collaborated with his nephew Marco Ricci ( 1676–1730 ), who was chiefly a landscape cougar.




TIMELINE Venus and Cupid

Although France could now claim leadership in the ocular arts, Italy remained highly significant in painting during the eighteenth century. It attracted many affluent aesthetic tourists ( particularly from Britain ), and some of the finest italian painters of the time— Batoni and Canaletto, for example—worked largely to supply their needs. By about 1780 the appeal of Rococo was beginning to give way virtually everywhere to the asperity of Neoclassicism. however, in some parts of Central Europe the Rococo style continued to flourish until virtually the conclusion of the hundred.

Majestic monastery

Military memorial

In 1702, building starts on the monastery at Melk, Austria, designed by Jacob Prandtauer. It is decorated with some outstanding Rococo frescoes.

Blenheim Palace is begun in Oxfordshire, England, in 1705. It is a endowment of thanksgiving to the Duke of Marlborough for his victories over Louis XIV.



Adriaan van five hundred Werff 1718 Wallace Collection, London, UK

Van five hundred Werff was the most acclaim dutch painter of his time, with an external repute. His elegant, highly dressed work shows how completely the naturalism of 17th-century Dutch art gave direction to Rococo ruse in the early eighteenth hundred.

Artists ’ biographies In Amsterdam in 1718, the painter and writer Arnold Houbraken publishes the first partially of a three-volume solicitation of biographies of Dutch artists—an invaluable reference of art-historical information.

1710 Meissen porcelain In 1710, the foremost porcelain factory in Europe is founded at Meissen, near Dresden, in Germany. It produced about every type of porcelain, practical and ornamental, including dainty figurines in the Rococo manner.

self-portrait With a portrayal of Her Sister Rosalba Carriera 1709 Uffizi, Florence, Italy

Carriera was one of the first luminary specialists in pastel portrayal. She was internationally renowned, and worked in Paris and Vienna angstrom well as Italy. Her achiever helped to inspire the 18th-century vogue for pastel, specially among french artists.

The Baptism of Christ Francesco Trevisani 1723 Leeds Art Gallery, UK

At the time he painted this picture, Trevisani was credibly the most celebrated and successful artist in Rome, the successor to Carlo Maratta ( see p.162 ). He continued the tradition of Maratta, but in a softer, sweeter, more inner way.




The Stonemason ’ s Yard Canaletto c.1727 National Gallery, London, UK

Early in his career Canaletto painted some bright, informal scenes of Venice such as this, but he soon began to concentrate on views of the populace face of his city—works that were specially democratic with aristocratic british visitors to Italy.

Composer statue In 1738, Louis-Francois Roubiliac, a french sculptor working in England, establishes his reputation with a brilliantly characterized seated statue of the composer Handel, commissioned for Vauxhall pleasure gardens in London.





A Capriccio With Roman Ruins Giovanni Paolo Panini 1737 Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge, UK

Panini occupied a character in Rome exchangeable to that of his contemporaneous Canaletto in Venice, specializing in detailed views of the city. Some are topographically accurate ; others, such as this, are capriccios— arrangements of real and fanciful elements.

Tavern Scene from “ A Rake ’ s Progress ” William Hogarth c.1735 Sir John Soane ’ mho Museum, London, UK

In about 1730, Hogarth invented the idea of using a sequence of paintings or engravings to tell a moral story. This is the third in a serial of eight paintings about a character called Tom Rakewell, who wastes his inheritance on loose know and ends his days in an harebrained refuge.



The Chocolate Girl

Johann Baptist Zimmermann

Jean-Étienne Liotard 1743 Gemäldegalerie, Dresden, Germany

baptized Wessobrunn, Germany, January 3, 1680 died Munich, Germany, March 2, 1758

The swiss cougar Liotard worked in assorted european countries and besides spent four years in Constantinople. He worked chiefly in pastel, as in this, his most celebrated photograph, which shows a viennese maid.

The last Judgment Johann Baptist Zimmermann c.1750–54 Wieskirche, nr. Steingaden, Germany

This huge fresco covers the nave vault of the Wieskirche ( White Church ), designed by Dominikus Zimmermann, brother of the painter. The biblical final judgment has inspired some terrifying visions in art ( most famously by Michelangelo in the Sistine Chapel ), but here it is presented as a beaming, aeriform imagination, in colors of a porcelainlike fragility. Christ is shown seated on a rainbow.



Exhibition of a Rhinoceros at Venice Pietro Longhi 1751 National Gallery, London, UK

Exotic animals were much shown at festivities such as the carnival in Venice, but a rhinoceros was a capital rarity, and this one, Clara, became a celebrity. She arrived in Rotterdam from India in 1741 and toured extensively for 17 years before dying in London in 1758.



Zimmermann came from an artistic family and much collaborated with his architect brother Dominikus ( 1685–1766 ). Both brothers besides worked in stucco—a type of poultice that can be used for sculpt and architectural enrichment, as in the inordinately elaborate Rococo surrounds to The last Judgment ( see below ). Most of the brothers ’ make was for religious institutions in southern Germany ( Johann Baptist painted altarpieces a well as frescoes ), but they besides carried out some layman commissions.


Portrait of Charles John Crowle Pompeo Batoni c.1762 Louvre, Paris, France

Batoni was the lead portraitist in Rome and his sitters included many extraneous visitors to the city, such as this affluent british traveler. His style has grandeur and dignity, but besides a Rococo vitality and charm.

The Honourable Mrs. Graham Thomas Gainsborough 1777 Scottish National Gallery, Edinburgh, UK

This portrayal shows Gainsborough at his most gloriously glamorous. It consciously echoes the work of van Dyck, whom Gainsborough greatly admired, but the agility of allude is wholly in the Rococo intent.

Gainsborough in Bath In 1759, Gainsborough moves to the fashionable health spa town of Bath, England, where he works for a wealthier clientele than in his native Suffolk. He lives there until 1774, when he settles in London.


1765 Uffizi opens In 1765, the Uffizi Palace opens as a public museum in Florence, showing artwork treasures collected over the centuries by the Medici class. primitively the build, designed by Giorgio Vasari, had been used as government offices ( uffizi in italian ).



1780 Copley ’ s prevail In 1778, the American-born cougar John Singleton Copley achieves success at the Royal Academy in London with Watson and the Shark.


CHINOISERIE One of the most charming aspects of 18th-century european art is chinoiserie : the fake or evocation, normally in a playful intent, of taiwanese motifs and patterns. such fake dates back to the Middle Ages ( beautiful Chinese-style silks were produced in Italy in the fourteenth hundred, for example ), but it was not until the late seventeenth century that it became a distinctive strain in european art, and it reached its heights of inventiveness and delicacy in the Rococo period. Chinoiserie affected virtually all kinds of give and cosmetic art, including ceramics, furniture, and silverware, and it besides found saying in paint, sculpture, and computer architecture. Garden buildings were much designed in chinese dash, notably the pagoda ( 1761 ) by Sir William Chambers at Kew Gardens, London.

The lady With a Fan Alexander Roslin 1768 Nationalmuseum, Stockholm, Sweden

The model for this ravishing painting was the artist ’ randomness wife, Marie-Suzanne Giroust, who was herself an accomplished pastel portraitist. Roslin spent his early years in his native Sweden and then had a busy international career, working chiefly in France ( where he met his wife ) but besides in Austria, Germany, Italy, Poland, and Russia.





MASTERWORK The Marriage of Frederick Barbarossa and Beatrice of Burgundy Giambattista Tiepolo 1751–52 Kaisersaal, Würzburg Residenz, Germany

Tiepolo was the supreme italian painter of his age. His output was varied, but he is celebrated chiefly for his frescoes. He worked chiefly in his native Venice and northerly Italy, but he was admired throughout Europe. In 1750 he accepted a commission from Karl Philipp von Greiffenklau, the Prince-Bishop of Würzburg, and spent the adjacent three years in his use in Germany—the first time he had left Italy. The prince-bishop was one of many minor rulers in Germany, but he was vastly affluent, and his palace—the Residenz—is appropriately magnificent. Tiepolo decorated the Kaisersaal ( Emperor ’ s Hall ), which was the submit dine room, and the ceiling over the independent stairway. These works mark the acme of his career. In the Kaisersaal he painted scenes from Würzburg ’ s early history, including the marriage of the Emperor Frederick I ( nicknamed Frederick Barbarossa because of his red beard ). The wedding took place in 1156, but Tiepolo makes no undertake to evoke the twelfth hundred, alternatively creating a fairy-tale trope of the Middle Ages. The dominant allele figure in the composition is the bishop conducting the marriage ceremony, underlining the fact that Tiepolo ’ randomness paintings are intended to glorify his patron and his predecessors as prince-bishop.

HE IS FULL OF SPIRIT … WITH BOUNDLESS FIRE, SUPERB COLORS, AND AMAZING SPEED OF HAND 1736 | Count Carl Gustav Tessin Swedish diplomat and art patron, recommending Tiepolo to King Frederick I of Sweden




The Ancient Town of Agrigentum Pierre-Henri de Valenciennes 1787 Louvre, Paris, France

Valenciennes visited many archaeological sites in Italy and was particularly impress with the greek remains that he found in Sicily. here, he illustrates the ancient local custom-made of sending out slaves to greet visitors on their border on to the city.

During the former 18th and early 19th centuries, Neoclassicism was the prevailing style in western artwork. The bowel movement drew inhalation from the recent archaeological discoveries at Pompeii and Herculaneum in Italy, but it went beyond bare caricature. Some neoclassic painters attempted to recapture the moral and apparitional values of Greece and Rome, while others tried to bring to biography the words and deeds of their poets and heroes. There had been in the first place classical revivals, of course, but in this example there was a far greater stress on historical accuracy. At first glance, for exercise, Valencienne ’ s The Ancient Town of Agrigentum ( above ) may appear evocative of one of Claude ‘s nostalgic idylls ( see p.196 ), but the artist aimed to depict a specific, ancient custom and to highlight the independent outlive structure at Agrigentum ( immediately Agrigento ) —the Temple of Concord, in the middle distance.



Revolution and conglomerate 1738 Excavations begin at the web site of Herculaneum in Italy. Finds are put on display at a nearby museum.

Changing with the times of the Sabine Women ( 1799 ) was distinctly intended as a supplication for reconciliation. similarly, Pierre-Narcisse Guérin ’ s Return of Marcus Sextus ( see p.227 ) was meant to reflect the predicament of the emigrés, although this sequence of Roman history was actually an invention of the artist. The neoclassic dash could besides be applied unambiguously to contemporaneous events, as in David ’ s Oath of the Tennis Court ( 1791 ). The tendency continued into the reign of Napoleon, who commissioned numerous artworks to glorify his achievements, admiring the touch and passionate qualities of the stylus. naturally, though, the focus of Neoclassicism shifted at this point. rather of portraying the virtues of republican Rome, artists were now expected to select themes relating to imperial Rome, with the stress on its world power and magnificence.

1748 The bury ruins of Pompeii are rediscovered. major archaeological excavations take place in the 1760s. 1768 The Royal Academy is founded in London, with Joshua Reynolds as its first president. 1776 The Declaration of Independence is issued by american revolutionaries, formalizing the war against Britain. 1789 In Paris, rebels storm the Bastille, a hat symbol of royal exponent. farther violence erupts as the french Revolution gathers momentum. 1793 Louis XVI is executed in January. By the twilight, the country has descended into the Terror—a bloodthirsty period when more than 20,000 french citizens are guillotined.


The development of Neoclassicism was affected by a much broader motion, the Enlightenment ( see p.201 ), which helped to shape european culture during the course of the eighteenth hundred. Its leaders placed a very high value on the virtues of reason, doctrine, and scientific study, advocating their habit in questioning every preconception about faith, tradition, and authority. The neoclassic style—with its emphasis on order and clarity—was in full in tune with this lookout. The exalted attitudes of artists and thinkers helped to create a different vision of the classical worldly concern. The nymph and cupids of Rococo art were replaced with dangerous themes from ancient history, and painters took pains to make these look deoxyadenosine monophosphate authentic as potential. The setting of Benjamin West ’ s Agrippina ( see p.225 ), for exercise, is based on Robert Adam ’ s illustrations of the Roman ruins at Spalatro ( immediately Split ). similarly, Joseph-Marie Vien ’ s Neoclassical scenes often include detail depictions of artifacts excavated at Herculaneum. Mythological themes were still acceptable, but tended to be heroic scenes from Homer, quite than the amatory interludes of the gods. In France, many of the historic pictures that were produced in the 1780s related to the republican phase of Roman history. inescapably, this has led to conjecture that these paintings were meant as political propaganda. This is apprehensible, given Jacques-Louis David ’ s subsequent close engagement with the revolutionary government—he was a penis of the National Convention and voted for the death of Louis XVI —but it remains arguable. After the Revolution, however, there is no doubt that Neoclassical art was sometimes created with debate political purpose. David ’ s Intervention

1804 Napoleon is crowned emperor butterfly by Pope Pius VII in Paris. 1814 At the Congress of Vienna, politicians revise the map of Europe as the Napoleonic era nears its end.


Revolutionary mood The Marseillaise was both the national anthem and the rallying cry of the french Revolution. This sculpt of the like name adorns the Arc de Triomphe, the triumphal arch commissioned by Napoleon in Paris, depicting the passing of volunteers for the french Revolutionary Wars in 1792.




BEGINNINGS REDISCOVERING THE PAST The classical remains at Rome had long been recognized as one of the foundations of westerly culture. The city had been the highlight of the Grand Tour since the seventeenth hundred, and the french had been rewarding their most bright new artists with the Prix de Rome since 1666. however, the discoveries at Herculaneum and Pompeii in the 1700s aroused fresh sake and were made all the more tantalizing because images of them were cautiously controlled. The lone official illustrations, published by the

MY MASTER OR MY FATHER, IT IS ONE AND THE SAME ; [ VIEN ] KNOWS MY FAULTS AND MY UNCERTAINTIES 1785 | Jacques-Louis David Neoclassical painter and former student of Vien

Accademia Ercolanese, had a limited circulation, and sketching at the locate was prohibited. The archaeological discoveries coincided with influential publications in the 1750s. In addition to Winckelmann ’ mho books, there was Robert Wood ’ randomness analysis of the ruins at Palmyra ( 1753 ) and Balbec ( 1757 ) in contemporary Syria and Lebanon, and the Comte de Caylus ’ s exhaustive, 7-volume discipline of antiquities from Greece, Rome, and Egypt ( 1752–67 ). These inspired the first major Neoclassical paintings in the early 1760s.

ARTISTIC INFLUENCES Rome was the immediate informant for many aspects of Neoclassicism. Winckelmann worked there angstrom librarian to Cardinal Albani, the affluent patron who commissioned Mengs to paint his Parnassus. Visitors to the city would constantly take home examples of Piranesi ’ second engravings as souvenirs of their enlistment, while his acquaintance Robert Adam frequently incorporated details from the prints into his own designs. Watercolor cakes were a convenient means of storing and using paint. In 1781, William and Thomas Reeves won the Silver Palette of the Society of Arts for devising the action. early examples were difficult and had to be grated.

Paintbox by William Reeves and John Inwood, who were art suppliers with a denounce in London that specialized in “ superfine Cake Colors. ”

Giovanni Battista Piranesi found success with his influential series of Vedute ( “ Views ” ) of Rome. He used an exaggerated sense of scale to make the ruins appear even grander than they actually were.

View of the Colosseum, 1761, by Piranesi makes the Roman landmark appear gigantic with its bantam figures and dramatic perspective. secret Collection

Robert Adam ’ south architecture and inner purpose spread the taste for Neoclassicism in the US and UK. Much of his inspiration came from a close study of Diocletian ’ s Palace at Spalatro—Split in contemporary Croatia—one of the last great surviving roman monuments.

Syon House, renovated 1762–69 by Adam, contains a copy of the Dying Gaul, one of the most lionize statues of antiquity. Syon

Johann Joachim Winckelmann ( 1717–68 ), a german archeologist and art historian, exerted a huge influence on Mengs and his circle, through his study of ancient art : Reflections on the Painting and Sculpture of the Greeks ( 1755 ).

Portrait of the author, 1750s, german School, surrounded by the classical remains that had inspired his writings. Royal Castle,

House, London, UK

Warsaw, Poland



Joseph-Marie Vien born Montpellier, France, June 18, 1716 ; died Paris, France, March 27, 1809

The Cupid Seller This is a landmark painting in Neoclassical art and is one of the first examples to take direct inhalation from the late archaeological discoveries. It is based on a rampart paint found near the Roman town of Herculaneum ( see p.39 ). Vien used the only available ocular source, an illustration published by the Accademia Ercolanese, but he modified it well, adding a more detail setting with appropriately classical trappings. even so, the pettiness of the root and the prettiness of the figures still have Rococo overtones. Vien exhibited the painting in Paris in 1763, merely a year before Jacques-Louis David enrolled in private classes with him.


Joseph-Marie Vien 1763 Château de Fontainebleau, France

Vien was a pioneer of the Neoclassical expressive style in France and an influential teacher, with David among his pupils. He won the Prix de Rome in 1743 and spent six years in Italy. There, Vien was fascinated with Winckelmann ’ s ideas and archaeological discoveries. He enjoyed incorporating classical elements into his make, but the results much seem charming rather than thoughtful. even so, his career flourished : he became Director of the french Academy in Rome in 1775 and first cougar to the king in 1789.



Jupiter Kissing Ganymede


Anton Raphael Mengs 1758–59


Galleria Nazionale d’Arte Antica, Rome, Italy

The initial focus of Neoclassicism was in Rome, where it was shaped by two dominant allele personalities. Winckelmann was the great theorist of the motion, while his supporter Mengs managed to translate his ideas into a total of enormously influential paintings. At first, the main aim was to analyze and revive classical music forms but, as the style go around, there was a growing emphasis on recapturing the values of the ancients. This swerve was most apparent in France, where neoclassicism became associated with the Revolution and the rise of Napoleon.

Mengs painted this pastiche of the Herculaneum frescoes as a individual jest, hoping to fool his friend Winckelmann ( who did indeed believe it to be an authentic Roman sour ). Mengs intentionally chose a root that would appeal to Winckelmann ’ s homosexual interests.

1755 | Johann Joachim Winckelmann german art historian and archeologist

The Ruins of Balbec Diderot ‘s Encyclopédie The first gear character of the 28-volume Encyclopédie, edited by Denis Diderot, is published in 1751. Its radical content will play a meaning depart in shaping the french Revolution.

In 1757, the writer, traveler, and politician Robert Wood publishes his book on the Roman remains at Balbec ( now Baalbek, Lebanon ). Its illustrations prove highly influential for designers such as Robert Adam.


Mengs in Spain In 1761, Mengs travels to Madrid, where he takes up the post of court painter to Charles III. He will not return to Rome until 1769.

1760 Gavin Hamilton born Lanarkshire, Scotland, UK, 1723 ; died Rome, Italy, January 4, 1798



The influential scots painter, visualize dealer, and archeologist Gavin Hamilton first traveled to Italy in 1748. He trained under Agostino Masucci and spent most of his career in Rome, where he became separate of the circle around Mengs and Winckelmann, offering an authoritative steer of reach for visiting british artists. As a painter, Hamilton is best remembered for a series of desperate canvases based on Homer ‘s Iliad. Gradually, though, he found it more lucrative to sell paintings to tourists, ampere well as antiquities from his own archaeological digs.

The Death of Lucretia Gavin Hamilton 1763–67 Yale Center for British Art, New Haven, CT

besides known as The Oath of Brutus, this is a scene from early Roman history. The virtuous Lucretia takes her own life after being raped while, on the right, her friends vow to avenge her. The word picture may have influenced David ‘s “ oath ” composition in The Oath of the Horatii ( see pp.230–31 ).


Agrippina Landing at Brundisium With the Ashes of Germanicus


Benjamin West 1768 Yale University Art Gallery, CT

The Neoclassical campaign coincided with the flower of the Grand Tour. For most of the eighteenth century, unseasoned british aristocrats and gentlemen would complete their education by visiting cities of Europe. The highlight was Rome, where tutors would guide them around the classical music remains.

Commissioned by the Archbishop of York, this austerely neoclassic setting sealed West ’ s reputation in England. Agrippina returns to confront the man who ordered her conserve ’ s death, and is greeted by crowd of sympathizers. The subject was drawn from an account by the Roman historian Tacitus.


british Gentlemen in Rome, Katharine Read, 1751, Yale Center for British Art, CT

Runciman at Penicuik In 1772, the scottish cougar Alexander Runciman carries out his most ambitious project : the decoration of Penicuik House with scenes from Ossian and scottish history.



Chamber of Roman Ruins Charles-Louis Clérisseau c.1766 S. Trinità dei Monti, Rome, Italy

This extraordinary eye-deceiving fresco was designed to create the illusion of an ancient Roman laying waste exposed to the elements. The furniture was in a similar vein—the desk was a damaged sarcophagus, while the table and chairs were formed from bankrupt architectural fragments.

The Montgomery Sisters Sir Joshua Reynolds 1773 Private Collection

This is a study for a portrait commissioned to mark the battle of Elizabeth Montgomery ( kernel ). Her fiancé instructed the artist to paint the three sisters together, “ representing some emblematic or historic subject. ” Reynolds chose an apt composition, showing them adorning a statue of Hymen, the Roman god of marriage.




The Death of Priam Jean-Baptiste Regnault 1785 Musée de Picardie, Amiens, France

The root of regicide may seem politically charged in a work painted barely before the french Revolution, but ironically this was a royal commission. Regnault was working in a highly Italianate stylus at this period, even signing his pictures as “ Renaud de Rome. ”

Jean-Baptiste Regnault bear Paris, France, October 1754 ; died Paris, November 12, 1829



Trained by Jean Bardin and NicolasBernard Lépicié, Regnault won the Prix de Rome in 1776. He spent four years in Rome, his stay coinciding with that of David, and he gained a series of esteemed royal commissions following his render to Paris. Regnault ran a flourishing studio—Guérin was one of his pupils—and he steered a successful course through the revolutionary period, receiving commissions from both the Republic and Napoleon. He built up a solid reputation with his milled fabulous scenes, but he lacked the dramatic flair and originality of David.




American Revolutionary War On April 19, 1775, british and american forces clash at the Battles of Lexington and Concord. These skirmishes mark the beginning of the Revolutionary War— a conflict that will be formalized in the follow year with the Declaration of Independence.

Goethe in the Roman Campagna Wilhelm Tischbein 1786–87 Städelsches Kunstinstitut, Frankfurt, Germany

This portrayal of the celebrated german writer Johann Wolfgang von Goethe underlines his captivation with the classical world. The carve easing beside him relates to Iphigenia in Tauris, a tragedy by Euripides that Goethe had reworked several times, most recently in verse.

The Artist in the Character of Design Angelica Kauffmann c.1782 Kenwood House, London, UK

Kauffmann combined the cosmetic charm of the Rococo stylus with the lyrical trappings of authoritative art. In this allegorical self-portrait, she emphasizes her accomplishment as an independent female artist, fired with inspiration from the Muse of Poetry.


The smack for the Neoclassical stylus was reflected in a rate of media. Book illustrations by John Flaxman ( 1755– 1826 ) proved influential, emphasizing the purity and simplicity of classical art. His inspiration came from greek vase paint and, in this like field, his own designs were much admired. early in his career, Flaxman worked for the putter Josiah Wedgwood ( 1730–95 ), creating a series of ceramic medallions and plaques for his wares.

Stubbs and the Turf Review In 1790, George Stubbs becomes involved in the Turf Review, an illustrate history of knight rush since 1750. He produces several portraits of racehorses for this stick out.

The Apotheosis of Virgil by John Flaxman, c.1776

The Return of Marcus Sextus Pierre-Narcisse Guérin 1797–99 Louvre, Paris, France

Marcus Sextus returns from exile to find his wife dead. Critics thought the paint had counterrevolutionary overtones, since it coincided with the recurrence of the expatriate royalists to France, but Guérin ‘s actual intentions are ill-defined.


1795 Elisabeth Vigée-Lebrun wear Paris, France, April 16, 1755 ; died Paris, March 30, 1842




Before the french Revolution, Vigée-Lebrun enjoyed an outstanding career as a society portraitist. She was a favored of Queen Marie-Antoinette, painting her on numerous occasions. In 1789, these royal associations placed her in danger, so she fled France. Her services remained in high demand, however, and she worked successfully in Italy, Russia, and England, returning to France alone in her late years.

Lady Hamilton as a Bacchante Elisabeth Vigée-Lebrun c.1791 Walker Art Gallery, Liverpool, UK

The inclusion of Mount Vesuvius in the background confirms that this portrait was painted in Naples, where Emma Hamilton ( celebrated as Lord Nelson ’ s mistress ) lived for several years after her marriage in 1791. She is pictured in the guise of a Bacchante—one of the baseless, female followers of the wine-god Bacchus.

1800 Thorvaldsen in Rome After winning a eruditeness from the Copenhagen Academy to study in Italy, the sculptor Bertel Thorvaldsen arrives in Rome on March 8, 1797. He subsequently describes this date as his “ Roman birthday. ” Thorvaldsen will spend a lot of his career in the city.




Anne-Louis Girodet born Montargis, France, January 29, 1767 ; died Paris, France, December 9, 1824



Girodet was one of David ’ s most give, but erratic, pupils. After training concisely as an architect, he entered the headmaster ’ s studio in 1784 and five years late won the Prix de Rome. He was an great portraitist and retained David ’ s scrupulous proficiency throughout his career. however, some aspects of his work led to his association with Romanticism ( see pp.234–45 ), notably his smack for highly imaginative subjects and his practice of painting at night, which produced some very unusual light effects. David was bemused by much of Girodet ‘s work, but Napoleon was enthusiastic and offered him a number of commissions.

Ossian Receiving Dead Warriors into Valhalla Anne-Louis Girodet 1800–02 Château de Malmaison, Rueil-Malmaison, France

When renovating his home at Malmaison, Napoleon commissioned a pair of paintings to commemorate his favorite book—a collection of epic verse by a Celtic bard called Ossian. These poems were former discovered to be deceitful but, at the time Ossian was regarded as the northerly equivalent of Homer, creating a more local vision of the ancient world.



Vien dies Joseph-Marie Vien dies in Paris in March 1809, a year after being raised to the nobility by Napoleon Bonaparte. He spent his final years on the job of writing his memoir.


David and Mme. Récamier In 1800, David is working on his portrait of Madame Récamier, though a dispute soon arises. His schoolchild Ingres assists him, adding a greek lamp to the typography.

Portrait of Madame Récamier François Gérard 1805 Musée Carnavalet, Paris, France

One of David ’ s favorite pupils, Gérard developed a softer, more elegant version of his passkey ‘s style. The original mission for this portrait had gone to David, but the sitter disliked the results, so the job was passed to Gérard.

The Entry of Napoleon into Berlin Charles Meynier 1810 Château de Versailles, France

Napoleon commissioned a number of artworks to commemorate his successful prussian campaign of 1806, when he led a exultant procession through Berlin following his victory at the Battle of Jena. Meynier painted respective friezelike canvases on patriotic themes and besides produced designs for the sculptures and reliefs that were to adorn the Arc de Triomphe du Carrousel in Paris.


Cupid and Psyche Jacques-Louis David 1817 Cleveland Museum of Art, Cleveland, OH

After Napoleon ’ s kill and the renovation of the monarchy, David went into exile in Brussels. In his late paintings, he steered clear of political controversy. In this case, he used an ancient fib by Lucius Apuleius for a moral fable, contrasting the idealize smasher of Psyche with the coarse naturalism of Cupid.



1815 The Battle of Waterloo

Frankenstein published

On June 18, 1815, the compound british and prussian armies inflict a suppression frustration on the french at Waterloo. This last shatters Napoleon ’ s imperial ambitions. He abdicates and, in October, is exiled to the island of St. Helena.

Frankenstein, or the Modern Prometheus, is published anonymously in London on January 1, 1818. The writer, 21-year-old Mary Shelley, was inspired by a dream that she had while staying near Geneva.


THE EMPIRE STYLE The brand of Neoclassicism that prevailed in the Napoleonic era was not confined to painting, but besides affected the use arts. furniture and other objects incorporated cosmetic details from ancient Greece, Rome, and Egypt. In some cases, the divine guidance could come from modern, neoclassic artworks. here, the expansive figures of David ’ s The Oath of the Horatii adorn an ornamental clock.

Augustus Listening to the Reading of the Aeneid Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres 1819 Musées Royaux des Beaux-Arts, Brussels, Belgium

The Oath of the Horatii clock, c.1810, Musée Carnavalet, Paris, France

Early in his career, Ingres opted for an austere version of the Neoclassical style. He based this on his brilliant drawing, commenting that “ a thing well drawn is constantly adequately painted. ” here, the colors are muted, the figures are modeled, and there is no interest in the set.




MASTERWORK The Oath of the Horatii Jacques-Louis David 1784 Louvre, Paris, France

This is the most celebrated neoclassic paint. It brought David international fame, confirming his position as the most important artist in France. It besides constitutes a perfect model of the style itself, its strike ease recalling a classical relief. In a single, breathless image, the artist has represented some of the noblest human qualities—courage, self-sacrifice, patriotism, intensity in adversity—and conveyed them to the viewer in a clear but dramatic fashion. The paint depicts an incidental from Rome ’ s early history. The city is at war with its neighbor, Alba, and the challenge is to be settled by a fight to the death between the three Horatii brothers of Rome and the three Curiatii brothers of Alba. tragically, these families have ties of marriage and betrothal so that, before a single blow is struck, each of the women knows that she will lose a conserve or a brother. David probably drew his initial inspiration from Horace, a shimmer by Pierre Corneille, although this particular incidental does not feature in the text. He traveled to Rome to put himself in the right frame of judgment to tackle the classical composition, and exhibited the picture there first, in July 1785. It was given a ecstatic reception, and again when it was displayed in Paris, late in the year. Because it was completed just a few years before the french Revolution ( 1789–99 ), the painting is often seen as a symbolic call to arms for the french nation, but there is nothing to suggest that this was the artist ’ s intention.



THE nineteenth CENTURY


At the begin of the nineteenth century, art was dominated by Romanticism, which valued emotion, identity, resource, and the forces of nature above the rationalism and order promoted by the Neoclassicists. many romanticist artists were fascinated by the Gothic expressive style and medieval polish, and the british Pre-Raphaelites embraced these sky-high in their minutely detailed paintings. Realism, which emerged in the middle of the nineteenth hundred, focused on the contemporary global, and sought to convey the plain reality of wage-earning life rather than celebrating epic deeds from the past. The Impressionists besides concentrated on the populace around them, analyzing the ocular effects in nature. Toward the end of the century, painters began to explore inside realms rather than external reality. The Post-Impressionists experimented with the expressive electric potential of course and color, while the Symbolists evoked cryptic worlds.

ROMANTICISM C.1780 –1850


The Death of Sardanapalus Eugène Delacroix 1827–28 Louvre, Paris, France

Inspired by Byron ’ s poem Sardanapalus ( 1812 ), Delacroix ’ s enormous canvass portrays an ancient assyrian neo-aramaic king who, as his palace is besieged by rebels, looks on impassively while his slaves and his mistresses are slaughtered, before his own suicide. Its orientalist theme, emotionally charged discipline count, bravura brushwork, hot feverish pallette, and wealth of exotic detail are all distinctive features of Romanticism.

Romanticism began as a reaction against the cause and order that lay at the heart of Neoclassicism. romantic artists responded to the political upheavals of their day by rebelling against conservatism and temperance, giving precedence to the anarchy of imagination and stressing the importance of the individual ‘s experience. orientalist subjects—with their promise of exoticism, freshness, heat, and cruelty—held wide invoke for them, as did the chivalric romances of the Middle Ages. romanticist art embraced a variety of styles : in France it typically meant the dart bravura and heightened color of Delacroix and his mate artists. In Germany it revealed itself in the scrupulously inspired, precisely finished canvases of Friedrich, Runge, and the Nazarenes. spanish romanticism was dominated by the dark fantasies of Goya, while in Britain, it found its most person expression in the bizarre visions of William Blake.



Liberty and reform 1793 French King Louis XVI and his Queen, Marie Antoinette, are executed.

An old age of freedom and the king and queen were finally executed. public buildings that were symbols of the previous regimen were sacked and vandalized, including the Bastille, where political prisoners had been incarcerated. A decade of unrest followed before a coup d’etat, led by an ambitious young general named Napoleon Bonaparte, ushered in a newfangled era and a newfangled Empire. In Germany, which at the goal of the eighteenth hundred was not even a unified nation, a quixotic sensibility showed itself in music, philosophy, and literature. The writers Goethe and Schiller published a series of works that emphasized emotion, youth, faith, and spirituality. possibly the best know of these is Schiller ’ s poem “ Ode to Joy, ” originally called “ Ode to Freedom ” ( 1786 ), which celebrates the one of world. It was used by Beethoven to form the rousing finale to his Ninth Symphony ( 1824 ), now one of the most august of all musical works.

1808–14 The Peninsular War in Spain leads Goya to create a series of prints depicting the horrors of the conflict. 1812–18 Lord Byron publishes Childe Harold ’ sulfur Pilgrimage, a poem describing the reflections of a bored new man who looks for distraction in extraneous lands. 1821 The Greeks begin their War of Independence against Ottoman rule— a cause supported by artists and poets including Delacroix and Byron. 1830 The July Revolution in France succeeds in deposing King Charles X.


“ Man is born barren but is everywhere in chains, ” runs the orifice prison term of The Social Contract ( 1761 ), written by the french philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau. The impression of freedom is a dogged root in the art, literature, and music of the romantic period. It underpins the earned run average ’ s most momentous political event—the French Revolution—which was ignited in 1789, when the french King Louis XVI attempted to raise taxes. The Estates General, an advisory soundbox of elective representatives that had not met since 1614, was summoned to ratify his plans, but the members rebelled and demanded a new constitution. Against a background of hunger riots in Paris, the new Constituent Assembly abolished the old regimen and issued the Declaration of the Rights of Man, enshrining every citizen ’ mho correct to “ Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity. ” The royal family was imprisoned

1806 Two years after Napoleon declares himself Emperor of France, Ingres paints an imposing portrait of him seated on his Imperial enthrone.

1834 A long political campaign by the anti-slavery movement leads to the official abolition of slavery in the british Empire.


Storming of the Bastille On July 14, 1789, crowd stormed the Bastille prison in Paris, to strike a blow against this hat symbol of imperial agency, and to acquire the weapons stored there.



THE nineteenth CENTURY

BEGINNINGS EXTREME EMOTIONS Romanticism began as a literary campaign in recently 18th-century Germany, but its ideas—particularly the stress it placed on individual emotion and intuition—soon spread to the ocular arts, encouraging artists to produce highly imaginative, personal works. Rejecting the calm compositions typical of Neoclassical art, painters started to produce canvases that were often full of convulsion and ambiguity. They began to embrace melancholy and disturbing subjugate matter that underlined the fragility of


world in the boldness of a hostile global that was in a state of flux. Theirs was a universe of extreme emotion, horror, and violence, of supernatural forces beyond homo inclusion or control. But although they rebelled against the order and rationalism of Neoclassicism, the artwork produced by the early romantic artists, such as Fuseli and his contemporaries, inactive made habit of the artwork of antiquity, even if they exaggerated and distorted its forms to produce figures with improbable muscular structure and wildly dramatic gestures.

ARTISTIC INFLUENCES Early romanticist artists may have wanted to tear up the aesthetic govern koran, but they however handpicked elements from by artwork, reassembling them to create arresting newly images of great imaginative might. In Fuseli ’ second Nightmare, for model, the sleeping daughter is clad in the diaphanous robes sported by countless Roman statues, while her elongated arm pay tribute to Mannerist artwork. authoritative sculpture provided a source of divine guidance to many romanticist artists. Fuseli made several studies of the celebrated Horse Tamers on the Quirinial Hill in Rome, and the “ mare ” in The Nightmare bears more than a pass resemblance to the horses ’ heads.

The horse Tamers are 4th-century CE Roman copies of greek originals, and have stood on the Quirinal Hill in Rome since ancientness.

Witchcraft is an age-old theme that has a particular plangency with the romantic common sense of man ’ s powerlessness in the face of spiritual world forces. This long-familiar german print contains the basic elements of Fuseli ’ sulfur picture—victim, horse, and evil spirit.

Sleeping Groom and Sorceress, 1544, by Hans Baldung Grien, is a woodcut showing a bewitched static prepare. The Israel Museum,

Rome, Italy

Johann Casper Lavater Swiss poet and physiognomist, on Fuseli

Apparitions and dreams had long provided subjects for paintings. here an actor on stage is trying to convey the sensation of seeing a ghost. many romantic artists late became ace at conveying the psychological horror of ghoulish visions.

Sir Joshua Reynolds ’ randomness subject paintings, which were much infused with moments of high play, were widely admired by many contemporaries. Fuseli, who saw Reynolds ’ s Dido while it was on the easel, produced The Nightmare in reception.

Jerusalem, Israel

David Garrick as Richard III, 1745, by William Hogarth, shows the king seeing the ghosts of those he murdered. Walker Art Gallery, Liverpool, UK

Death of Dido, 1781, by Sir Joshua Reynolds, draw from Virgil ’ s Aeneid, depicts the suicide of the Queen of Carthage. Royal Collection, UK



Henry Fuseli 1781 Detroit Institute of Arts, MI

born Zurich, Switzerland, February 6, 1741 ; died London, UK, April 16, 1825

Fuseli ’ s best-known work, this painting epitomizes the theatrical quality of Romanticism. It was so popular with the public that the artist made at least three other versions of it. He would have known of folktales of sleeping women being visited in the night by the annoy, having sexual intercourse with him, and late remembering the event in their dreams, but there may be a more personal fib behind the picture. On the back of the canvas is a portrayal of Anna Landholdt, with whom Fuseli was in love, but who had refused his proposal of marriage. The picture ’ s eroticism tinged with sadism may reflect the artist ’ mho thwarted passion.


The Nightmare

Fuseli produced some of the most memorable images of the romantic period. swiss by parentage, he spent most of his working life in England. During an eight-year stay in Rome ( 1770–78 ), he discovered Roman sculptures and the artwork of Michelangelo. Fuseli ’ s artwork draws upon literary sources, and frequently depicts crimson, tragic, or fantastic episodes. As Professor of Painting at the Royal Academy he taught the adjacent generation of british artists, including constable.


THE nineteenth CENTURY

TIMELINE Romanticism in art began to take human body in the late eighteenth hundred, but found its fullest construction after 1800. In 19th-century France the artwork scene was much characterized as split between two camps—the Neoclassicists, led by Ingres, who emphasized line, and the Romantics, led by Delacroix, who stressed color. In world, there was a great deal of overlap between the two groups, and both consider with unachievable ideals of nobility and nobility. Romanticism as a motion died out in the mid-19th hundred, but the amatory spirit of antiestablishment rebellion has lived on into advanced times.

Fuseli in London Henry Fuseli settles in London in 1779. The deficiencies of his paint proficiency are initially criticized, but the power of his images is immediately recognized.


Royal patronage Goya is appointed painter to the spanish King Charles III in 1786, and goes on to produce a series of memorable portraits of the spanish monarchy and nobility.


The Three Witches Henry Fuseli 1783

William Blake

Royal Shakespeare Theatre, Stratford-upon-Avon, UK

Shakespeare ’ south plays were a popular source of inspiration for quixotic artists, and here Fuseli depicts the three witches from Shakespeare ’ s Macbeth. The composition relies for its theatrical performance effects on dramatic tonic contrasts, and on the fact that the figures are lined up in profile, their fingers pointing in unison.

digest London, UK, November 28, 1757 ; died London, August 12, 1827



Blake is one of the samara figures of the Romantic era. A nonconforming who believed passionately in the world of the spirit, he experienced visions from childhood, and developed his own highly personal mystic philosophy. He worked in print, tempura, and watercolor, disliking petroleum painting and traditional methods of teaching art. Around 1787, he developed a newly method acting of printing his own exemplify poems in color, producing works in which textbook and example were interlacing. see by his contemporaries as an bizarre, Blake was rediscovered in the mid-19th century by another painter-poet, Dante Gabriel Rossetti.



Death on the Pale Horse Benjamim West 1796 Detroit Institute of Arts, MI

In this scenery from the Apocalypse the figure of Death, seated upon a white knight, descends upon humanness, followed by a chase of demons. The inspire composition, with its loop humans and beasts, owes a capital cover to the model of Baroque painters such as Rubens.

1804 | William Blake




God Judging Adam William Blake 1795 Tate Britain, London, UK

Blake ’ s God is a stern tyrant seated on a ardent chariot drawn by horses. Adam cowers before him, reflecting the artist ’ s negative attitude toward the God of the Old Testament. This is a relief etching printed from a copper plate and finished by pass ; the figures are outlined in the hard linear dash Blake adopted for his print works.

The Flood Anne-Louis Girodet c.1806 Louvre, Paris, France

Napoleon at Arcola Antoine-Jean Gros 1798 Louvre, Paris, France

Gros was confront when Napoleon raised the french flag on the bridge at Arcola in Italy, following victory in battle. The artist was a scholar of Jacques-Louis David, but this fiery writing is a far cry from his teacher ’ randomness austere Neoclassicism.

Girodet had a foot in both the Neoclassical and Romantic camps. He followed the polish proficiency of his headmaster Jacques-Louis David, but he often favored highly emotional subjects and lurid light. This dramatic picture had nothing to do with the biblical inundate but was intended to demonstrate the artist ’ s originality.


THE nineteenth CENTURY

WHAT HANDS AND HEADS ! I CAN NOT EXPRESS THE IMAGINATION IT INSPIRES. I FEEL A hanker TO MAKE A SKETCH OF IT 1824 | Eugène Delacroix Describing Géricault ’ s Raft of the Medusa

Runge ’ s altarpiece In 1805, Philipp Otto Runge is commissioned to paint an altarpiece for a church in Greifswald. His perch on the Flight into Egypt places Mary and Joseph in a elaborate landscape with a corner wax of angels.




Nazarenes in Rome In 1810, a group of young Austro-German artists nicknamed the Nazarenes motion from Vienna to Rome, where they live in an unoccupied monastery and key pictures inspired by medieval art.

A momentous shipwreck In 1816, the french ship Méduse runs aground off the coast of Senegal. The rescue is botched—140 lives are lost and there are entirely 15 survivors. The consequence inspires Géricault to create his most celebrated work.

HAREM SCENES While contemporary critics much saw french art as divided between Neoclassicism and Romanticism, the boundaries between the two tendencies were more bleary. For case, Ingres ’ second Grande Odalisque ( 1814 ) exhibits the meticulous finish typical of french academic art, but the subject—a dreamy nude in an exotic setting—anticipates the harem scenes painted by Delacroix and his followers a few decades late.

The Child in the Meadow Philipp Otto Runge 1809 Hamburger Kunsthalle, Hamburg, German

Grande Odalisque, Ingres, 1814, Louvre, Paris, France

Runge ’ sulfur baby is presented in the pose traditionally assumed by the Christ Child in scenes of the Nativity. Shorn of an obviously christian context it has a wide significance, standing for all human babies and all new beginnings.




Disappointed Love

Théodore Géricault

Francis Danby 1821 Victoria and Albert Museum, London, UK

born Rouen, France, September 26, 1791 ; died Paris, France, January 26, 1824



Danby ’ s painting explores the democratic romantic theme of melancholy. The woman is heartbroken—a miniature portrait of her lover lies beside her and a torn-up letter floats on the open of the pond.

Théodore Géricault is known for a handful of dramatic works created in just over a ten, which show events or experiences in a grand piano manner inspired by the employment of Rubens and Michelangelo. His best-known canvass is the epic Raft of the Medusa, but he besides painted military subjects, cavalry races, and an extraordinary series of portraits of mental patients. Géricault ’ sulfur paintings exhibit the energetic handle of paint, dramatic compositions, and taste for the ghastly that were feature of Romanticism.

Raft of the Medusa Theodore Géricault 1819 Louvre, Paris, France

An icon of french Romanticism, this enormous sail depicts the starvation and desperate survivors of the shipwreck french frigate Méduse. In search of authenticity, Géricault visited morgues and hospitals to observe the appearance of the dead and dying.




Goya in Bordeaux Finding himself at odds with the spanish political climate, Goya leaves Spain and goes to France, where he settles in Bordeaux in 1824. He dies there four years by and by.

Mazeppa and the Wolves Saturn Devouring His Sons Francisco de Goya 1819–23 Prado, Madrid, Spain

Between 1819 and 1823 Goya decorated his home plate with 14 murals on hideous themes. This one depicts the authoritative myth of the colossus Saturn, who devoured his sons because of the prediction that one of them would overthrow him.

Horace Vernet 1826 Private Collection

Full of drama and action, Vernet ’ randomness picture is based on a play by Lord Byron. It illustrates the narrative of a polish foliate who was punished for having an affair with the queen by being strapped naked to a cavalry and driven into the woods.

THE nineteenth CENTURY


Liberty Leading the People Eugène Delacroix 1830

Eugène Delacroix


born Charenton-Saint-Maurice, France, April 26, 1798 ; died Paris, August 13, 1863

Stendhal 19th-century french writer



Delacroix ’ s emotionally charged pictures have led many critics to see him as the embodiment of Romanticism in paint. He was a bang-up admirer of the work of Géricault—whose influence can be seen in the churning canvases he painted in the 1820s—and english artists such as constable, whose Haywain made a capital impression on him when it was shown in Paris in 1824. In the 1830s, Delacroix discovered a rich new area of Orientalist subject matter at the same time that he received the first of respective commissions to decorate public buildings in Paris. His expressive brushwork and exploration of the ocular effects of color late proved inspirational to the Impressionists.

Louvre, Paris, France

Delacroix ’ s large canvas enshrines the department of energy and ideals of the 1830 July Revolution. The allegorical figure of Liberty, more a woman of the people than a goddess, leads the rebels—factory workers, members of the middle class, artisans, and peasants—over the barricades in a flurry of dramatic natural process and bravura brushwork. The bodies of the rotation ’ s opponents lie abandoned in the foreground.


The murder of Lady Jane Grey

Portrait of Franz Liszt

Paul Delaroche 1833

Henri Lehmann 1839

National Gallery, London, UK

Musée Carnavalet, Paris, France

One of the dark episodes in british history took place in 1554, when 16-year-old Lady Jane Grey, Queen of England for just nine days, was beheaded in the Tower of London. The picture has a romantic topic, but the meticulous handling of paint is more characteristic of academic art.

Romantic portraiture much emphasizes the emotional state of the brood hen. This portrait of the hungarian pianist and composer Franz Liszt shows him turning toward the spectator, the construction on his grimace suggesting that he has been caught in a consequence of intense creative concentration.

Delaroche ’ s history paintings Paul Delaroche continues his deputation to create dramatic history paintings that communicate the emotional impact of events in his 1850 picture of a weary-looking Napoleon crossing the Alps on horseback.



1845 Paints in tubes In 1841, the american artist John G Rand invents the collapsible zinc rouge tube, a convenient method of storing and transporting paint that is to have crucial aesthetic consequences.

Francesca district attorney Rimini Ary Scheffer 1835 Wallace Collection, London, UK

In this scene from Dante ’ randomness Inferno, the doomed adulterous lovers Paolo and Francesca are shown in the second r-2 of Hell. Dante and his guide, the Roman poet Virgil, pause on their own travel through the hell to view the tragic scene from the sidelines.

Desdemona Retiring to her Bed Théodore Chassériau 1849 Louvre, Paris, France

Much of Chassériau ’ s early solve marries elements of Neoclassicism and Romanticism, but he came increasingly under the influence of Delacroix, sharing with him a love of exoticism and rich color. This depicting of Shakespeare ’ s heroine Desdemona exhibits the indicative sensuality typical of many amatory Orientalist scenes.





MASTERWORK The Third of May 1808 Francisco de Goya 1814 Prado, Madrid, Spain

There are few more mighty images of the horrors of war than Goya ’ s painting of spanish rebels being shot by french soldiers for their try to resist France ’ sulfur occupation of Spain during the Peninsular War. The focal point of the picture is the man in the white shirt, his formulation a mix of incredulity and wide-eyed panic, his outstretched arms inevitably recalling Christ on the Cross. Beside him, a man stares at his executioners, while a monk gaze at the prime and clasps his hands in prayer. The next batch of victims trudge up the hill to meet their awful fortune. We do not see the faces of the soldiers in the firing team ; they are anonymous and move in unison like an efficient stamp out machine. For dramatic consequence, Goya shows the fit taking place at night ( in fact, the killings were carried out during the day ), using a restrict range of blacken and brown tones relieved by splashes of bright discolor, such as the red of the blood and the bright white clean of the lantern and shirt. The signally free cover of paint, which Goya applied with his fingers and knives ampere well as brushes, adds to the overall dynamism of the picture.





The Fighting Temeraire JMW Turner 1839 National Gallery, London, UK

The specify sunlight adds a typically romanticist sense of ending and loss to this scene showing the old battleship Temeraire being towed by a modern tug to be broken up. The Temeraire had played a all-important part in the british Royal Navy ’ s victory over the french and spanish fleets at the Battle of Trafalgar in 1805.

By the start of the nineteenth century, nature was increasingly seen by some artists as a brawny pull that was not submit to the laws of serviceman, yet was able of conveying human thoughts and feelings and providing a connection with the religious. For sealed painters, including Caspar David Friedrich and Samuel Palmer, God ’ s creation—the natural world—was a religious act, and the landscape could reveal the Divine. Others developed a fascination with the respective moods of nature for their own sake. Turner ’ sulfur animated canvases explored their most extreme manifestations—storms, sunrises and sunsets, and ships wrecked by angry seas—while Constable endeavor for a “ pure and unaffected ” way of painting to evoke the pastorale gladden of the English countryside. american artists of the Hudson River School brought a quixotic sensibility to their own country, producing dramatic vistas of aboriginal forests, virgin lakes, and waterfalls.



A landscape popularized and accessible

Discovering natural wonders The enthusiasm for landscape was underpinned by a growth in tourism and the theme of traveling for pleasure. travel was easier and safer than in previous centuries, and while in the early eighteenth hundred comfortable northerly european gentlemen on the Grand Tour had went straight for the polish and delights of italian cities, a new coevals saw Europe ’ s natural wonders as worth the travel entirely. The Rhine riverscape was deemed fantastic, and the swiss Alps— once viewed as inconvenient obstacles—were now considered reverend. Seeing the Alps prompted poet Samuel Taylor Coleridge to wonder who could be an atheist when faced with such wonders, and Percy Bysshe Shelley was moved to compose an ode to Mont Blanc. Almost continuous war put a irregular blockage to tourism on mainland Europe between 1792 and 1815, forcing travelers to undertake journeys around their own countries. british tourists, for exemplar, made for the south seashore of England, the Lake District, and Scotland, all of which possessed a distinctive lifelike beauty captured in countless amateurish sketches. But hera, as elsewhere, it was a beauty under threat. industrialization was beginning to change the confront of landscape, leading to the end of large tracts of woods and fields and creating an unprecedentedly artificial environment. The people who lived in the newly industrial towns were attracted to a quixotic vision of nature precisely because they were no longer immersed in the daily life of the countryside, and so could experience a nostalgic sexual love for its vanish attractions.

Searching for the reverend The Matterhorn, a dramatic batch top out in the Alps between France and Switzerland, inspired a sense of awe in tourists searching for reverend landscape.

1792 Start of the french Revolutionary Wars, putting a stop to travel in Europe. 1802 The Peace of Amiens provides a irregular reprieve to hostilities, allowing a brief resumption of travel in Europe. 1815 The Duke of Wellington defeats Napoleon at Waterloo, ending the war. The manner is immediately clear for a smash in european tourism. 1816 Percy Bysshe Shelley composes his Mont Blanc : Lines Written in the Vale of Chamouni in reaction to seeing the wonders of the Alps. 1842 french author Victor Hugo publishes a travelogue devoted to the Rhine, praising the river as “ wild, but gallant. ”


Toward the end of the eighteenth hundred a count of leading european literary figures were encouraging readers to look at nature with fresh eyes. The french generator Jean-Jacques Rousseau was advocating a revert to nature to escape the artificiality of civilization. The german writers Johann Wolfgang von Goethe and Friedrich Schiller were pointing to parallels between human feelings and the moods of nature. nature ’ randomness power to encourage selfreflection besides became a changeless sport in the poem of William Wordsworth and his mate poets of the English Lakes. romanticist authors cultivated sensitivity to nature, just as they besides cultivated sensitivity to emotion. Great aesthetic debates were taking place about the nature of unlike types of beauty in landscape, which could vary from divine and amazing through far-out to classically serene.

1781 William and Thomas Reeves invent the damp watercolor rouge coat, which adds to the convenience of sketching scenes outside.

1850 Wordsworth ’ s epic poem The Prelude, decades in the make, is published in 14 books. It is the poet ’ s reflection on his life and a meditation on man, nature, and society.




THE nineteenth CENTURY

BEGINNINGS AWE-INSPIRING VISTAS Romantic landscape covers a huge spectrum, from calm pastoral views to vistas of a stormy nature that inspire terror and awe. many early romantic works tended toward the spectacular, revealing the influence of ideas about the Sublime, or amazing ( as opposed to the Beautiful, or serene ), formulated by theorists including Edmund Burke. In 1757 Burke had identified terror as a suitable national for painters, since it allowed viewers to feel plug in their own safety. This encourage landscapists to opt for scenes of


violent and rugged places that could evoke a degree of reverence, or natural phenomena such as volcanoes, waterfalls, and avalanches, which induced alike feelings. The impression of the Picturesque, developed in the recently eighteenth century, offered a slightly unlike approach. It favored roughness and abnormality, shunning the repose of the Beautiful and the drama of the Sublime, rather emphasizing concern features, such as ruins. Both Turner and Constable were influenced by the Picturesque aesthetic in their early work.

ARTISTIC INFLUENCES Painters of Romantic landscapes were naturally drawn to moments of high drama, such as volcanic eruptions, infernos, avalanches, and floods, all of which demonstrated the submerge might of nature. Joseph Wright ’ s numerous paintings of Vesuvius reveal an enduring fascination with the volcano, and he drew upon versatile strands of past and contemporary artwork to help him portray its magnificence. Moonlight features in a number of 16th- and 17th-century works by northerly european artists, and late became function of the standard vocabulary of quixotic landscape. Its use adds a supernatural sense of mystery to many of Wright ’ s nocturnal scenes.

Conflagrations had long been a regular feature of speech of paintings of Hell and destruction, and they add a smell of doom and Satanic menace to many quixotic landscapes. The fire in Wright ’ s painting of Vesuvius in full flow gives an eldritch red glow to the scene.

Italy, with its spectacular countryside and classical music antiquities, proved highly attractive to a total of northerly european artists in the eighteenth hundred. Jacob More, who met Wright in Italy, settled in Rome and specialized in dramatic landscapes and night scenes.

Spectators play an essential region in romanticist portrayals of nature ’ s most extreme manifestations, and reveal a public fascination with natural disasters. Dwarfed by natural forces, bantam figures are reminders of the fragility of world and civilization.

The moonlight, detail from Adam Elsheimer ’ s Flight into Egypt, 1609, gives off a apparitional clean. Alte Pinakothek, Munich, Germany

The Burning of Troy, detail, seventeenth hundred, attributed to Nicolas Poussin, depicts flames spreading across the skyline. private Collection

Naples from Posillipo, c.1780, Jacob More shows Vesuvius in a calm climate. Yale Center for British Art, Paul Mellon Collection, CT

Tourists admire the lava flowing from Vesuvius in this detail of a 1771 print by Pietro Fabris. Stapleton Collection, UK



Joseph Wright of Derby born Derby, UK, September 3, 1734 ; died Derby, August 29, 1797

Vesuvius from Posillipo It is hard to imagine a more romantic scene than this landscape, with its histrionic subject, theatrical light effects, and its sense that nature is so much more mighty than humankind— represented by the bantam figures in a boat. Wright toured Italy between 1773 and 1775, and stayed in Naples in the fall of 1774. Vesuvius was not in full moon eruption at the time, but since the volcano was constantly throwing out smoke and lava, the artist would have witnessed some volcanic activity. The view fired Wright ’ s imagination, and during his career he produced more than 30 much-admired views of the vent erupting.


Joseph Wright c.1776–80 Yale Center for British Art, New Haven, CT

Like a on-key quixotic artist, Joseph Wright was bequeath to challenge preconceived notions and try out new ideas. He trained as a portrayal painter in London, but worked for most of his life in his native Derby. His most celebrated paintings reflect scientific and technical preoccupations, and he was the first painter to capture the spirit of the Industrial Revolution. Wright ’ second late scenes of the Derbyshire landscape demonstrated how it was potential to truthfully observe natural phenomena, such as rock formations or light and standard atmosphere, without sacrificing smasher, drama, and musical composition.



THE nineteenth CENTURY

TIMELINE From a early as the 1760s british artists in detail were turning to wilder landscapes, storms, and scenes featuring gothic architecture. By the early nineteenth hundred Caspar David Friedrich and JMW Turner were taking german and english landscape painting to the extremes of Romanticism. Turner carry nature ’ s most fierce moods in energetic brushwork, and Friedrich used a more highly finished style to present lone figures —or features including crosses—amidst huge landscapes, making them symbols of the brevity of life.

Tintern Abbey Thomas Girtin 1793 Blackburn Museum and Art Gallery, UK

Gothic ruins covered in leaf were a perfect suit with Picturesque taste, and many artists toured Britain in search of such scenes.

The Eidophusikon In London in 1781 De Loutherbourg—who had worked as a stage designer—opens his Eidophusikon ( “ persona of Nature ” ), a miniature mechanical dramaturgy imitating lifelike phenomena using lighting and moving pictures.




1795 Gilpin on the Picturesque In 1782 William Gilpin publishes his Observations on the River Wye and Several Parts of South Wales, etc. relative Chiefly to Picturesque Beauty, which defines the qualities significant in a Picturesque scenery.

PRECIPITOUS ROCKS THREATEN THE SKY …MAN PASSES THROUGH THE DOMAIN OF DEMONS AND GODS 1767 | Denis Diderot French Enlightenment philosopher, on the work of Claude-Joseph Vernet

Coastal Scene in a Storm Claude-Joseph Vernet 1782 Hamburg Kunsthalle, Germany

This is a typical storm scene by Vernet, who excelled in inspire marine pictures showing boats tossed around on the churning waves, set against stormy skies. The two figures bending into the fart seem delicate and threatened by the merciless ability of the elements.


Avalanche in the Alps


Philip James de Loutherbourg 1803 Tate Britain, London, UK

De Loutherbourg designed scenery and limited effects for the field, and this painting has all the play of the degree. terrify people in the foreground are overwhelmed by the avalanche ’ second progress.

The madden for touring Britain in research of Picturesque sights was satirized in Thomas Rowlandson ’ s print series The Tour of Dr. Syntax, In Search of the Picturesque ( 1812 ). In the visualize print, Dr. Syntax sketches in the Lake District as his horse grazes perilously near to the water ’ mho edge, and tourists look on from a gravy boat. Rowlandson himself went on several sketch tours around Britain and the celibate.

Gordale Scar James Ward 1813 Bradford Art Galleries and Museums, UK

Ward ’ south depicting of the limestone cliff near Settle, Yorkshire, is a rebelliously national landscape with an about aboriginal quality, symbolically defended by a white taurus. The paint is applied in boldface blocks appropriate to the massive nature of the scene.


Dr. Syntax Sketching the Lake, 1812, from The Tour of Dr. Syntax, Thomas Rowlandson

1800 Girtin ’ randomness painted panorama Responding to the manner for paint panorama, in 1801 Girtin produces his Eidometropolis, a 360-degree watch of London on an enormous canvas. Spectators pay to view it.




Turner ’ south drift In 1804 Turner sets up a gallery on the first floor of his house in Harley Street, London, in which he can show his work to buyers.

Claude-Joseph Vernet


born Avignon, France, August 14, 1714 ; died Paris, France, December 4, 1789

The french artist Vernet trained in Rome, where he cursorily made a reputation as a marine and landscape painter, producing pictures of quintessentially Picturesque sites, such as the Falls of Tivoli. His nautical paintings fall into two contrasting types : composure and storm. The ramp pictures picture ships either in danger or actually wrecked. The repugnance of the shipwrecks fitted absolutely with Edmund Burke ’ s theory of the Sublime, since they offered the spectator the aesthetic pleasure of contemplating disaster and misfortune from a side of guard.

Gothic Church on a Cliff Karl Friedrich Schinkel 1815 Alte Nationalgalerie, Berlin, Germany

In the early nineteenth hundred there was a revival of interest in Gothic architecture, which was seen as more religious than classical styles. Schinkel ’ s church silhouetted against the flip endows the landscape with a common sense of transcendence.


THE nineteenth CENTURY

Dedham Lock and Mill

John Constable

John Constable 1820

born East Bergholt, UK, June 11, 1776 ; died Hampstead, London, UK, March 31, 1837



Constable is ranked with Turner as one of the giants of English landscape art. Both men were committed to the impression that landscape painting could be just american samoa significant as history paint. however, most of constable ’ south landscapes—many of them featuring the Suffolk landscape of his childhood—were not heroic in a conventional sense ; their ability is based on the artist ’ s fervent feelings about the countryside. constable pursued what he called “ a natural painture ” —painting that conveys a truthful representation of nature. He based his finished paintings on vegetable oil studies made outdoors, which are signally fresh and freely rendered. His work was peculiarly admired by french quixotic painters.

Victoria and Albert Museum, London, UK

Constable once said : “ Painting is for me another bible for feel, and I associate my ‘ careless boyhood ’ with all that lies on the banks of the Stour. ” This picture shows the mill owned by his father, the sluice and lock gate on the River Stour, and the loom of Dedham church.

John Martin captures the populace imagination In 1816 John Martin achieves his first noteworthy success at the Royal Academy in London with Joshua Commanding the Sun to Stand distillery, which shows bantam human figures in a whirlpool.





Constable ’ south success in Paris In 1824 constable ’ s landscapes are exhibited at the Paris Salon, and critics and artists embrace his art as “ nature itself. ” Delacroix is peculiarly affect with his technique.

The Bard John Martin 1817 Laing Art Gallery, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK

Martin ’ s painting illustrates a poem by Thomas Gray, which describes the destruction of the Welsh bards by Edward I. The final survive caparison is shown cursing the english troops below, before plunging to his death.

The Magic Apple Tree Samuel Palmer 1830 Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge, UK

Samuel Palmer left his native London as a young valet to live in rural privacy at Shoreham in Kent. Rich warm colors convey a vision of the countryside as a comfortable Arcadia blessed with abundant produce.


Kindred Spirits


Asher B. Durand 1849 The Crystal Bridges Museum of American Art, Bentonville, AR

The american landscape offered its own exalted vistas : here the painter Thomas Cole and poet William Cullen Bryant admire the wilderness of the Catskill Mountains.

Caspar David Friedrich

The Stages of Life Caspar David Friedrich 1835 Museum five hundred bildenden Künste, Leipzig, Germany

Friedrich ’ s paint of a Baltic seaport is a meditation on mortality. The five figures on land are echoed by the five ships at different stages of their travel.




Rain, Steam, and Speed JMW Turner 1844 National Gallery, London, UK

Bravura brushwork conjures up a whirlpool of blinding rain as a steam prepare hurtles over a railroad track bridge. The movie is all about the excitement of accelerate, but it contains a puzzle. Is the rabbit, scantily visible in the bottom right of the movie, running ahead of the trail, or fleeing in terror ?

JMW Turner bear London, UK, April 23, 1775 ; died London, December 19, 1851



Joseph Mallord William Turner is one of the greatest of all landscape painters. precociously gifted, he began making sketching tours of Picturesque sights while still in his teens. By the early 1800s he was a Royal Academician with a flourishing career, producing ambitious landscapes in the manner of Old Masters, such as Claude Lorrain. But his approach to landscape and seascape gradually became more dramatic and quixotic. He toured the Continent several times, painting in France, Germany, Switzerland, the Low Countries, and Italy. In the last two decades of his life his paint became increasingly free, at times about abstract, with detail obliterated by color and ignite.



THE nineteenth CENTURY

MASTERWORK The Oxbow Thomas Cole 1836 Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City, NY

The English-born american artist Thomas Cole was a fall through of the Hudson River School, acclaimed for its portrayals of the american english landscape and wilderness. This gallant landscape—the artist ’ sulfur masterpiece—shows a bend on the Connecticut River as seen from Mount Holyoke in Northampton, Massachusetts. “ The imagination can hardly conceive arcadian vales more lovely or more peaceful than the valley of the Connecticut, ” wrote Cole. But by the fourth dimension he painted this view the place was not the eclogue it had once been, and Mount Holyoke was attracting hordes of sightseers. The artist made a habit of sketching out of doors, and in one draw of this setting he added extensive notes on color. In the paint he intentionally used bombastic masses of opposing darkness and light tones to lead the eye through the cultivated land to the hill beyond. A violent flip and thunderclouds dominate the wilderness on the left, but the storm has passed in the valley below, and its cultivated fields are bathed in a aristocratic light. Almost obscure in the middle distance is the artist himself, who is painting the scene in front of him, his umbrella forming the merely ocular bridge between the two halves of the picture. It is not well-defined whether Cole admired the cultivated land or lamented the disappearance of the american wilderness. On a hillside beyond the oxbow, he left a obscure message : the word Noah is roughly incised in Hebrew letters, a code that read top down spells out Shaddai—the Almighty. possibly the artist was suggesting that the landscape be read as a holy text revealing the son of God.




pre-raphaelite 1848 –1900 A REVOLUTIONARY BROTHERHOOD

Beata Beatrix Dante Gabriel Rossetti c.1864–70 Tate Britain, London, UK

The Pre-Raphaelites explored a new kind of feminine beauty, centered around the “ smasher ” — a beautiful charwoman with a long neck and abundant haircloth. Rossetti ’ s wife Elizabeth Siddal was a perfect model of the type—as well as an artist in her own correct. Rossetti painted this visionary portrait of her after her suicide, presenting her in a country of ecstasy or spiritual transformation.

The Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood was founded in 1848 by three young artists— John Everett Millais, Dante Gabriel Rossetti, and William Holman Hunt. They were soon joined by four others—the painter James Collinson, the sculptor Thomas Woolner, and art critics Frederic George Stephens and William Michael Rossetti. Dissatisfied with the ideals and teaching methods of the Royal Academy, the Pre-Raphaelites took their stylistic divine guidance from italian painting before the prison term of Raphael ( 1483–1520 ). The objects and people in their pictures were brilliantly colored and evenly light, and nature was painstakingly observed in all its detail. They developed new ways of painting narratives from the Bible, mythology, literature, and earth history, emphasizing accuracy of dress, accessories, and setting. The Pre-Raphaelites besides engaged with pressing social issues, such as prostitution, religion, and emigration, and promoted a new kind of female beauty.



Victorian empire and invention

An age of change better in the pre-Industrial earth. Architects such as AWN Pugin ( 1812–52 ) were designing buildings in a gothic Revival vogue that offered a contrast to the sensed ugliness of the advanced industrial city. The critic John Ruskin ( 1819–1900 ) argued that the ways of working in chivalric club were preferable to those involved in modern manufacture. William Morris would late build on such ideas to develop his own brand of socialism. revolutionary developments in the natural sciences, geology, botany, meteorology, and astronomy were changing perceptions of the natural worldly concern. Debates about development and the history of the earth coalesced in the publication of Darwin ’ s On the Origin of Species ( 1859 ), which posed a direct challenge to religious teachings. Scientific question and sectarian division were eroding the office of the established church service, and the Pre-Raphaelites ’ revolutionist approach to religious painting— frequently labeled blasphemous—reflected a desire to create new ways of looking at religion.

1853 The Crimean War begins. It is the first war to be documented in photograph and frontline dispatches. 1859 Darwin publishes On the Origin of Species, presenting his revolutionary hypothesis of evolution. 1861 Prince Albert dies, but his bequest of promoting design and manufacture continues in London ’ s Museum of Manufacturers, which reopens as the Victoria and Albert Museum in 1909. 1862 The second International Exhibition is held in London. On expose are products designed by William Morris ’ sulfur firm Morris, Marshall, Faulkner & Co.


The formation of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood coincided with a period of rapid technical and sociable transfer in Britain. The state was industrializing at a fast footstep, trade was growing, cities were expanding, and newly affluent captains of industry formed a class of patrons excited to buy art. Prince Albert ’ s enthusiasm for design, fabrication, and art was reflected in a number of initiatives including the Great Exhibition—a massive external bonny in 1851—and the initiation of cultural and scientific institutions and museums in London. The 1840s was besides a churning decade, in which social concerns were beginning to be expressed. In 1848—the class that the PreRaphaelite Brotherhood was formed—the Chartists, members of a wage-earning parturiency movement, held a meet in London to demand voting rights for all men over 21. rebellion was in the air, and the british authorities feared that the revolutions that had engulfed much of Europe would spread to Britain. Some critics were beginning to ask whether life had been

1850 An english translation of The Communist Manifesto by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels is published in London.

1870 The rebuilding of the Houses of Parliament in the Gothic Revival stylus is finally completed, 30 years after the lay of the foundation garment rock. 1897 Queen Victoria celebrates her Diamond Jubilee with a festival of the british Empire, which now covers closely a quarter of the globe.


The Great Exhibition Held in Hyde Park in 1851, the Great Exhibition was a showcase for victorian trade and industry. The exhibition attracted more than six million visitors.



THE nineteenth CENTURY

BEGINNINGS BRILLIANT DETAILS In the first volume of his book Modern Painters ( 1843 ) the influential critic John Ruskin argued that the artist ’ mho principal aim was “ truth to nature. ” To begin with, the Pre-Raphaelites interpreted this notion literally, meticulously recording every detail of a scene, although this painstaking approach proved to be unsustainable in the farseeing term. They adopted colors that were brilliant—even strident—by the standards of the day. Rejecting the conventional method of underpainting canvases in earth tones, they painted directly on to a bright


backdrop prepared with zinc white, which does not yellow over time. This allowed them to apply pigments in crystalline layers for add luminosity. Rejecting the blatant brushwork of their predecessors, the Pre-Raphaelites aimed for a flat, flush application of paint, frequently employing in oils the type of humble brushes more normally used for watercolor. When their pictures were hung in public, they were often accused of “ killing ” surrounding works with their bright hues.

ARTISTIC INFLUENCES Many Pre-Raphaelite artists, including Ford Madox Brown, were initially drawn to subjects that featured dramatic moments from british history. They researched details of costume, furniture, computer architecture, and accessories to add authenticity to their scenes, looking to the artwork of the chivalric and early Renaissance periods, angstrom well as the more late past, for divine guidance. The gothic Revival vogue was fashionable at the time the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood formed. The best-known build in the style was the new Houses of Parliament, designed by Charles Barry with interiors by AWN Pugin, on which construction began in 1840.

The Nazarenes, a group of Austro-German artists, were admired by the Pre-Raphaelites. They provided an authoritative case law for a brotherhood of artists who sought a return to early art, and rejected the soft and painterly styles of the Old Masters.

Gothic Revival floor tiles with chivalric motifs were designed by AWN Pugin for the newly Houses of Parliament, London.

Franz Pforr, detail, c.1810, from a portrait by Nazarene painter Friedrich Overbeck. Nationalgalerie, Berlin, Germany

The intemperate, graphic vogue used by William Blake was an important reservoir of inspiration for the Pre-Raphaelites. They initially shared Blake ’ s theme that line signaled clearness, while anoint key was ambiguous, unclear, and manipulated the emotions of the perceiver.

Head of Job, detail from William Blake ’ s The Just Upright Man ( 1826 ), is an model of Blake ’ s linear style.

Pre-Renaissance art inspired the Pre-Raphaelites. They took their cue from the techniques employed by medieval manuscript illuminators, the smooth clear colors seen in 14th-century italian painting, and the glare of tarnish glass.

Vivid colors used by italian artists in the deep 13th and 14th centuries can be seen in the work of the Pre-Raphaelites.

Ashmolean, Oxford, UK



Ford Madox Brown bear Calais, France, April 16, 1821 ; died London, UK, October 6, 1893

John Wycliffe Reading his translation of the Bible to John of Gaunt John Wycliffe ( 1328–84 ), who made the first arrant English translation of the Bible, is shown reading his influence to John of Gaunt ( son of Edward III ), John ’ s wife and child, and the poets Geoffrey Chaucer and John Gower. Brown did a great manage of historic research for this painting, making certain that the period details of furniture, architecture, and costume were correct. His sake in history, manipulation of bright pigments applied to a white background, and aggressively defined forms, had an affect on the early on work of pre-raphaelite artists such as Rossetti.


Ford Madox Brown 1847–48 Bradford Art Galleries and Museums, UK

Ford Madox Brown belonged to a slenderly older generation than the pre-raphaelite Brotherhood. He never joined the group, but was linked with it through his schoolchild Dante Gabriel Rossetti, and his exercise anticipates and reflects its aesthetic concerns. He besides joined William Morris ’ south design company, Morris, Marshall, Faulkner & Co., founded in 1861. Brown often engaged with social issues, and these were to become a major preoccupancy of some of the pre-raphaelite artists who sought to find ways of representing modern life and its accompaniment blue sides—poverty and prostitution.



THE nineteenth CENTURY

TIMELINE The Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood began in 1848 as a clandestine society whose members inscribed the cryptic initials “ PRB ” on their pictures. The Brotherhood had virtually dissolved by 1853, with members going their separate ways, but its significance lived on for decades. From the end of the 1850s Rossetti attracted a set up of modern followers, including William Morris and Edward Burne-Jones. Their ideas became central to the emerging Aesthetic and Arts and Crafts movements.

Dickens ’ s attack Millais ’ second Christ in the House of his Parents is violently attacked in print by Charles Dickens in 1850 for its alleged ugliness.

Tate Britain, London, UK

Millais ’ sulfur movie of the drowning heroine from Shakespeare ’ s Hamlet encapsulates the concerns of early Pre-Raphaelitism : truth to nature and poetic storytelling. The artist spend months painting the minutely detailed background by a stream in Ewell, Surrey. He then posed Elizabeth Siddal in a bath of water system in his studio as a model for Ophelia.

Founding the Brotherhood The Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood meets for the beginning time in 1848, at Millais ’ s London studio. The youthful artists are united in their wonder of early italian artwork and dissatisfaction with the art establishment.


Ophelia John Everett Millais 1851





Hunt ’ s religious subjects Holman Hunt finishes The Light of the World in 1852, showing Christ knocking on a door. Two years former he makes the beginning of four trips to the Holy Land, with the aim of painting biblical works in authentic settings.

The Girlhood of Mary Virgin

The Val d’Aosta

Dante Gabriel Rossetti 1848–49

John Brett 1858

Tate Britain, London, UK

Private Collection

This was the first base pre-raphaelite work to be shown in public, at the National Institution. It draws on early Renaissance paintings and is loaded with religious symbolism.

The Awakening Conscience Millais and Hunt on show

William Holman Hunt 1853

In 1849 Millais ’ mho Isabella, illustrating a poem by Keats, and Hunt ’ s Rienzi, based on a Bulwer Lytton fresh, are shown at the Royal Academy, where they stand out from the other works on display.

Tate Britain, London, UK

A kept charwoman rises from her fan ’ mho lap, suddenly struck by memories of past innocence prompted by the music she has been playing. Her gaze is directed toward a sundrenched garden, hinting at the sparkle of redemption.

John Brett, who exhibited with the Pre-Raphaelites, was a friend of John Ruskin, sharing his interest in skill and geology. Ruskin was with him in Italy when he painted this brilliantly lit view, with its carefully delineated detail.





Although American-born artist James Whistler ( 1834–1903 ) was not a Pre-Raphaelite, many of his paintings from the 1860s show the preoccupation with comeliness that besides obsessed Rossetti and his followers. This coalesced in the fad of beauty that became known as the Aesthetic drift. Whistler ’ second 1862 Symphony in White, No 1 : The White Girl exemplifies the sensuous “ art for artwork ’ s sake ” philosophy of Aestheticism.



Symphony in White, No 1 : The White Girl National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC


A femme fatale

Morris & Co.

Edward Burne-Jones finishes The Beguiling of Merlin, a study commissioned by Liverpool shipping baron Frederick Leyland, in 1872. It shows a scenery from arthurian legend and features a strickle femme fatale.

William Morris reorganizes the artists ’ collective he founded in 1861 as Morris & Co., a company under his lone focus, in 1875. Rossetti and Brown end to be partners.



Work Ford Madox Brown 1852–63 Manchester Art Gallery, UK

Brown ’ s ambitious painting is an emblem on unlike forms of undertaking : irish workers dig a impinge ; a flower seller carries her basket ; a group of orphan children solicit in the foreground. The philosopher Thomas Carlyle and the cleric Frederic Denison Maurice look on.

THE nineteenth CENTURY

The Wheel of Fortune

Dante Gabriel Rossetti

Edward Burne-Jones 1883 Musee d’Orsay, Paris, France

wear London, UK, May 12, 1828 ; died Birchington-on-Sea, Kent, UK, April 9, 1882

Burne-Jones ’ south persona of the steering wheel of fortune, which ultimately claims and crushes everyone, is a mature work in which the artist ’ s taste for classical mythology is conveyed through figures inspired by Michelangelo and Botticelli.



The son of an italian professor, Rossetti was a poet arsenic well as a painter, and an fancier for arthurian romanticism and the poetry of Dante and Robert Browning. His most feature works from the 1850s were jewel-like watercolors of chivalric subjects, and his independent model was Elizabeth Siddal, who former became his wife. In the 1860s his art found a raw guidance, focused on the single female figure and featuring his muses Fanny Cornforth, Alexa Wilding, and Jane Morris.

Poetic inspiration Around 1888 Holman Hunt begins make on The Lady of Shalott, an exemplification to Tennyson ’ second poem and a classic pre-raphaelite subject, which he turns into a complicate composition infused with sex. He does not finish it until 1905.



1888 Millais ’ s exhibition


Astarte Syriaca Dante Gabriel Rossetti 1877 Manchester Art Gallery, UK

This big painting, which Rossetti regarded as his “ most exalt performance, ” shows the syrian goddess of love Astarte flanked by two acolytes. The model was Jane Morris, William Morris ’ mho wife, with whom Rossetti had a long and passionate relationship, but Rossetti transformed her into a mysterious being with an about masculine human body.

A large exhibition of Millais ’ randomness paintings is held in 1886 at the Grosvenor Gallery, London. Founded in 1877, this grand exhibition space favoring Aesthetic and avant-garde works is satirized in Gilbert and Sullivan ’ s operetta Patience ( 1881 ) as “ greenery-yallery Grosvenor Gallery. ”


The Angel of Death Evelyn De Morgan 1890 De Morgan Centre, London, UK


Evelyn De Morgan, the wife of the ceramic artist William De Morgan, was a fecund painter of figures in a late pre-raphaelite dash, inspired by Burne-Jones and Botticelli. This study besides demonstrates her pastime in spiritualism.

JW Waterhouse 1900 Towneley Hall Art Gallery and Museum, Burnley, UK

Waterhouse is one of the later artists who revived the literary themes popularized by the original Pre-Raphaelites. Despite the period trim and dress, the girl here is drinking a libation to british soldiers fighting in the Boer War.

Pre-Raphaelites in Venice Works by Hunt, Millais, and Burne-Jones are exhibited in a group express at the Venice Biennale in 1895, representing the best british art. italian viewers are particularly interested in the Pre-Raphaelite pictures, which have received across-the-board press coverage.




1896 Millais recognized By immediately a successful and golden painter and a baronet, Millais is elected President of the Royal Academy in 1896 a few months before his death from throat cancer.


Private Collection

This tapestry was woven by Morris & Co. at its Merton Abbey workshop, from figures in the first place drawn by Burne-Jones for stained-glass windows at Salisbury Cathedral. Burne-Jones was the firm ’ s main figure architect, while Morris designed the patterns.


Angeli Ministrantes Edward Burne-Jones and William Morris 1894

William Morris sought to unite art and craft, believing that a couturier must not entirely understand his materials, but besides derive pleasure from his labor. While his firm Morris & Co. produced furniture, tile, embroidery, stained glass, and tapestry, he devoted the last decade of his life to the art of the book. He founded the Kelmscott Press in 1891, devising the typography, ornamental borders, and foliate layout himself, and overseeing the print and constipate. Morris ’ mho own literary works, including the prose woo News from Nowhere, were printed by the bid. News from Nowhere, 1890, frontispiece


1900 pre-raphaelite revival

Around the turn of the twentieth century a phase of Pre-Raphaelite revival occurs in the work of younger artists, such as Eleanor FortescueBrickdale, Frank Cadogan Cowper, and John Byam Shaw.


THE nineteenth CENTURY

MASTERWORK Autumn Leaves Sir John Everett Millais 1855–56 Manchester Art Gallery, UK

When John Ruskin saw this picture at the Royal Academy, he wrote that it would “ rank in future among the world ’ s best masterpieces. ” It is surely one of Millais ’ south finest works. He painted it in the garden of a house he was renting in Scotland with his new wife Effie Gray ( who had once been married to John Ruskin ). Four girls have been raking up fallen leaves and collecting them in a basket, and now they are about to burn them on a bonfire. The girls are, from left to right, Effie ’ s sisters Alice and Sophie, and two local children, Matilda Proudfoot and Isabella Nicol. Millais had visited the poet Alfred Lord Tennyson at his home on the Isle of Wight in 1854, and helped to rake up and burn dead leaves. While he worked on the video he was reading Tennyson ’ s poem “ The Princess ” ( 1847 ), which contains the lines : Tears, idle tears, I know not what they mean. Tears from the depth of some divine despair Rise in the heart, and gather to the eyes,

In looking on the happy Autumn-fields, And thinking on the days that are no more. The poem ’ mho melancholy climate is reflected in the girls ’ mournful expressions and the darken sky. By the time he painted the sail, Millais had moved aside from the high-key color and crisp focus of his earlier works, toward a softer style. The discipline is not immediately obvious, and contemporaneous critics found the meaning of the paint apart. Effie described it as “ a picture entire of smasher and without subject. ” however, Millais wrote that he “ intended the picture to awaken by its gravity the deepest religious reflection. ” The paint surely contains many references to the brevity of life, particularly in the autumnal set, the barely visible grim reaper in the background, and the apple—a traditional symbol of enticement and loss of innocence—held by Isabella, the youngest female child. The steeple of St. John ’ s church, Perth, is besides just visible in the background, against the sunset.

Sir John Everett Millais


born Southampton, UK, June 8, 1829 ; died London, UK, August 13, 1896

1855 | Sir John Everett Millais



An artistic prodigy, Millais was only 11 when he joined the Royal Academy Schools in London. There he became friendly with William Holman Hunt and, together with Dante Gabriel Rossetti, they formed the pre-raphaelite Brotherhood in 1848. Millais was criticized for the disturbing platonism of his early works, but began to enjoy critical acclaim in the 1850s. In 1853 he fell in beloved with John Ruskin ’ s wife Effie Gray, and her divorce and marriage to Millais provoked a scandal. The financial demands of his growing kin meant that he needed to produce more paintings, so the time-consuming detail of the earlier works was gradually replaced with a broader stylus. Millais ’ s portraits, and landscapes proved very democratic, bringing him wealth and finally the presidency of the Royal Academy that he had once despised.


REALISM C.1850 –1900


The Gleaners Jean-François Millet 1857 Musée five hundred ’ Orsay, Paris, France

Millet ’ s movie explores one of Realism ’ south central themes : the working lives of the poor. Gleaners went around fields at sunset, picking up ears of corn missed by harvesters. The three figures, who bend over, pick up the corn, and straighten up again, convey the gruelingly repetitive nature of the undertaking.

Realism emerged in France in the awaken of the 1848 Revolution and in reaction to the Romanticism of the previous generation of painters. The Realists believed that the lone proper subject for an artist was the world in which he lived. Led by the charismatic Gustave Courbet, painters rebelled against the traditional historic, fabulous, and religious subjects of french artwork, favoring scenes of modern life painted with an uncompromizing directness. humble people—peasants, stone breakers, beggars, prostitutes, laundresses, and ragpickers—took center stage in their canvases. Although realist paintings are not characterized by a single dash, they are often infused with a robustness and energy, conveyed through bold lines, potent tonal contrasts, broad manage of rouge, and a drab palette. realist depictions of working men and women going about their business could be distinctly unpretty. many viewers criticized such pictures as deficient in poetry and imagination, while other critics applauded them as a more democratic form of art in keeping with the times. From the mid-1850s, the ideas of the french Realists began to influence artists elsewhere in Europe, the UK, and the US.



Revolution and expansionism

The old age of the people the ill-famed “ June Days, ” when politics troops massacred demonstrators in the parisian streets—an event commemorated in Meissonier ’ s shocking depiction of bloody corpses strewn over the cobblestones. ironically, although all pornographic french men did get the vote, they ended up with a authoritarian rather than an egalitarian majority rule. Napoleon ’ s nephew Louis-Napoleon stepped into the gap in the chaos that followed the 1848 rebellion. initially the president of the Second Republic, in 1851 he staged a military coup d’etat, declaring himself Emperor Napoleon III a year late, and the Second Republic became the Second Empire. While the new Emperor tried to implement reforms that would help the lower classes, they did not have much shock on working lives. however, he did succeed in modernize and beautifying Paris ( see p.277 ). Napoleon III ’ south extraneous policy led to his downfall, when France was defeated in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870–71. The two-month Commune that followed was an attack by the work classes to create a democratic republic in Paris. But the government exiled in Versailles violently suppressed the rotation, the Third Republic was established, and the monarchy was abolished.

1852 Louis-Napoleon, nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte, declares himself Emperor of France. 1862 Publication of Victor Hugo ’ s Les Misérables, a major fresh that reflects the generator ’ s ideas of politics and sociable injustice. 1867 The Paris Exposition Universelle hosts a major appearance of Millet ’ mho work, including The Gleaners and The Angelus. 1871 The german states are finally joined as a single Empire, and Wilhelm I is declare german Emperor. 1881 Tsar Alexander II is assassinated by anarchists, against a background of unrest and demands for the abolition of serfdom in Russia.


Realist art reflects the politically disruptive times in which it was created. At the end of February 1848, Paris experienced an rise that escalated into a revolution with Europewide repercussions, sparking exchangeable rebellions in the german states, Italy, Austria, Hungary, and Bohemia. In France, recession, unemployment, and unplayful food shortages fueled the anger of the work classes and the dispossessed. This discontented fed into a long-running campaign by the lower and center classes for the cosmopolitan male right to vote that would give them some way to participate in government. After days of street fighting, King Louis-Philippe abdicated, and a probationary government was declared. A summer of further discontent culminated in

1848 Karl Marx ’ second Communist Manifesto is published.

1889 The Paris Salon is dominated by canvases that are painted in a naturallooking style, including several works from the Nordic countries.


Barricade in the Rue de la Mortellerie Meissonnier depicts a scenery he observed in Paris after the National Guard stormed a barricade during the riots of 1848. realistic detail adds to the sense of traumatize. Ernest Meissonier, 1848, Louvre, Paris, France


THE nineteenth CENTURY

BEGINNINGS PAINTING REAL LIFE During the 1840s many french artists were painting scenes of rural life that extolled its picturesque qualities, although the Barbizon artists, who worked in the Forest of Fontainebleau, were adopting a less prettified, more naturalistic approach to landscape. however, when Gustave Courbet burst upon the artwork scene there was a heavy switch. His distinctly unidyllic images of the countryside, particularly The stone Breakers ( 1849 ) and Peasants of Flagey Returning From the Fair ( 1850–55 ), emphasized the adversity and boredom of rural life. Although Courbet had studied the Old Masters, he besides emulated the naivete and rough-hew timbre of folk art and popular prints in his intentionally awkward compositions, many of which were large—on the type of scale previously used for historic or religious pictures. Courbet and mate Realist Jean-François Millet were well involved in the widespread debate about the lives of the lower class, and both invested their base subjects with a modern heroism.

Gustave Courbet yield Ornans, France, June 10, 1819 ; died La Tour-de-Peilz, Switzerland, December 31, 1877



The improper self-appointed leader of the Realists, Courbet was the son of golden farmers from eastern France. Although he claimed to be self-taught, he had some formal train and learned much from copying 17th-century paintings in the Louvre. He is most celebrate for his paintings from the late 1840s to 1850s depicting laborers or peasants, their dumbly impastoed surfaces showing extensive use of a palette knife in consider contemn for the fine finish of academician art. In 1855 Courbet set up a “ Realist Pavilion ” at the Paris International Exhibition, intending to spread Realism internationally. He painted respective landscapes and hunting scenes from the mid1850s, and spent his final four years as an expatriate in Switzerland. Courbet ’ second rejection of idealization and impression that painting should focus merely on tangible reality had a profound effect on 19th-century art.

TURNING POINT The Bathers Gustave Courbet 1853 Musée Fabre, Montpellier, France

Courbet ’ mho video, with its anti-classical and anti-Romantic flavor, is about a manifesto of Realism. such was the scandal when he exhibited it at the Paris Salon in 1853 that the inspector in charge about removed it from expose. Viewers were amazed by the enormous and unidealized rear of the bare woman emerging from a pool, which was far removed from the refined forms seen in conventional academic paintings of bathers. many Salon visitors, including the cougar Delacroix, were puzzled by the photograph ’ sulfur apparent meaninglessness, and the extravagant gestures of the two women, which are more typical of fabulous figures than real flesh-and-blood creatures with dirty feet. The composition is intentionally improper, about awkward. Paint is applied in broad sweeps, and there are startling transitions between light and tad.

ARTISTIC INFLUENCES Realist painters wanted to portray the modern worldly concern good as they saw it, unencumbered by notions of authoritative smasher. But their view of that populace was inescapably shaped by the artwork of the past. They admired the dramatic Baroque compositions of the seventeenth century, and the study of those artists who had in their own day produced pictures that aimed for truthfulness, rather than some unachievable ideal.

Photography was in one smell the most Realist of all the arts—it had the likely to fulfill the draw a bead on of unidealized and objective notice that lie at the affection of the Realist agenda.

Nude Study, c.1853, by Julien Vallou de Villeneuve is typical of the kind of photograph Courbet is known to have kept as reference point material.

Rembrandt was much admired by Courbet. The naturalism, across-the-board treatment of paint, and rich people shadows in this tender portrait of Hendrickje Stoffels, Rembrandt ’ s common-law wife, are features of Courbet ’ s exercise.

Woman Bathing in a Stream, 1654, by Rembrandt is a tender but tough-minded interpretation of an ancient theme.

Caravaggio ’ s dramatic light inspired Courbet, who would have seen The Death of the Virgin in the Louvre. Glaring, about stagelike lighting gives Mary prominence against the blue background.

The Death of the Virgin, 1605–06, by Caravaggio is a stark and herculean discussion of the subject. Louvre,

Private Collection

National Gallery, London, UK

Paris, France




THE nineteenth CENTURY

TIMELINE Realism was born in France in the deep 1840s in the work of Courbet, Millet, and Daumier. Courbet ’ s art was influential in Germany from the 1860s, the decade when Dutch artists of the Hague School were besides beginning to paint landscapes and music genre scenes in a realist style. During the 1870s a group of russian artists called the Wanderers took up the challenge of painting the more interrupt aspects of company, and Realist ideas engaged major american english painters, including Thomas Eakins. A burying at Ornans Gustave Courbet 1850–51 Musée d ’ Orsay, Paris, France

Courbet ’ s massive analyze depicting a middle-class burying in the french provinces was shown at the Paris Salon in 1851. He was criticized for glorifying a mundane topic and for the awkwardness of the figures ; other commentators, however, praised the “ democratic ” composition in which each design has equal importance.




The Angelus Jean-François Millet c.1857–59 Musée d ’ Orsay, Paris, France

The Stone Breaker Henry Wallis 1857 Birmingham Museum and Art Gallery, UK

In mid-Victorian Britain, able paupers were forced to endure long hours of backbreaking labor to qualify for workhouse lodgings and food. The set sunlight, the man ’ south decline position, and the fact that the mallet has slipped from his hand reveal that he is dead rather than sleeping.

A farmer and his wife have stopped digging potatoes to recite the Angelus prayer at sunset. This prototype of rustic piety was sent on a tour of the US in 1889, when it was billed as the most celebrated paint in the earth.

The Washerwoman Honoré Daumier c.1863 Musée five hundred ’ Orsay, Paris, France

Daumier analyzed the betroth of city workers, including laundresses, who worked hard for a pittance. The painting ’ s drab tones convey a smell of fatigue and resignation, and the generalized features of the mother and child underline the dehumanize effects of such department of labor.




The Iron Rolling Mill, or Modern Cyclops I Adolph Menzel 1872–75 Nationalgalerie, Berlin, Germany

Charles Perrier French critic, on the themes of Courbet ‘s work

Menzel ’ s carefully observed paint shows men at work in a factory producing railway tracks, but it appears to celebrate modern manufacturing rather than offering the kind of social criticism found in Courbet ’ mho knead.

Courbet incarcerated In Paris the Vendôme Column—a monument to Napoleon Bonaparte ’ s military victories—is torn down in 1871. For his character in this, Gustave Courbet is imprisoned and ordered to pay rebuilding costs.




Realism spreads Works by russian artists are presented at the Paris Universal Exhibition in 1867, including a number by Vasily Perov showing scenes of rural adversity. These unwrap that the influence of french Realism, particularly the works of Millet and Courbet, is spreading far and wide.

Ilya Repin


born Chuguyev, Ukraine, July 24 [ August 5 ], 1844 ; died Kuokkala, Finland, September 29, 1930

Repin trained as an picture cougar, and subsequently became involved with the Wanderers, a group of russian artists who believed that art should represent real life and encourage sociable reform. His barge Haulers on the Volga earned him blink of an eye external fame and praise from Dostoevsky, who shared his business for the lives of the inadequate. In the 1880s Repin turned away from Realist submit count and toward themes from russian history, but in the twentieth hundred he became a model for soviet Socialist Realist artists.

Barge Haulers on the Volga Ilya Repin 1873 Russian Museum, St. Petersburg, Russia

Repin had witnessed the hardships of boat haulers during his youthful travels through Russia. The men, dressed in rags and bound with leather harnesses, are about collapsing with exhaustion, but a young man in the concentrate raises his head and pulls against his strap as though to break release.

THE nineteenth CENTURY

Sir James Guthrie digest Greenock, Scotland, UK June 10, 1859 ; died Rhu, Scotland, UK September 6, 1930



Guthrie was the drawing card of a group of scottish painters known as the Glasgow Boys. A visit to France in 1882 exposed him to the exploit of french Realist Jules Bastien-Lepage, whose influence is apparent in the bumpkinly scenes Guthrie began painting. He wanted to immerse himself in the village life of the scottish countryside. By 1884 he had settled in Cockburnspath, a farming greenwich village in Berwickshire, where he was joined by companion artists who were besides committed to painting outdoors. In belated years, Guthrie became a club portraitist and President of the Royal Scottish Academy.

A Hind ’ s Daughter Sir James Guthrie 1883 Scottish National Gallery, Edinburgh, UK

Naturalism encapsulated Jules Bastien-Lepage ’ second Hay Making proves popular at the Paris Salon in 1878. A scene of two tire peasants resting in a field, french writer Emile Zola hails it as the masterpiece of naturalism in painting.

Guthrie ’ south broad, square brushstrokes reveal the influence of french artist Bastien-Lepage, while the down-to-earth palette besides pays protection to french Realist artwork. The girl is the daughter of a skilled farm laborer. The position of her head at the intersection of the horizontal horizon line and the erect of the trees reinforces her as the focus of the writing.


1880 London Shoeshine Boy Jules Bastien-Lepage 1882 Musée des Arts Décoratifs, Paris, France

Although most of his subjects were rural, in the 1880s the french artist Bastien-Lepage produced a series of paintings of urban children forced to make a survive on the street.

Three Women at Church Wilhelm Leibl 1882 Kunsthalle, Hamburg, Germany

One of Germany ’ s greatest realist painters, Leibl spent more than three years working on this picture, striving for a harmonious depiction of three generations of women. The expressions of piety in the face of each woman impressed avant-garde Gogh.



Realist sculpt

End of the Working Day

The sculptor Jules Dalou, fired by his socialistic convictions, begins work in 1897 on an ambitious Worker ’ s Monument to be erected in Paris. Intended to be 105ft ( 32m ) in stature and crowned by the figure of a peasant, it is never completed.

Jules Breton 1887 Brooklyn Museum of Art, New York City, NY

The Larener Woman With Goat

Jules Breton was one of a number of artists ( including Bastien-Lepage ) who produced bumpkinly scenes painted outdoors that portrayed peasant life sentence, but lacked the barbarian social criticism of early Realist pictures. His workers are returning family after a hard day ’ south excavation in the fields, but the set sunlight casts a calm light over the image.

Anton Mauve 1885 Gemeentemuseum, The Hague, Netherlands

Dutch artist Anton Mauve is remembered as a painter of peasants in fields and flocks of sheep. He was one of the Hague School of artists, who were influenced by the french practice of painting rural scenes outdoors. Mauve was a cousin-in-law of vanguard Gogh, and importantly influenced his early work.


1895 Jules Breton born Courrières, France, May 1, 1827 ; died Paris, France, July 5, 1906



Breton became one of the most celebrated painters of peasant liveliness in Second Empire France. Although he sided with the liberals in the 1848 Revolution, and was concerned with social causes, he gradually abandoned attempts to convey the abject pledge of rural laborers in favor of an idyllic, picturesque vision of the universe in which the workers appear lord preferably than downtrodden. This led to critical achiever at home and in the US, and patronize from the french government.

Hard Times Sir Hubert von Herkomer 1885 Manchester Art Gallery, UK

Herkomer ’ s humble background gave him a natural sympathy with the poor people and disadvantaged. He was inspired to paint this movie after meeting a family of itinerant laborers near his home, but the scene was posed in the studio and members of a local family were employed as models.


THE nineteenth CENTURY

MASTERWORK The Gross Clinic Thomas Eakins 1875 Philadelphia Museum of Art and Pennsylvania Academy of The Fine Arts, PA

This enormous canvas tent, measuring 8 adam 6½ foot ( 2.5 ten 2 megabyte ), has been described as the most important american painting of the nineteenth century. It depicts Professor Samuel Gross lecturing to checkup students at Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia, as he conducts an operation to remove some diseased bone from a branch. The identity of the patient is hidden since we can only see the bequeath second joint, buttocks, and feet. Eakins does not shirk from portraying the gory details of the incision and the surgical instruments cutting into flesh, or the blood on Dr. Gross ’ randomness fingers. The surgeons go about their occupation in a matter-of-fact room, but the picture is wax of drama. A female figure, who may possibly be the patient ’ second mother, shields her eyes from the spectacle at its center, adding a melodramatic touch. The students in the surgical amphitheater could about be ordinary theatergoers ; dramatic fall from an overhead skylight gives the whole scene the tune of a

degree set. The artist included his own portrait among the spectators—a barely visible figure sketching or writing to the right of the railing leading out from the tunnel. The man seated behind Dr. Gross is a clerk taking notes about the operation. Because this sequence is taking target in an era before modern cognition of hygiene, the surgeons are operating in their lab coats preferably than scrubs. The word picture had obvious antecedents in Rembrandt ’ s paintings of anatomy lessons and in 19th-century group portraits of french surgeons preparing for dissection. The pronounce tonal contrasts and dashing brushwork may besides owe something to Eakins ’ s admiration for the work of the spanish painters Velázquez and Ribera, which he had seen in Madrid. The analyze was rejected by the art jury of the Philadelphia Centennial Exhibition in 1876, but was finally hung in the aesculapian section—an unintentional tribute to Eakins ’ s accuracy of observation.

Thomas Eakins


born Philadelphia, PA, July 25, 1844 died Philadelphia, June 25, 1916

1876 | New York Tribune On The Gross Clinic



now considered one of America ’ s greatest painters, Eakins was best known for his portraits, which much show his sitters in an unflattering but truthful light. He had a long-standing concern in anatomy, which he studied at Jefferson Medical College in Philadelphia, and attended dissections while studying in Paris in the 1860s. Eakins was appointed Director of the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts in 1882, when he placed great emphasis on drawing from life, but he was forced to resign in 1886 because he had used a nude male exemplar in a mix drawing class. Eakins was besides concern in photography, assisting english photographer Eadweard Muybridge in his discipline of people and animals in apparent motion in 1884, and he former conducted his own photographic and gesture studies. Despite the controversy surrounding his resignation, he achieved recognition as a great master toward the end of his life.




Dance at the Moulin de la Galette Pierre-Auguste Renoir 1876 Musée d’Orsay, Paris, France

Renoir ’ sulfur delineation of a Sunday good afternoon in a popular Montmartre dance garden conveys the movement of the push and effects of natural sunlight and artificial light through the break brushstrokes, blurred forms, and vibrant color that were characteristic of Impressionism. Many of his friends posed as models.

In the deep 1860s a count of artists in Paris came together to form a group with a rotatory agenda. What they shared was not a unified style, but a hope to break free from the constraints of academician artwork, a wish to show their function outside the official exhibitions of the Paris Salon, and a love for portraying contemporary life. Their urban landscapes, sun-dappled scenes of leisure, and views of the countryside and seashore captured what the eye sees in a fleeting moment with flickering brushstrokes and dabs of brainy, frequently plain, semblance. The central figures in the group were Bazille, Cézanne, Degas, Manet, Monet, Morisot, Pissarro, Renoir, and Sisley, but it had a fluid membership over the course of the eight exhibitions it organized between 1874 and 1886. Impressionist ideas soon spread beyond France to artists in the perch of Europe and the US.



A city besieged and beautified

An historic period of renovation exhibited their work under the auspices of the Académie des Beaux-Arts—was placid a fixture in the social calendar, but the individual art market was expanding and dealers such as Paul Durand-Ruel were beginning to sell works by living artists, not just the Old Masters. Although the siege of Paris by prussian forces in 1870–71 induce damage and temporarily halted the build platform, there is little reflection of this national chagrin in Impressionist canvases. New railroad track lines radiated out of Paris, bringing the suburb and countryside within easy reach of the city. Some artists, including Monet and Pissarro, even chose to base themselves in the nearby countryside—finding a broad survival of newly subjects to paint— but retained their links with the capital. Trains provided easy entree for day-trips from Paris and holidays on the Normandy seashore, with its newly stylish resorts. Railway stations themselves were besides a reservoir of fascination as places of movement, steam, smoke, accelerate and—above all—modernity.

1870–71 german troops lay siege to Paris in the ongoing conflict. Monet, Sisley, and Pissarro flee to London, while Manet and Degas join the national guard. 1875 The Paris Opera, the Palais Garnier, opens. It is hailed as one of the crowning glories of Baron Haussmann ’ mho reconstruction of Paris. 1888 The Eastman Company produces the Kodak No.1 camera, launching a craze for amateurish photography. 1889 The Eiffel Tower opens in Paris during the World ’ mho Fair. It is intended as a repository to engineer and a tribute to industry and science.


By the mid-1860s France was undergoing an across-the-board course of study of populace works, which had been instigated by Napoleon III. The country was modernizing and industry was expanding—a development reflected in the railway bridges, industrial waterways, and factories that appear in respective Impressionist landscapes. Paris was besides being given a massive face lift, supervised by civil handmaid Baron Georges Haussmann. This ambitious renovation project swept away the das kapital ’ sulfur wind, chivalric streets and replaced them with deluxe, tree-lined boulevards wide enough to accommodate sidewalk cafe, public buildings, and apartment houses. The newly installed boast lanterns in the streets lit up the city at night, encouraging nightlife and attendance at the opera, ballet, theater, concerts, and dance halls. A series of World Fairs held in Paris in 1855, 1867, 1878, 1889, and 1900 asserted France ’ randomness position in the world and celebrated the arts and diligence. The annual Salon—where artists

1870 The Third Republic is founded in France following Napoleon III ’ s defeat by prussian forces at Sedan during the Franco-Prussian War.

1895 Auguste and Louis Lumière hold the first populace screen of films at the Grand Café, Paris. 1898 work begins on the Paris metro. An initial 6¼ sea mile ( 10 kilometer ) section of the metro system is opened two years belated.


Haussmann ‘s Paris The intersection of Boulevard Magenta and rue de Maubeuge in Paris ‘s tenth zone. The main thoroughfares formed a radio link between the city ‘s railroad track stations.



THE nineteenth CENTURY

BEGINNINGS PAINTING EN PLEIN AIR Impressionism had its contiguous roots in the french traditions of Realism and naturalism that had developed in the 1840s in the art of painters such as Gustave Courbet and the Barbizon artists, who worked in the Forest of Fontainebleau. The young Impressionists were influenced by Courbet ’ s insistence that the artists ’ own know and scenes from daily life were desirable subjects for art. They were besides inspired by Barbizon painters, such as Millet, who showed that it was possible to produce a landscape

without historical associations, but besides to depict it sol that it was rooted in a particular season, time, and topographic point. Encouraged by the Barbizon artists ’ exemplar of frequently painting en plein air—outdoors—the Impressionists left their studios and ventured out into the countryside and town. At the same time, they moved away from the earthy pallette favored by the former generation, adopting pure, intense colors and smaller, more disconnected brushstrokes to record the fleeting effects of light.

ARTISTIC INFLUENCES While Impressionism was not one unmarried unchanging style, Impressionist painters wholly wanted to convey the sensation they felt in front of nature. They were inspired by art from the holocene past, contemporary habits and fashion, and—most importantly—the estimate of painting outdoors to capture the fleeting moment. New inventions, such as collapsible easels and pre-mixed paints stored in conduct tubes, quite than pigs ’ bladders, meant that artists could easily take their materials outdoors. New pigments expanded their palettes.

Portable and collapsible easels were among the mid-19th hundred inventions that helped artists to paint en plein vent.

Marine scenes by 17th-century Dutch masters, such as Willem van de Velde the Younger, profoundly influenced Boudin. Van de Velde specialized in paintings of the sea and coast, featuring big skies and scudding clouds.

Dutch Vessels Inshore and Men Bathing, contingent, 1661 is characteristic of van de Velde ’ second ferment. National

Outdoor painting was practiced by Barbizon artists, such as CharlesFrançois Daubigny, who had a studio boat. Boudin and the Impressionists were inspired by his example, and Monet sometimes used a gravy boat.

The vigorous brushwork that characterizes many Impressionist works can be seen in coastal scenes by the dutch artist Johan Barthold Jongkind. They were a lot admired by both Boudin and Monet.

Gallery, London, UK

The River Seine at Mantes, detail, c.1856 by Daubigny is a typical outdoor scene. Brooklyn Museum of Art, New York, US

Seascape With Ponies on the Beach, detail, 19th century features Johan Barthold Jongkind ’ mho brushwork. private Collection



Eugène Boudin hold Honfleur, France, July 12, 1824 ; died Deauville, France, August 8, 1898

Beach Scene at Trouville Boudin ’ s paintings at Trouville commemorate a new feature of contemporary life in the sketchy manner that was soon adopted by other impressionist painters. Individual details are subordinated to the overall impression of atmospheric freshness, while light tones convey the effects of bright sunlight filtered through clouds. Vacationers had begun to flock to the newfangled seaside resorts of Trouville and neighboring Deauville, and Boudin uses the reds and whites of their clothes to add splashes of color to the muted blues and browns of backbone and ocean. Monet, who besides painted here, probably owned two of Boudin ’ s many paintings of this type.


Eugène Boudin c.1873 National Gallery, London, UK

Boudin, who was largely self-taught, initially ran a picture-framing business in Le Havre. This brought him into contact with respective artists, including Millet, who encouraged his aesthetic ambitions. The son of a sailor, Boudin had an natural feel for the moods of the sea, and he came to specialize in Normandy beach scenes. He advocated painting in the open air—a habit that he passed on to the young Monet, who much worked beside him. Boudin ’ s brilliantly and breezy seascapes formed one of the crucial links between the Barbizon painters and the Impressionists.


THE nineteenth CENTURY

TIMELINE The idea of an exhibition venue to serve as an option to the Paris Salon was first discussed among a group of avantgarde artists at the Café Guerbois in Paris in the deep 1860s. It was not until 1874 that the first exhibition took place, sparking the terminus “ Impressionism, ” used disparagingly, from an attending art critic. A far seven shows followed, the concluding accept rate in 1886. Pissarro was the entirely artist who exhibited in all eight shows, while Degas and Morisot participated in seven.

Pissarro moves to the nation In 1866 Camille Pissarro moves to Pontoise, a town within easy reach of Paris, where life is cheaper and there are rural subjects to paint.

Manet provokes a storm Edouard Manet exhibits Olympia, his paint of a brazen prostitute and her maid, at the Paris Salon in 1865. This modern rework of the traditional root of a female nude creates a fad.


THEY DO NOT RENDER A LANDSCAPE, BUT THE SENSATION PRODUCED BY THE LANDSCAPE 1874 | Jules-Antoine Castagnary French art critic, on the first Impressionist indicate






At the Races in the Countryside Edgar Degas 1869 Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, MA

This view, shown at the first Impressionist exhibition in 1874, depicts Degas ’ s supporter Paul Valpinçon and his family at the races. The obviously casual musical composition resembles a ad-lib snapshot, revealing the influence of photography.

Frédéric Bazille born Montpellier, France, December 6, 1841 ; died Beaune-la-Rolande, France, November 28, 1870

Family Reunion Frédéric Bazille 1867 Musée five hundred ’ Orsay, Paris, France

Bazille shows his syndicate gathered together on the terrace of their family near Montpellier in the south of France. Although the work is quite rigidly painted, it succeeds in conveying the light and bright colors of the Mediterranean, and the feel of gentle cheerfulness filtered through leaf.



Born into a affluent southerly french family, Bazille studied medicine in Paris in 1862, but took up paint. He admired Manet and was close to Renoir and Monet, peculiarly liking their alfresco employment. His death in combat during the FrancoPrussian War was a tragic loss to Impressionism.


Impression Sunrise Claude Monet 1872 Musée Marmottan, Paris, France

Monet ’ s loose brushstrokes suggest sunrise over the harbor in this view at Le Havre. When it was shown at the first “ independent art picture ” in 1874, the critic Louis Leroy coined the hostile term “ Impressionist, ” unwittingly naming the modern artwork motion.

The Cradle Berthe Morisot 1874 Musée five hundred ’ Orsay, Paris, France

Berthe Morisot was the first woman to show with the Impressionist group in 1874, and motherhood became one of her favorite subjects. This attendant mental picture, painted in soft argent tones, shows her sister Edma gaze at her sleeping daughter, Blanche.

First Impressionist show The inaugural Impressionist exhibition is organized in 1874 at the Paris studio apartment of the photographer Nadar. thirty artists take separate, but the testify is greeted with derision from critics and is a fiscal flop.




The second Impressionist exhibition is staged in 1876 at the veranda of art dealer Paul Durand-Ruel. There are twice adenine many canvases on display as at the exhibition two years earlier, but entirely 19 artists take part.



Landscape, Ile de France Armand Guillaumin 1874 Private Collection

In the early 1870s, Guillaumin painted aboard Pissarro at Pontoise. Like Pissarro, Guillaumin presents a civilized, working landscape. Two men labor in the fields, and choppy brushstrokes suggest the movement of the cloud on an cloud-covered day.

Armand Guillaumin

Gare Saint-Lazare

have a bun in the oven Paris, France, February 16, 1841 ; died Orly, nr. Paris, June 26, 1927

Edouard Manet 1873 National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC

The Paris station of Saint Lazare was a popular capable for the Impressionists, not least because they themselves used it to board trains for the suburbs and Normandy. manet shows his front-runner model, Victorine Meurent, and a little female child looking across the railroad track cut.



Second Impressionist show

Overshadowed by his more celebrated Impressionist contemporaries, Guillaumin was a supporter of Cézanne, Pissarro, and Vincent vanguard Gogh and his brother Theo. He exhibited works in six of the eight Impressionist exhibitions and specialized in scenes of the countryside around Paris. His work is characterized by brilliant colors and much contains uncompromisingly modern features, such as smoking factory chimneys.



THE nineteenth CENTURY

Rainy Day Gustave Caillebotte 1877 The Art Intstitute of Chicago, IL

The smart new boulevards of Baron Haussmann ’ s Paris, and those who strolled along them, are recorded in Caillebotte ’ s setting of the Place de Dublin. The charm of photography can be seen in the apparently casual composition and the hard cultivate of the figures.


The Côte des Bœufs at L ’ Hermitage Camille Pissarro 1877 National Gallery, London, UK


Pissarro aimed to paint the hillside near his home in Pontoise as though he was actually immersed in the scene himself, creating a common sense of familiarity between the landscape and the spectator pump. He built up the painting using dabs of break color to create a heavily textured come on.


A bar at the Folies-Bergère


Edouard Manet 1882 Courtauld Gallery, London, UK


Parisians flocked to the Folies-Bergère music mansion to see circus acts and ballet, and to pick up prostitutes. Manet focuses on Suzon, one of the barmaids, showing her aloof from the push, lost in think as she serves a customer. Manet mocked up the bar in his studio, painting the background from memory ; the relationship between the reflections in the mirror and the objects and model in the foreground is inconsistent.

The photographic march was first developed in the 1830s, and by the time the Impressionist group formed, portrayal and landscape photography had become booming commercial businesses. Though they did not constantly admit it, many artists used photograph as a footing for their compositions—as can be seen in the abrupt crops, unusual perspectives, and deviate focus of some works. Eadweard Muybridge ’ s photographic studies of animals in motion in the 1870s besides inspired early television camera artists including Degas. and tripod

Development of Divisionism Pissarro meets Georges Seurat and Paul Signac in fall 1885, becoming a convert to their modern way of painting. small dots of contrasting colors are painstakingly applied to the canvas tent to blend in the eye of the spectator.




concluding Impressionist show The last Impressionist exhibition takes identify in 1886. Most of the core members of the group are developing new, individual styles or have formed lucrative arrangements with dealers, causing a dislocation to the group ‘s tenuous integrity.


1888 Renoir ‘s experiment Renoir finishes The large Bathers in 1887, a work showing evenly fall figures with hard contours. It reflects his worry that he has reached the end of his experiment with Impressionism, but he soon reverts to a softer manner.

Young Woman Sewing in a Garden Mary Cassatt 1880–82 Musee d’Orsay, Paris, France

The american english artist Mary Cassatt produced respective scenes of comfortable women—often her syndicate members or friends—engaged in domestic tasks. The monumental and precisely delineate human body dominates the picture space.

Luncheon of the Boating Party Pierre-Auguste Renoir 1880–81 The Phillips Collection, Washington, DC

Renoir ’ s friends enjoy lunch at the Maison Fournaise restaurant, overlooking the Seine at Chatou. Light streams in from the balcony hatchway and is reflected off the flannel tablecloth and the vests worn by the men.


THE nineteenth CENTURY

Snow Scene at Moret Alfred Sisley c.1894 Private Collection

Snow scenes appealed to Impressionist artists, including Sisley and Monet, because they offered the opportunity to study elusive variations in ignite and to use different tonic ranges. In this canvas, the snow has created discerning color harmonies in the winter landscape.

Paul Helleu Sketching With his Wife John Singer Sargent 1889 Brooklyn Museum of Art, New York, NY

This study, which exhibits the across-the-board handling distinctive of many Impressionist works, is both a phonograph record of the practice of plein-air paint and a testament to Sargent ’ s friendship with the french artist Paul Helleu.




Pissarro abandons Divisionism In 1890 Pissarro gives up painting in the Divisionist expressive style developed by Seurat, finding that it hampers his spontaneity.

Philip Wilson Steer born Birkenhead, UK, December 28, 1860 ; died London, UK, March 18, 1942



The british artist Philip Wilson Steer studied in Paris in the early 1880s, and his work from around 1887 to 1894 reveals the influence of the Impressionists— particularly Monet—and besides of Whistler, in its sparkle colors, freshness, and free brushwork. In 1886, he became a laminitis extremity of the New English Art Club, a group of companion artists who had besides studied in Paris and were aware of the latest trends in french art. In 1889, Steer took separate in an exhibition entitled “ The London Impressionists. ”

Children Paddling, Walberswick Philip Wilson Steer 1891–92 Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge, UK

By the meter he painted this picture, Steer was England ’ s leading follower of french Impressionism. The Suffolk beach scenery shows his debt to Monet and Sisley in its function of spot brushstrokes to apply pure, uncompounded color directly to the canvas tent.





Childe Hassam


bear Dorchester, MA, October 17, 1859 ; died East Hampton, NY, August 27, 1935

Blue Dancers Edgar Degas 1899 Pushkin Museum, Moscow, Russia

Dancers in rehearsal or waiting in the wings were one of Degas ’ s darling motifs. In this aglow pastel he captures them adjusting their costumes precisely before they go on stage, their poses interweaving to create a harmonious rhythm.

Childe Hassam was an american artist who came into contact with the study of Monet, Pissarro, and Sisley when he spent three years painting in Paris in the late 1880s. After he settled in New York in 1889 he continued painting in his own version of Impressionism, marrying fail brushstrokes and a light palette with a formality of composing. Hassam and his fellow artists helped to spread Impressionist ideas in the US through their show club known as “ The Ten. ”

Monet paints London In three trips to London between 1899 and 1901, Monet produces respective views of Charing Cross Bridge and Waterloo Bridge in the fog. To capture the effects of light, smog, and mist, he works on many canvases simultaneously, moving between them as the air changes.

Monet ’ mho analyze of light In 1895 Monet shows 20 paintings of the facade of Rouen Cathedral in unlike light up conditions at Durand-Ruel ’ s Paris drift, to a mix critical reception.






The Boulevard Montmartre on a winter Morning Camille Pissarro 1897 Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, NY

In the late 1890s Pissarro, who had previously concentrated on rural scenes, painted a series of views of the parisian boulevards seen from a hotel window. hera he conveys a silvern alight with featherlike brushstrokes.

Late Afternoon, New York Childe Hassam c.1900 Brooklyn Museum of Art, New York, NY

Sisley ’ s seascapes Alfred Sisley visits south Wales in 1897. He produces a series of subtly innovative paintings of the coastline at Penarth and Langland Bay. His only seascapes, they are among his final examination works.

Hassam ’ s atmospheric urban scenes convey his belief that New York was the most beautiful city in the populace. here, the trees, buildings, horse-drawn carriages, and figures journeying along a New York street about dissolve in a rash of coke.




THE nineteenth CENTURY

MASTERWORK The Waterlily Pond Green Harmony Claude Monet 1899 Musée five hundred ’ Orsay, Paris, France

Monet ’ s paintings of waterlilies are the culminating accomplishment of his career. For a lot of the last 33 years of his life, he devoted himself to translating the moods and reflections of his beloved pond into images of transcendent beauty. He had always painted the gardens of the houses where he lived, and when he bought the house he was renting in Giverny in 1890, he finally had the prospect to create a garden wholly to his own taste. He laid out the flower garden in a series of beds ablaze with colorful blooms, and then created a placid water garden. He filled the pond with special hybrid waterlilies, and installed an arced wooden bridge, inspired by those he had admired in japanese prints. Monet visited his body of water garden at least three times a day to study the changing light. He besides recorded it obsessively—this is one of 12 canvases painted from the same advantage point during the lapp year. They were produced shortly after the death of Monet ’ s stepdaughter Suzanne, and represent a peaceful eden that offers consolation in the face of forlornness. The eye is drawn to the mirrorlike surface of the pond and the way the plants and bridge are reflected in the water system. Horizontal brushstrokes delineating the waterlilies are interrupted by the vertical strokes of lighter park, showing the reflected vegetation above the pond. It is a hermetically sealed world in which there is scantily any suggestion of flip, and as serene and harmonious as the painting ’ s title suggests. Monet continued to paint his waterlily pond until his death, finally creating about abstract canvases without reference to the banks or bridge, where the integral subject is the airfoil of the body of water.



Claude Monet


bear Paris, France, November 14, 1840 ; died Giverny, France, December 5, 1926

Born in Paris, Monet grew up in the coastal town of Le Havre, where his friendships with landscape painters Johann Barthold Jongkind and Eugène Boudin encouraged him to become an artist. During the mid1860s he tried and failed to make his bell ringer at the Paris Salon with monumental works painted partially external, and toward the end of the ten he became a samara figure in the group of painters who late became known as the Impressionists. After a go in London during the Franco-Prussian War, Monet returned to France, making his base in a sequence of suburban towns near Paris before settling in Giverny in 1883. Throughout his farseeing career, Monet remained faithful to the Impressionist aim of exploring the changing quality of light and coloring material in landscape. His series of paintings of grainstacks, Rouen Cathedral, and waterlilies depict specific sites under differing lighter and weather conditions.




The Harvest Vincent van Gogh 1888 Van Gogh Museum, Amsterdam, Netherlands

The bright pallette of van Gogh ’ south paint is typical of many postimpressionist pictures. Working at a febrile pace, in one workweek in June 1886 van Gogh produced ten paintings on the composition of the harvest. The blazing colors give a graphic depression of wheat fields under the blaze sunlight, while the composition, with its horizontal bands, has a sense of structural solidity.

At the last Impressionist exhibition in 1886 one of the works that caused a stir was a big landscape by Georges Seurat created with bantam dots of paint— A Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grand Jatte ( see p.292 ). Unlike the Impressionists, who sought to capture the fleeting moment, Seurat attempted to convey a sense of monumental eternity. He was one of a phone number of artists who were becoming convinced that they should do more than merely record the scene in front of them. Cézanne, Gauguin, and van Gogh, who had all started out paint in the Impressionist manner, were each reacting to it in unlike ways. Cézanne was beginning to explore geometric human body and reworking the conventions of western perspective, while Gauguin and avant-garde Gogh were moving toward an art that was less naturalistic and more concerned with evoking feelings and emotions.



Entertaining times 1886 Emile Zola publishes his novel L ’ Oeuvre ( “ The Masterpiece ” ), a narrative of a painter that he based on his friend Paul Cézanne and other artists.

New horizons as La Belle Epoque—a beautiful era when the arts, music and field flourished—but these pleasures were not available to everyone. indeed, some commentators saw the luxury of the period as about decadent. The french capital had become increasingly polarize between the “ haves ” —the affluent citizens who could enjoy restaurants, beautiful clothes, fine entertainment, and vacations in the fashionable coastal resorts—and the “ have-nots. ” Progressive artists tended to belong to the latter class. Although some of their impressionist colleagues were becoming steadily richer through the activities of their commercially minded dealers, slightly younger painters were struggling to establish themselves. They were besides beginning to cast their eyes beyond the capital, seeking to escape to the more “ primitive ” areas in France itself, such as Brittany, Provence, or the Languedoc, or even—in the case of Gauguin— to the islands of Polynesia that he had glimpsed at the Universal Exhibition.

1886 The Folies-Bergère stages its first music-hall revue, a raw form of picture for which it becomes celebrated. 1889 The Moulin Rouge opens in Paris. It is the birthplace of the bawdry can-can dance commemorated in many paintings and posters from the period. 1894 Alfred Dreyus, a military officer of jewish origin, is incorrectly accused of selling military secrets to the Germans. The matter sharpens political divisions in France and inflames anti-semitism. 1889 The Revue Blanche is founded. A progressive literary and aesthetic journal, it runs articles on political topics—such as anarchism and colonialism—and promotes avant-garde artwork.


The 1880s were marked by a scramble among western nations to annex territory in the non-Western global. Although Britain was the most successful state in this land grab, France made hearty gains besides, presenting its colonial visualize as a mission to civilize the “ deficient races. ” The 1889 Universal Exhibition, held in Paris and intended by its chief organizer to be “ the decimal point of departure, for the entire world, of a fresh earned run average, ” was marked by an elongated coverage of the non-Western universe. Displays were mounted on the Far East, the Middle East, and North Africa, deoxyadenosine monophosphate well as what was seen as the “ primitive ” world—Central Africa and Polynesia. Living “ natives ” were imported to the exhibition to act out their daily routines. The section devoted to Paris, which was dominated by the trade name new Eiffel Tower, was placed at the center of the exhibition as a beacon of culture. But for some thinkers and artists, the veneer of civilization was wearing increasingly thin. The stopping point few years of the hundred may have been characterized

1900 The Paris Universal Exhibition opens, receiving more than 50 million visitors in seven months. 1903 France leads the direction in the diffuse of automobiles, manufacture over 30,000—half the world ’ second production.


The Universal Exhibition This colored engraving from the Musée Carnavalet, Paris, presents a bird ’ s-eye opinion of the 1889 Universal Exhibition, dominated by the Eiffel Tower.



THE nineteenth CENTURY

BEGINNINGS MASTERS OF COLOR The term “ Post-Impressionist ” was coined by English art critic Roger Fry in 1910, when he was organizing an exhibition of modern french artwork in London. The artists who fall under its umbrella pursued different paths, all of which had their origins in Impressionism. In the mid-1880s Gauguin and avant-garde Gogh were taking their cues from a diverse range of artistic sources—including japanese prints, stained-glass windows, and the art of “ primitive ” peoples—in arrange to produce pictures loaded with find and symbolism.


Cézanne, who had recently painted aboard Pissarro in Pontoise, was now working in isolation in his native Provence, experimenting with landscapes, inactive lifes, and portraits constructed from break planes of coloring material. Georges Seurat and his followers—the “ Neo-Impressionists ” —were going beyond Impressionism, turning its broken brushwork into something more rigorous through a scientific method acting of applying paint in countless dots, inspired by theories about the optical and emotional effects of different colors.

ARTISTIC INFLUENCES By the 1860s a number of artists were traveling to the Breton greenwich village of Pont-Aven to paint, attracted by picturesque customs and cheap lodgings. Gauguin stayed there for long periods in 1886 and 1888. Among his chap artists was Emile Bernard, whose simplified style of painting involving flat areas of color surrounded by black borders seemed to point the direction forward. The artwork of non-Western cultures had constantly fascinated Gauguin. He particularly admired japanese prints, and credibly knew Hiroshige ’ s grove scene. many other artists shared Gauguin ’ s enthusiasm for Hiroshige—van Gogh copied this print in 1887.

Plum Estate, Kameido, 1857, by Ando Hiroshige is a bold constitution bisected by a tree trunk, with a bright red background. Brooklyn

japanese fighting couples by printmaker Hokusai were the basis for Gauguin ’ s model of Jacob and the saint. Gauguin had besides observed traditional Breton wrestling contests—the cow in The Vision of the Sermon was a pry awarded to the winner.

Sumo Wrestlers, one of thousands of sketches showing sumo wrestlers in the 15-volume The Hokusai Manga, published from 1814. Private Collection

Cloisonnism, a paint stylus partially inspired by stained-glass decoration that featured large, flat areas of bold color contained by black outlines, was adopted by Gauguin after he abandoned the Impressionist-influenced fractured brushwork of his earlier paintings.

Circus Scene, detail, 1887, by Louis Anquetin is an example of the Cloissonist style that inspired Gauguin.

Breton folklore and religious practices— which included elaborate pilgrimages and “ pardons ” ( saints ’ feast-days ) —began to attract artistic interest in the irregular half of the nineteenth hundred. german artist Otto Weber was among the first to portray local customs.

A church in Brittany, detail, 1864, by Otto Weber shows a family returning from a religious service. Musée des

Museum, New York, NY

Private Collection

Beaux-Arts, Lille, France



Paul Gauguin 1888 Scottish National Gallery, Edinburgh, UK

wear Paris, France, June 8, 1848 ; died Atuona, Marquesas Islands, May 8, 1903

This paint was inspired by a fit of women in a church service, which Gauguin witnessed while he was staying at Pont-Aven in Brittany. The women in traditional Breton costume have been listening to a sermon based on a passage in the Bible in which Jacob spends a whole night wrestle with a cryptic angelic figure. With its tinge forms and abnormal discolor the work is not a literal transcription of an event, but an undertake to convey the intense religious experience of the women, who are physically separated from their imaginative imagination by a tree trunk.


The Vision of the Sermon

Gauguin ’ s early childhood in Peru ( his mother ’ second native area ) left him with a taste for the exotic. A successful stockbroker who painted as a hobby, he formed a friendship with Pissarro, produced works in a hushed Impressionist style, and exhibited in the first Impressionist exhibition in 1874. By 1883 Gauguin had lost his speculate and was painting full-time, much to his family ’ mho alarm. between 1886 and 1890 he was the unofficial drawing card of the artists ’ colony at PontAven, Brittany. In 1891 he left France for French Polynesia, where he spent most of the rest of his life.



THE nineteenth CENTURY

Street Scene, at Five in the Afternoon



Louis Anquetin 1887 Wadsworth Atheneum, Hartford, CT

At the time of the last Impressionist exhibition in 1886 it was becoming apparent that new strands were emerging in avant-garde french art. In the south of France, Cézanne produced canvases that played with social organization and perspective. In Brittany, Gauguin and Bernard were painting bluff compositions with symbolic plangency. In the Netherlands, vanguard Gogh was preparing for a move to France, where he would produce a serial of intensely expressive canvases.

This nox scene is a perfect exemplar of the Cloisonnist method acting of painting that Anquetin devised with Emile Bernard, which was characterized by strong black lines enclosing flat areas of color.

1886 | Félix Fénéon French art critic

Breakfast Paul Signac 1886–87 Rijksmuseum KröllerMüller, Netherlands

Signac met Seurat in 1884 and, under his influence, started to paint using scientifically juxtaposed belittled dots of pure color. Although this painting depicts a solidly bourgeois family, Signac was actually an anarchist.


Van Gogh ‘s peasants In 1885 van Gogh paints his first major work, The Potato Eaters, a darkly expressive picture showing poor dutch peasants eating their evening meal.

A Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte Georges Seurat 1884–86 Art Institute of Chicago, IL

Seurat spent two years working on his most celebrated bring, composed of bantam dots of contrasting or complemental color intended to fuse in the viewer ’ randomness eye for a vibrant impression. The word picture was unusual in showing people belonging to different social classes frequenting the like park on an island in the Seine.



Birth of the Nabis Paul Sérusier paints a little panel, The Talisman, under Gauguin ’ s determine in 1888. This about abstract arrangement of colors impresses mate painters, including Maurice Denis and Pierre Bonnard, who form themselves into a new group— the Nabis ( Hebrew for “ Prophets ” ).




Breton Women With Umbrellas


Emile Bernard 1892 Musée five hundred ’ Orsay, Paris, France

Bernard admired what he saw as the authenticity of Pont-Aven, but he gradually moved away from reality in his depictions of its daily life, to concentrate on the abstract qualities of form and tinge. The mean of this picture is obscure, but its air is poetic.

Henri Rousseau does not fit neatly into any aesthetic apparent motion, but his naïve and expressive paintings were widely admired by the avant-garde artists who were his contemporaries, such as Picasso, and by former artists, including the Surrealists. He had no formal artistic trail, and made his know as a toll collector, which earned him the dub of Le Douanier ( “ the Customs Officer ” ). many of his pictures are of alien jungle scenes, but he probably never set foot outside France.


Surprised ! 1891, National Gallery, London, UK



Inspiration from Provence

Gauguin leaves “ culture ”

Cézanne begins work in 1890 on the first gear of five paintings of card players, which show Provençal workmen immersed in a menu game. The models are local farmhands.

Gauguin leaves France for Polynesia in 1891, in search of “ adam, calm, and art. ” He settles in Tahiti, and is initially disappoint to find it tainted by european colonialism.

Georges Seurat have a bun in the oven Paris, France, December 2, 1859 ; died Paris, March 29, 1891



Seurat ’ s career was light but influential. His early works were monochrome drawings exploring the properties of timbre, but from the early 1880s he began to deploy his researches into optical and discolor theory, and used his divisionist ( or “ pointillist ” ) technique to paint life sentence in the Paris suburb. His last works depict views of the Normandy coast and scenes of urban entertainment. Seurat ’ s ideas were taken up by his followers, who included Signac, van Rysselberghe, and Cross.

Toulouse-Lautrec ’ s low-life views In 1892 toulouse-lautrec begins a series of paintings giving an insider ’ mho opinion of Paris brothels. He produces 50 such works over the future three years.

The Muses Maurice Denis 1893 Musée five hundred ’ Orsay, Paris, France

Denis ’ south photograph gives the age-old subject of the Muses a mod rendition. Its cosmetic nature illustrates his view that “ a photograph, before being a battle knight, a nude woman, or some anecdote, is basically a compressed surface covered with colors. ”




THE nineteenth CENTURY

still Life With Plaster Cast

Paul Cézanne

Paul Cézanne c.1895 Courtauld Gallery, London, UK

born Aix-en-Provence, France, January 19, 1839 ; died Aix-en-Provence, October 23, 1906

In Cézanne ’ sulfur deep however life, all the objects on the studio floor and the postpone top appear as though tipped up against the movie plane, or viewed from different angles. This extremist distortion of conventional position prefigures Cubism.



In 1897 Gauguin paints an enormous poll, Where Do We Come From ? What Are We ? Where Are We Going ? A meditation on the development of man from parturition to death, it is set in Tahiti.


born Albi, France, November 24, 1864 ; died nr. Langon, France, September 9, 1901

Aristocratic and affluent, Lautrec inherited a genetic disorder that left him with stunted growth. He based himself in Montmartre, Paris, and enjoyed a bohemian life, frequenting nightspots such as the Moulin Rouge, cafe, and brothels. possibly because of his own bizarre appearance, he was sensitive to the vulnerabilities of the prostitutes and entertainers he portrayed. His exercise sell well, and he was commissioned to design posters for several cabarets and dance halls, but he died early from alcoholism.

The Female Clown Cha-U-Kao Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec 1895 Musée vitamin d ’ Orsay, Paris, France

Cha-U-Kao, who appeared at the Moulin Rouge, was one of Toulouse-Lautrec ’ s favorite models. here she is shown in a private moment offstage, fastening a chicken frill around her waist. The man reflected in the mirror could be a friend or admirer.


A Gauguin masterpiece

Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec



A native of Provence, Cézanne trained in Paris, where he met colleague Impressionist painters. He abandoned his early dark and violently expressive manner of paint, tried unsuccessfully to exhibit at the Salon, and showed in some of the Impressionist group shows. In the 1880s he became increasingly restless with Impressionism ’ s lack of solidity and structure and began to place more stress on batch and construction in his exploit, and to interpret rather than merely record what he saw. From the mid-1880s he divided his time between Aix-en-Provence and Paris, producing a large phone number of landscapes depicting the big Provençal mountain, Mont Sainte-Victoire.


Seated Woman Edouard Vuillard 1901 Private Collection

Vuillard, who was associated with the Nabis group, constantly aimed to capture the essence quite than the actual appearance of a view. His familiar interiors possess a psychological saturation.

In the Shade


Henri-Edmond Cross 1902 Private Collection

Cross adopted and developed the divisionist stylus initiated by Seurat in the 1880s, taking it forth into the twentieth hundred. His landscapes of the south of France proved inspirational for Fauvist painters, including Matisse and Derain.

1899 | Paul Signac

Toulouse-Lautrec on testify in London The largest prove of Toulouse-Lautrec ’ sulfur work in his life is held in 1898 at the Goupil Gallery in London. Some critics dismiss the works as immoral, but others are enthusiastic.






Gauguin on Hiva Oa In 1901 Gauguin leaves Tahiti for the island of Hiva Oa in the Marquesas, hoping to find a crude world less contaminated by Europe. He builds himself a house decorated with wooden reliefs.

Barbaric Tales Paul Gauguin 1902 Museum Folkwang, Essen, Germany

A walk on the Beach Theo van Rysselberghe 1901 Private Collection

The belgian artist van Rysselberghe was bowled over when he saw Seurat ’ s Grande Jatte at the one-eighth Impressionist exhibition in 1886, and took up painting in the NeoImpressionist style. The dashes of paint in this beach scene successfully evoke shimmering seaside light.

Different cultures converge in this scene of storytelling. The redheaded man has the features of Gauguin ’ s Dutch artist ally Meyer de Haan ; the Asianlooking human body in the center adopts a Buddhist pose ; and the woman on the right field embodies Gauguin ’ s captivation with Polynesia.




THE nineteenth CENTURY

MASTERWORK Self-Portrait With Bandaged Ear Vincent van Gogh 1889 Courtauld Gallery, London, UK

In this unforgettable portrayal, van Gogh stares out at the viewer, revealing his soul with an about intolerable honesty. It is a paint that presents a particularly bleak and personal aesthetic statement. In February 1888 vanguard Gogh had taken the train from Paris to Arles in the south of France. He was captive on founding a utopian artists ’ colony there—a “ studio in the south ” —and was hoping that Paul Gauguin and Emile Bernard would come and join him. Gauguin arrived later that class in October, but the amicable set-up soon turned sour, and the match quarreled. At Christmas, after a particularly poisonous disagreement, van Gogh threatened Gauguin with a razor blade before cutting off depart of his own auricle and presenting it to one of the prostitutes in the local whorehouse. He was taken to hospital suffering his first serious fire of insanity, and Gauguin left Arles, never to return.

This self-portrait was one of the first works that van Gogh painted after the incident, in the hope that taking up painting again would help restore his stability. He shows himself standing in front of an easel that supports a canvass bearing some obscure daubs. On the wall is a japanese print. Van Gogh had previously explained in a letter to his brother Theo that he hoped his life sentence in the south of France would be like a japanese painter ’ randomness, but the happiness he sought eluded him, so the photographic print is a affecting admonisher of a lose sight of paradise. Van Gogh turns his head to display his bandage ear in a deliberate citation to his dissemble of self-mutilation. He seems to shrink inside his heavy overcoat, and his sallow complexion and thin face sheared of its crimson beard make it clear that he is ailing. The coarse brushstrokes, laid on in rigid lines in some areas, add to the overall smell of disquiet and somber, creating an image of arresting office.

Vincent avant-garde Gogh


born Zundert, Netherlands, March 30, 1853 ; died Auvers-sur-Oise, France, July 29, 1890

1889 | Vincent van Gogh



Van Gogh worked as an art dealer and a lie down preacher before deciding to become a painter of peasant biography, inspired by the case of artists such as Jean-François Millet of the Barbizon school. He received little ball artistic education and was largely self-taught. In 1886 he moved to Paris, and was introduced to Impressionist artists by his art-dealer brother Theo, who sold some of their works. He began to paint in a style based on Seurat ’ mho divisionist proficiency and, like many contemporaries, fell in love with the bold colors and designs of japanese prints. In 1888 he moved to Arles, where he produced some of his favored works, but attacks of genial illness caused him to seek periodic refuge in an refuge at nearby St.-Remy. The stopping point months of his biography were spent at Auvers-sur-Oise, where a fresh turn of depression led to his suicide at the senesce of 37. Van Gogh ’ mho life is exceptionally well documented through the huge number of letters he wrote to his brother.


SYMBOLISM C.1875 –1910


The Poor Fisherman Pierre Puvis de Chavannes 1881 Musée five hundred ’ Orsay, Paris, France

Puvis de Chavannes evokes a typically symbolist mood of devastation by placing his narrative in a bleak landscape setting. The barren widower trying to support his motherless children is a christlike calculate, the mast of his gravy boat subtly recalling the Cross.

Toward the end of the nineteenth hundred Symbolist writers and artists reacted against the materialism and rationalism of the modern global, and the room these were reflected in art, by producing works that prioritized imagination and the emotions. They drew upon a complicate mix of mystic thinking, the occult, and psychology, seeking to make invisible worlds visible. Despite the mention of their movement, they did not use a ready-made set of symbols, preferring to communicate ideas through insidious suggestion. Their art expressed adam, ambiguity, somber, mystification, and revelation. Common themes included sleep, dreams, muteness, stillness, and the troubling ability of female sex. Symbolist artwork had its roots in France in the function of such painters as Gustave Moreau and Pierre Puvis de Chavannes, but it found followers throughout Europe, specially in Britain, Belgium, Austria, and Scandinavia.



New philosophies, newly art 1888 Madame Helena Blavatsky publishes The Secret Doctrine, setting out the principles of Theosophy, which becomes a fashionable cult.

The old age of Art Nouveau Pictorial posters produced by graphic artists including Alphonse Mucha and Toulouse-Lautrec besides furthered the craze for the new style, which soon spread beyond the das kapital to early cities in France and the rest of Europe. Art Nouveau was concerned with the worldly concern of appearances, but even if they adopted some of its aesthetic features, Symbolist artists wanted to look beyond the visible and penetrate the depths of the human soul. It is no concurrence that psychiatry and psychoanalysis were developing at precisely the same fourth dimension. In his Paris clinic the celebrated french neurologist Jean-Martin Charcot was exploring hypnosis as a way of treating patients. His pupils included the viennese analyst Sigmund Freud, whose probe of the unconscious and the mean of dreams resonates with Symbolist concerns. There was besides a general reawaken of interest in spirituality, and both conventional catholicism and unconventional esoteric cults flourished during this menstruation. Rosicrucianism, said to have originated in the writings of a 15th-century airy, was revived in France by occultists including Sâr Joséphin Péladan, who even set up a modern exhibiting company, the Salon de la Rose+Croix. Music and literature were besides vehicles for this fresh question into the soul, with its emphasis on nuance, temper, and imagination conveyed through experimental forms, repeated sounds, and cadences. For those brave enough to experiment with advanced ways of exist, there were some modern trends that flew in the face of cautious club, such as vegetarianism, meditation, and nudism.

Art Nouveau architecture This complicate capture was designed in 1901 for a residency at 29 Avenue Rapp in Paris. With its arch lines, plantlike tendrils, and female figures, it epitomizes the aureate sensuality of Art Nouveau.

1884 Paul Verlaine publishes his anthology of Symbolist poetry, Les Poètes Maudits ( “ Cursed Poets ” ). 1895 Alphonse Mucha produces a post horse for the shimmer Gismonda featuring the legendary actress Sarah Bernhardt, the embodiment of the femme fatale. 1899 Julius Meier-Graefe sets up La Maison Moderne, in Paris ; like Siegfried Bing ’ south shop it is both a gallery and a department store devoted to Art Nouveau. 1899 Sigmund Freud publishes The Interpretation of Dreams, which arouses bang-up interest throughout Europe. 1899 Art Nouveau architect Hector Guimard designs the first of his entrances to the Paris Metro, the stations at Place de la Bastille and Place de l ’ Etoile.


In the concluding two decades of the nineteenth hundred the identical prosperity that Symbolist artists and writers found therefore disgusting promote architecture and the cosmetic arts to flourish, adenine well as the development of a revolutionary fresh design style. Art Nouveau, as it was known in France, signaled a decision to break with the by in favor of what was modern. It was characterized by sinuate, asymmetrical lines based on organic shapes, and drew upon sources including William Morris ’ second Arts and Crafts products and the art and artifacts of Japan. A milestone in its development was the opening in 1895 of Siegfried Bing ’ second Parisian storehouse and showroom of contemporaneous design, Maison de l ’ Art Nouveau ( “ House of New Art ” ), where shoppers could see neat interiors devised by leading designers.

1901 The glassmaker Emile Gallé launches the Ecole de Nancy, a formal recognition that the town of Nancy in eastern France is a major concentrate for Art Nouveau.



THE nineteenth CENTURY

BEGINNINGS IMAGINATIVE VISIONS Symbolism reached its extremum in the death two decades of the nineteenth hundred ( its aesthetic plan was expressed in a manifesto in 1886 ), but its origins can be traced back to the paintings that Gustave Moreau and Pierre Puvis de Chavannes were producing in France in the 1860s and 1870s. Both artists were drawn to the quixotic subjects that had been painted a generation earlier—to bring that prioritized emotion and allusion, and favored subjectivity over objectivity. What they and other Symbolist artists shared was a temper rather than a style. While Moreau created theatrical compositions with lavishly cosmetic surfaces and a numerousness of detail, Puvis de Chavannes produced works with monumental simplified forms and dull colors. Odilon Redon, another of the early Symbolists, worked about entirely in bootleg and white until he was in his fifties, creating a repertoire of weird subjects influenced by the writings of Edgar Allan Poe.

Gustave Moreau born Paris, France, April 6, 1826 ; died Paris, France, April 18, 1898



Gustave Moreau was one of the founding fathers of Symbolist painting in France. He came into his own as a painter after a biennial stay in Italy from 1857, when he studied Renaissance masters including Mantegna and Leonardo and became convinced of the spiritual measure of artwork. His first major workplace, Oedipus and the Sphinx ( 1864 ), established his permanent preoccupations with the opposition between effective and evil, male and female, and animalism and spirituality. His favorite subjects were ancient civilizations or fabulous themes, which he portrayed in densely worked, encrust canvases. In the 1870s Moreau ’ s expressive style changed to become softer and more full of contrast between light and shade, much featuring little figures in elaborate settings. In 1892 he became a professor at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, where his pupils included Georges Rouault and Henri Matisse.

TURNING POINT The Apparition Gustave Moreau 1876 Fogg Art Museum, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA

Gustave Moreau ’ second picture portrays the young Judean princess Salome, who bewitched her stepfather herod with her dancing and demanded the head of John the Baptist as a reward. The saint ’ south haloed headway appears before her in an apparition, after the act of decapitation, while the executioner with his hands on his sword stands impassively in the background. J.-K. Huysmans wrote a long comment on the paint in his novel A Rebours ( “ Against Nature ” ).

ARTISTIC INFLUENCES Symbolist painters were stirred by imaginative tales of arouse, death, violence, and the supernatural, and the subject of the femme fatale was particularly popular. Some artists drew their subjects from poems or novels, such as Flaubert ’ sulfur Salammbô, which Moreau used for The Apparition. Macabre imagination is a feature of speech of many Symbolist paintings. Moreau first saw the bronze statue of Perseus by the italian Renaissance sculptor Benvenuto Cellini when he was 15, and he would have viewed it again when he spent two years in Italy in 1857–59.

Orientalist subjects by artists who traveled to the Middle East and North Africa from the 1830s played their part in shaping Symbolism. Delacroix painted a number of Arab subjects on his return from Algeria and Morocco.

Medusa, contingent from Perseus Beheading Medusa, 1545–54, by Cellini is an trope of startling ghoulishness. Loggia dei Lanzi, Florence, Italy

The sultan, detail from Delacroix ’ sulfur Mulet Abd-ar-Rhaman, the Sultan of Morocco, 1845. Musée des Augustins, Toulouse, France

Female sensuality is discernible in Moreau ’ south knead. He was companion with the compositions of Théodore Chassériau, whose Susanna and the Elders shows a woman who unwittingly inflames the lust of two older men.

Susanna and the Elders, contingent, 1856 by Chassériau depicts a consequence of female tempt. Louvre,

Elaborate decoration is a hallmark of paintings by Moreau and other Symbolist artists. The decoration of Herod ’ s palace, with its unusual capitals, is directly inspired by the column inside the Alhambra Palace in Granada.

Exotic decoration seen on the column of the Alhambra Palace, Granada, provided inspiration for Moreau ’ s exploit.

Paris, France




THE nineteenth CENTURY

The Prodigal Son


Pierre Puvis de Chavannes 1879 National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC

Symbolism actually emerged as a coherent art campaign around 1885, though its origins can be traced back a ten or so early. In the late 1880s and 1890s, Symbolist preoccupations could besides be seen in PostImpressionist works by artists such as Gauguin and Emile Bernard. Recognizably Symbolist works were being produced well into the twentieth century, and by that clock Symbolist ideas had spread well beyond Paris to Brussels, London, Glasgow, Vienna, Oslo, and St. Petersburg.

Puvis ’ s shivering figure in a bare landscape reflects the artist ’ s melancholy character, one that was shared by many Symbolists. He confessed that he preferred “ quite mournful aspects to all others, low skies, solitary confinement plains, circumspect in hue. ”

Redon joins the Symbolists Odilon Redon moves to Paris in 1876 to pursue a career as an artist. He soon becomes one of the most important members of the Symbolist avant-garde.

Sculpting the emotions In 1875 Auguste Rodin produces his Age of Bronze, a sculpt that embodies feeling and emotion strictly through the pose of the consistency rather than relying on conventional props used in allegorical works.



Desire Max Klinger 1878 Private Collection

The german artist Max Klinger, who admired the cultivate of Arnold Böcklin, is best known for his series of prints. His Glove cycle, for which this is a preparatory drawing, presents an odd combination of reality and pipe dream, echoing the contemporary beginnings of psychoanalysis.





Praise for Moreau Gustave Moreau is discovered at the 1880 Salon by J.-K. Huysmans, who praises him as “ singular, an extraordinary artist. ” He late waxes lyric about Moreau ’ sulfur work in his fresh A Rebours.

FOR WE WISH FOR THE NUANCE STILL, NOT COLOR, ONLY THE NUANCE ! 1874 | Paul Verlaine French Symbolist poet

The Island of the Dead Arnold Böcklin 1880 Kunstmuseum, Basle, Switzerland

This is the beginning of Böcklin ’ s many versions of this picture. All of them show a boat bearing a mysterious white figure and a coffin approaching a rocky island, normally interpreted as a cemetery.



AGAINST NATURE Joris-Karl Huysmans ’ south 1884 novel A Rebours ( “ Against Nature ” ) sums up the standard atmosphere of Symbolism. Its hero is Des Esseintes, a disenchant esthete who withdraws into a private universe where he celebrates all that is artificial and abnormal, surrounding himself with works by Gustave Moreau and Odilon Redon. The novel helped to form the popular perception of Symbolism.

Joris-Karl Huysmans

Hope George Frederic Watts 1886


Belgian avant-garde

Private Collection

The avant-garde exhibit club Les XX ( Les Vingt ) is formed in Brussels in 1883. Over the next ten-spot years it promotes the influence of avant-garde artists, including Symbolists Fernand Khnopff and James Ensor.

The british painter GF Watts ’ s declaration “ I paint ideas, not things ” chimes with Symbolist idea. His word picture of Hope as a blindfold figure plucking at a single string on a broken lyre may be intentionally ambiguous, but it has inspired many people.





Redon ’ south monsters

Symbolist manifesto

Odilon Redon produces a startling black-andwhite Symbolist pull, The Smiling Spider, in 1881. A bloodcurdling imagination of a giant arachnid, it is one of many like drawings he created showing hybrid monsters.

The poet Jean Moréas publishes a symbolist manifesto in the newspaper Le Figaro on September 18, 1886. It declares that the effect of obscure or on-key reality can only be communicated through art or poetry.

Arnold Böcklin wear Basle, Switzerland, October 19, 1827 ; died San Domenico, Italy, January 16, 1901



Böcklin was one of the most crucial artists in the German-speaking world in the 1880s and 1890s, although he spent much of his career in Italy. The country awakened in him a love of Renaissance art, and he painted several works on a fabulous theme. His style changed in the 1880s, becoming blue and infused with mysterious contentedness as he became aware of Symbolism. A request from a female patron for a picture to induce dreams resulted in his masterpiece, The Isle of the Dead ( 1880 ), which drew upon memories of visiting the italian island of Ischia.

The temptation of St. Anthony Fernand Khnopff 1883 Private Collection

Gustave Flaubert ’ s novel The enticement of St. Anthony ( 1874 ) helped popularize the subject of the saint tormented by lecherousness. Khnopff ’ second word picture, with its discorporate head, intelligibly recalls Moreau ’ s Apparition.


THE nineteenth CENTURY

SYMBOLIST SCULPTURE Punishment of Lust Giovanni Segantini 1891 Walker Art Gallery, Liverpool, UK


This painting belongs to a serial on the composition of bad mothers, created by the italian artist Segantini. The cougar condemned those women who refused the responsibilities of motherhood through miscarriage or disregard ; the souls of two of them are shown floating against a snow-white background resembling the Alps, where Segantini spent much of his life.

While avant-garde artists opened up new possibilities for painting at the end of the nineteenth hundred, Rodin was doing the same for sculpt. He struggled to establish himself in the expression of hostility, but works such as The Burghers of Calais ( 1884–89 ), The Kiss ( 1889 ), and The Thinker ( 1902 ), successfully impart ideas and emotions through poses and bluff typography. The Kiss, 1889, Auguste Rodin

Salon de la Rose+Croix

Defining Symbolism

In August 1891, Sâr Joséphin Péladan, a rosicrucian and art critic who claims origin from babylonian kings, founds the Salon de la Rose+Croix in Paris for artists who share his ideals.





Gauguin ’ s influence Gauguin ’ sulfur Vision of the Sermon ( see pp.290–91 ), painted in 1888, is a milestone in the development of an art that communicates a sense of mystery rather than seeking to transcribe reality.

Ferdinand Hodler give birth Berne, Switzerland, March 14, 1853 ; died Geneva, Switzerland, May 19, 1918



A swiss painter from a inadequate family, Hodler began by depicting artisans at solve and light-filled landscapes, but around 1890 he turned his back on naturalism. At that time he came into contact with the french Symbolists, and he showed at the first Salon de la Rose+Croix in Paris in 1892. Under the influence of Symbolism, Hodler began to focus on representing states of mind, and themes such as sleep, dreams, end, and eroticism, although he besides received a number of commissions for history paintings. His mature canvases are characterized by simplified flat figures arranged in rhythmical insistent patterns.

Night Ferdinand Hodler 1889–90 Berne Kunstmuseum, Switzerland

Hodler portrays himself as having been impolitely awakened by the figure of death, while all around him lie the intertwine bodies of sleeping men and women. He intended the sour to have a universal, symbolic meaning : it does not represent a specific here and now, but evokes the effect of night and death.

In his 1892 essay The Symbolists, the poet and critic Albert Aurier defines Symbolist art as “ the paint of ideas, ” stating that it is basically cosmetic.




Madonna Edvard Munch 1894–95 Munch Museet, Oslo, Norway

Munch ’ s ambivalent attitude toward women comes across in this painting, which presents the Madonna as both sacred and sensual. munch worked in Oslo and Berlin, but his time in Paris exposed him to Symbolism and Post-Impressionism. His obsession with female sex was shared by many Symbolist artists.

Orpheus Jean Delville 1893 Private Collection

The belgian Symbolist Jean Delville embraced Rosicrucianism and Theosophy, producing works inspired by Gustave Moreau. His Orpheus is a discorporate head modeled on his wife, resting on his lyre and lapped by waves.

The lone flair Rodin completes his memorial to Balzac in 1898. In keeping with the Symbolist worship of creative ace, it represents the french author as an apart digit, defiant against the world—like Rodin himself.







Viennese Secession In Vienna in 1897 a group of 19 artists, including Gustav Klimt, break away from existing artists ’ societies to form their own exhibit group, the Secession, aiming to revitalize austrian artwork.

ARTIST, YOU ARE A priest : art IS THE GRAND MYSTERY 1897 | Sâr Joséphin Péladan Rosicrucian “ high priest ” and art critic

Silence Lucien Levy-Dhurmer 1895 Private Collection

Levy-Dhurmer ’ s woman presents an riddle. It is unvoiced to read her expression, interpret her cryptic gesticulate, or divine the reason behind her melancholy mood. Stripped of context, the work is strictly symbolist in mood.



THE nineteenth CENTURY

Pallas Athena

The Kiss

Franz von St.uck 1898

Gustav Klimt 1907

Private Collection

Like Arnold Böcklin, the german artist Franz von Stuck took his inhalation chiefly from mythology, giving his subjects a distinctively symbolist twist. His Pallas Athena is boldface and alluring.

Österreichischer Galerie Belvedere, Vienna, Austria

Murdered Dmitry Tsarevitch Mikhail Nesterov 1898–99 Russian Museum, St. Petersburg, Russia

The youngest son of Ivan the Terrible, who died in mysterious circumstances, resembles a martyr with his lead framed by a aura. A member of the World of Art group, Nesterov was besides a devout believer in russian Orthodox Christianity.

Vienna was the birthplace of Sigmund Freud, and a feel of psychological intensity—as well as an obsession with sex and death—pervades the work of Gustav Klimt and other artists of the Vienna Secession. The gown of the couple locked in an inner embrace are decorated with patterns influenced by Art Nouveau and Byzantine designs.

Klimt and Schiele In 1907, Gustav Klimt becomes mentor to the 17-year-old Egon Schiele, introducing him to the work of Munch and other european avant-garde artists and freeing him to explore amorousness and death in his own workplace.



Symbolism in Russia In 1898 the World of Art group is formed in St. Petersburg, aiming to promote artistic individuality and strongly influenced by Symbolism and Art Nouveau. many adherents, including Alexandre Benois and Léon Bakst, become degree designers.

Lake Keitele Akseli Gallen-Kallela 1905 National Gallery, London, UK

The finnish artist Gallen-Kallela studied in Paris, and on his return to his native state produced a number of Symbolist-influenced paintings illustrating Finland ’ s fabulous origins. His evocation of a finnish lake presents a huge sweep of melancholy vanity typical of many Symbolist landscapes, and its simplified forms reveal the influence of Gauguin.





Gustav Klimt


born Baumgarten, Austria, July 14, 1862 ; died Vienna, Austria, February 6, 1918

Klimt ’ s early academic style won him success and official commissions, but in the 1890s he was drawn to the avant-garde art that was developing elsewhere in Europe, and began to shape his own eclectic style, fusing Symbolist submit matter with elements of Impressionism and Art Nouveau. A desire to create a newly type of art put him at the vanguard of the artists who formed the breakaway Secession group in 1897. Klimt was a great womanizer, and frequently depicted erotic subjects, his portrayals of nakedness leading to accusations of pornography.

Symbolist cycle In 1908 Edvard Munch suffers a mental collapse, having produced a large issue of paintings over many years as part of his frieze of Life cycle, which revolves around typically symbolist subjects : death, sex, and anguish.



Ophelia Among the Flowers Odilon Redon 1905–08 Tate Modern, London, UK

Odilon Redon


born Bordeaux, France, April 20, 1840 ; died Paris, France, July 6, 1916

Polish novelist, writer, and dramatist


1875 | Stanislaw Przybyszewski

Redon ’ s first successful works were blackand-white charcoal drawings, which evoke a mysterious and melancholic illusion world peopled by bizarre hybrid creatures. In the 1880s and 1890s he brought his fantastic compositions to a across-the-board hearing through a series of lithograph. By 1886 he was being cited as a major Symbolist artist. He turned to color in about 1890, producing vibrant dreamscapes in vegetable oil and pastel.

Redon shows Shakespeare ’ sulfur doomed heroine in a lavishly colored fantasy world, surrounded by the flowers she has been picking before she drowns. Redon wrote : “ I love nature in all her forms … the humble bloom, tree, establish, and rocks, up to the majestic peaks of mountains … I besides shiver profoundly at the mystery of solitude. ”



THE nineteenth CENTURY

MASTERWORK I Lock My Door Upon Myself Fernand Khnopff 1891 Neue Pinakothek, Munich, Germany

Fernand Khnopff was in touch with the English art worldly concern from the mid-1880s, developing a close friendship with the Pre-Raphaelite artist Edward Burne-Jones. He was peculiarly struck by a poem “ Who Shall Deliver Me ? ” ( 1876 ) by Christina Rossetti, baby of the cougar Dante Gabriel Rossetti—also a Pre-Raphaelite—and derived the claim of this paint from its one-third poetry : I lock my doorway upon myself, And bar them out ; but who shall wall Self from myself, most loathed of all ?


most perfect thing in life. ” Sleep, or oblivion, is besides suggested by the poppy beside the statue. White lilies are traditionally linked with purity, but the three in the foreground are red and evanesce, adding to the glooming atmosphere. An arrow—generally associated with trouble or love—lies in battlefront of the charwoman, pointing toward her. The dark fabric calls to mind a coffin covering. Isolation and introspection are the prevailing themes, with hypnotism and the supernatural suggested by the bust of Hypnos and the golden decoration dangling from a chain in presence of the womanhood. spiritualism and the use of mediums to contact the dead while in a hypnotic capture were popular in the 1890s, and Khnopff may be alluding to the commit.


Fernand Khnopff born Grembergen, Belgium, September 12, 1858 ; died Brussels, Belgium, November 12, 1921


Khnopff ’ randomness painting expresses the intensely black bile flavor of Rossetti ’ s poem—the musings of a woman wrapped up in her own dream. With her abundant crimson hair and hard features, the woman in the painting resembles a pre-raphaelite “ stunner. ” The distance she occupies seems about abstract, giving only tantalizing glimpses of a populace beyond. The photograph is enigmatic and eludes precise rendition, though a total of symbolic objects may offer clues as to the charwoman ’ s circumstances and state of mind. A sculpt of Hypnos, the Greek god of sleep, sits on a ledge. Hypnos was an important figure to Khnopff—he installed a bust of the god on an altar in his home, declaring that “ Sleep was the

Fernand Khnopff was at the vanguard of the Symbolist bowel movement in Belgium, and was admired internationally by artists such as Edvard Munch and Gustav Klimt. In his early twenties he went to Paris, where he discovered the work of Gustave Moreau and Edward Burne-Jones. This had a profound influence on his art, leading him to turn toward nonnatural subjects, and to paint pale, soulfullooking women. Khnopff ’ sulfur pictures are permeated by the moods of secrecy, isolation, and reverie. He was obsessed with the beauty of his baby Marguerite, and his frequent exercise of using her as a model adds a baleful incestuous undertone to some of his work. Khnopff ’ s artwork was widely admired by mate european artists, particularly those in Belgium, England, and Austria.




Since the beginning of the twentieth hundred, art has changed more radically than at any other prison term. A succession of innovative styles and movements not entirely overthrew the overriding estimate that painting and sculpture were about representing natural appearances, but besides questioned the social function of art, and even its validity. The term “ modernism ” is sometimes used to characterize the beliefs and concepts underlying these developments, although they are indeed vary that it is hard to find a consistent ideology : the ten from 1905 to 1915 alone witnessed the parturition of Fauvism, Cubism, abstract artwork, and Dada. Some movements, like abstract art, still flourish today, while others have become partially of history. And all through the cultural upheaval of the mod age, figurative paint has continued to develop in the rich custom that can be traced back to the earliest human cultures.


The Port of Collioure André Derain 1905 Musée National vitamin d ’ Art Moderne, Paris, France

Two of the master Fauve artists, André Derain and Henri Matisse, spent the summer of 1905 painting together in Collioure, a small harbor on the Mediterranean seashore. The fresh, bold knead that they produced there set the movement ’ s tonicity.

While Impressionism was basically about artists interpreting the worldly concern through their own eyes, in Expressionism they communicated intense spirit through their work. To do this, they made use of intense colors—often used immediately from the metro rather than mixed—quirky distortion, and vigorous brushstrokes. In the years before World War I, the populace was changing quickly—populations migrated to industrialized cities, wars were being fought, and new technologies impacted every area of life. Feeling increasingly alienated, some artists moved away from realistic representations of what they saw and looked to their own personalities for inspiration. The Fauves, who were among the first Expressionists, were a small, distinct whole led by french painters Henri Matisse and André Derain. The wide-eyed Expressionist movement was a more diffuse concept that, while influenced by Fauvism, grew up chiefly in Germany—its main figures included Ernst Ludwig Kirchner, Franz Marc, Paul Klee, and Erich Heckel, but its compass extended to Russian-born Wassily Kandinsky and Marc Chagall, and Lithuanian-born Chaim Soutine, among others.



Waves of progress and rebellion

A world of change each other ferociously, and the US was battling for might in Cuba, Puerto Rico, and the Philippines. In Russia, thousands of workers went on strike, launching their first revolution against the Tsar and the predominate class. even countries that were not at war, or under threat, were dealing with enormous social change—education was available to many people who had never had access to learn, the course system was starting to break down, and women were beginning not only to seek a life outside the home, but to campaign for the vote so they could play an equal part in society. Painting, like all forms of art, often responds to and reflects turbulence. The early twentieth century produced an unprecedented numeral and diverseness of revolutionist artistic theories, personalities, techniques, and movements. The basic philosophy behind Expressionism was particularly enduring—its stamp can be seen in the work of some of the early abstract painters, respective Surrealists, and virtually the entire Abstract Expressionist movement.

1901 The first transatlantic radio signal is transmitted from Cornwall in England to Signal Hill, Newfoundland, Canada, paving the way for a commodious form of longdistance communication. 1903 On a beach in Kitty Hawk, NC, Orville and Wilbur Wright fly a power airplane for the first time. 1904 construction begins on the Panama Canal, which will connect the Atlantic and Pacific oceans and dramatically reduce international locomotion times. 1905 russian workers launch a rotation that finally leads to Communism and the overthrow of the old ordering in Eastern Europe.


Radical technology was sweeping the world toward the end of the nineteenth century, when many earlier inventions were becoming increasingly common and accessible. Railways began to cross Europe, North America, and far afield, electricity was being installed in homes, and people were beginning to be aware of the telephone, at a time when its predecessor— the telegraph—still seemed relatively new. These breakthroughs encouraged people to share ideas, information, and experiences, but they besides contributed to a cosmopolitan mental picture of rapid, irrepressible variety. even if newer discoveries—such as the car, gramophone, radio receiver transmission, moving pictures, powered flight, and radioactivity— did not impact on most people ’ mho daily lives, they provided a glance of the arouse, but besides quite frighten, future. This was besides a prison term of far-flung political change and instability around the world. In Africa, wars were being waged to gain land and natural resources, Greece and Turkey fought

1900 Gare five hundred ’ Orsay railroad track station—the world ’ sulfur first electric urban rail terminal— opens in Paris to allow access to the 1900 World ’ second Fair.

1907 Color photography is invented by Auguste and Louis Lumiére. 1910 The periodic Der Sturm ( The Assault ) is founded in Berlin. A major voice in Expressionist artwork, it is often associated with coining the campaign ’ mho name.


Technological advances At the turn of the twentieth century, the parisian cityscape reflected huge advances in engineering, such as this electric educate built for the 1900 World ’ randomness Fair.




BEGINNINGS MASTERS OF COLOR Toward the goal of the nineteenth century, a number of artists were moving off from traditional naturalism in ordain to achieve the effects they wanted. In much of his late work, Vincent avant-garde Gogh communicated his inner convulsion using pure, bright colors and dramatic, about violent, brushstrokes. In the like means, Paul Cézanne interpreted traditional still-life subjects in rich hues and textured paint, and Paul Gauguin portrayed exotic peoples and landscapes using tropical hues in solid blocks.


But true Modernism in art is normally dated from the 1905 Salon five hundred ’ Automne in Paris, where a few young painters exhibited even bolder, bright works. The artwork critic Louis Vauxelles noticed them displayed near a traditional sculpture, and commented that it was like seeing a Donatello “ parmi les fauves ” ( “ among the wild beasts ” ). Although Fauvism was ephemeral ( lasting alone two or three years at full baron ), it had a huge influence on the Expressionist movement and beyond.

ARTISTIC INFLUENCES Fauve and Expressionist artists, including Matisse, absorbed influences from a across-the-board stove of places and eras. art and design from other cultures helped to inspire their love of rich people color and pared-down shapes, and the work of earlier artists helped them to develop new ways of seeing. In painting, as in all disciplines, their teachers passed on not merely skills, but besides ideas, values, and enthusiasms. orientalism inspired the Fauves and Expressionists, becoming popular in the late nineteenth century as contribution of the Aesthetic Movement. With its obsession for all things Japanese— shapes, colors, subjects—this madden featured strongly across the worlds of artwork and fashion.

19th-century japanese winnow with floral motifs, adorned with Expressionist-like blocks of firm color.

1908 | Henri Matisse Gustave Moreau, the french Symbolist, influenced several Fauve artists, including Matisse. Moreau used paint in a fluid, animal way that inspired his students. But his biggest influence was ideological, and he encouraged Matisse to “ simplify paint. ”

The Peacock Complaining to Juno, 1881, reveals Moreau ’ s sensuous style. Musée National Gustave Moreau, Paris, France

John Peter Russell, the australian Impressionist, introduced Matisse to the solve of Vincent van Gogh. As a result of Russell ’ s influence, Matisse changed his dash wholly, and later in his animation revealed that Russell “ explained color hypothesis to me. ”

Mrs. Russell Amongst the Flowers at Belle Isle, 1927, is one of Russell ’ mho recently works that illustrates his use of color. Musée

Matisse ’ s mother worked in the family workshop, which sold house paint. Matisse besides saw his mother paint porcelain and making hats, so he was involved with color from an early historic period. When he began to paint, she urged him to express what he felt and not to follow rules.

Anna Heloise, Henri Matisse ’ south mother, was adored by her son. Matisse constantly claimed : “ She loved everything I did. ”

Rodin, Paris, France



Henri Matisse 1904 Musée National five hundred ’ Art Moderne, Paris

born Le Cateau-Cambrésis, France, December 31, 1869 ; died Nice, France, November 3, 1954

During the summer of 1904, Matisse went to stay with his friend, the painter Paul Signac, on the french Riviera. It was there that he produced Luxe, Calme, et Volupté, ( “ Luxury, Calm, and Pleasure ” ), a visualize that was highly influenced by Signac ’ s pointillism. Although Matisse soon discarded the stylus, it was with this painting that he began to explore the pure, acute color palette that came to define his work and influence so many other artists and movements. The title comes from Charles Baudelaire ’ s poem “ Invitation to a Voyage. ” In it, Baudelaire describes an fanciful seaport where “ all is arrange and beauty, luxury, calm, and joy. ”


Luxe, Calme, et Volupté

Henri Matisse was the son of a merchant. He became a lawyer to please his parents, but took drawing classes in his own time. At 21, while he recovered from appendicitis, his mother gave him a set of paints to keep him amused—with these he discovered what he by and by called “ a kind of paradise. ” He gave up police to study art in Paris and went on to become one of the most influential painters of the twentieth century, vitamin a well as a bright theater designer and illustrator.




Wassily Kandinsky born Moscow, Russia, December 4, 1866 ; died Neuilly-sur-Seine, France, December 13, 1944

In 1905, the same class that Fauvism was born, a group of artists including Erich Heckel and Ernst Ludwig Kirchner launched the first german Expressionist group, Die Brücke ( The Bridge ). A few years belated, in 1911, a second German association, Der Blaue Reiter ( The Blue Rider ) was established by a group of artists including Wassily Kandinsky and Franz Marc. These artists all had identical person styles, and some came to be linked with other movements—Kandinsky and Paul Klee, for exemplar, were besides leading pilfer painters.



A Russian-born cougar, printmaker, interior designer, teacher, and writer, Wassily Kandinsky was one of the most authoritative figures in Modernism. While teaching law as a young man, he was so moved by an exhibition of french Impressionists that he took up painting himself, working first in an Expressionist style before becoming an early abstract artist. From 1922 to 1933, he taught at the Bauhaus educate of design in Germany. In 1934, he settled in the Paris suburb of Neuilly-sur-Seine, where he lived until his death.

Murnau Street With Women

Vienna Secession

Death of avant-garde Gogh On July 29, 1890, Vincent van Gogh dies near Paris. Although he was about unknown in his life, his work had a major influence on the Fauves and Expressionism in general.


Wassily Kandinsky 1909

Formed in 1897, a group of austrian artists known as the Vienna Succession was at its top out by 1900. The study of some of its members—like postimpressionist painter Gustav Klimt—portrayed disruptive emotion in a style that looked forward to Expressionism.

Private Collection

From 1908 to 1914, Kandinsky spent holidays in the township of Murnau in the Bavarian Alps, painting its streets and its people in exuberant Expressionist manner. tied then, his geometric forms and blocks of color hint at a developing abstract style.

Art Nouveau besides flourishing at the turning of the century is Art Nouveau, a cosmetic dash based on sinuate plant and floral forms.





Horse in a Landscape Franz Marc 1910 Museum Folkwang, Essen, Germany

Marc loved to paint animals, believing them to be supremely beautiful and, in some ways, superior to humans. In his employment, he used a very personal color symbolism—blue was male and spiritual, yellow was female and gentle, and loss suggested violence, fear, or danger.

The Scream Edvard Munch 1893 Munch Museet, Oslo, Norway

Many years anterior to the recognition of Expressionism as a bowel movement in its own right field, the norwegian cougar Edvard Munch produced one of the most celebrated images in art ( Munch made four versions ). Its vibrant colors and falsify shapes epitomized the Expressionist heart and went on to influence many 20thcentury artists.



Arnold Schoenberg

Carcass of Beef

Egon Schiele 1917

Chaim Soutine 1925

Private Collection

Albright-Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo, NY

In his portrayal of the avant-garde composer Arnold Schoenberg, the austrian artist Egon Schiele pays court to a boyfriend expressionist. In accession to music, Schoenberg produced accomplished paintings, drawings, and poems.

Lithuanian-born, Soutine moved to France in 1913, and with his acquaintance Marc Chagall became a contribute expressionist. Soutine was inspired by great artists of the past, particularly Rembrandt, whose Flayed Ox ( 1655 ), depicting an animal carcase, peculiarly fascinated him. For his own painting, Soutine moved a real side of gripe into his studio—the neighbors were then appalled by the smell they informed the patrol.

Art for all The Exposition des Arts Décoratifs is held in Paris in 1925. This event showcases the finest cosmetic arts of the historic period, whose style finally becomes known as Art Deco.





Looking back

Just reward

In 1924, The Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek in Copenhagen, Denmark, mounts a huge retrospective exhibition of Henri Matisse ’ randomness work.

André Derain is given the Carnegie Prize in 1928, a sign of external recognition awarded by the Carnegie Museum of Art in Pittsburgh.

Erich Heckel

Bathers Erich Heckel 1913 St. Louis Art Museum, MO

In this bird ’ s-eye view, Heckel illustrates the then current tendency for Freikörperkultur ( rid body culture ), which was an taste of the feel of nature and sometimes nakedness. In typical Heckel dash, many of the lines—in the water, the land, and the figures—are jagged and angular.


born Döbeln, Germany, July 31, 1883 ; died Radolfzell, Germany, January 27, 1970

Erich Heckel studied architecture in Dresden, where he helped to found the Expressionist group Die Brücke in 1905. He continued to work as an architect until 1909, when he took up painting full time. In 1913, the year Die Brücke disbanded, he was given a alone exhibition in Berlin. During World War I, declared unfit for service, he volunteered to work as a medical orderly, going on to produce powerful images reflecting the conflict. Throughout his career, Heckel worked with woodcut engravings—he peculiarly enjoyed color woodcuts, despite the arduous process involved in cutting different blocks of wood for each of the colors he used.




Conjuring Trick Paul Klee 1927 Philadelphia Museum of Art, PA

Paul Klee was one of the most respect figures in 20thcentury artwork. Klee was obsessed with color, and early in his career confessed that “ color possesses me. ” In this typically far-out, yet slightly disturbing, image—sometimes called Prestidigitator—disembodied eyes, nose, and mouth ice-cream soda against a shimmer loss background.

Pierrot Georges Rouault 1938–39 Fondation Georges Rouault, Paris, France

The commedia dell ’ arte figure of Pierrot was a front-runner composition for Rouault. In much of his exercise, he portrayed the clown as sad and disillusioned.

1930 From figurative to abstract In 1930, Henri Matisse finishes a series of four bronze bas-relief sculptures, Back 1–Back 4, each featuring a unlike view of the human name, from conventionally figurative to near abstract.




War on art

Death of Soutine

On August 2, 1934, Adolf Hitler becomes Führer ( question of express ) in Germany. Under Hitler, the Nazi party declares much Expressionist work to be “ devolve ” and removes it from display in public buildings, or has it destroyed.

On August 9, 1943, Chaim Soutine dies in German-occupied Paris during an emergency operation for a stomach ulcer.

The Fiancés Marc Chagall 1927–35 Private Collection

Chagall grew up in a provincial russian town before World War I. Throughout his long life, he took inspiration from memories of that fourth dimension, and the tribe tales he grew up with—musicians and lovers, for exemplar, appear in many of his paintings, all of which reflect his mania for color.

Matterhorn I Oskar Kokoschka 1947 Fondation Oskar Kokoschka, Vevey, Switzerland

An Austrian-born expressionist, Kokoschka was known for portraiture early in his career, but a menstruation of travel during the 1920s focused his sake on the natural earth. Kokoschka loved Switzerland and finally settled there, producing stunning images of its landscape.



The Black Tern

Georges Rouault

Georg Baselitz 1971 Private Collection

Baselitz came to prominence in Germany during the 1960s, and he was at the vanguard of a Neo-Expressionist drift that became international. His works display the vibrant color and deformed kind of the master Expressionists, and his manner hovers between abstraction and figuration—from 1969 ahead, he painted his images upside down to draw attention away from any narrative, and emphasize the shapes and colors on the poll.

The son of an craftsman, Rouault began his career as an apprentice to a stained-glass painter. Like Matisse, he was taught by Gustav Moreau, and he was influenced by his teacher ’ s work adenine well as by his own fascination with medieval artwork. To create his distinctive style, Rouault favored the rich colors of stain methamphetamine, applying them with compact paint in an effect called impasto. Throughout his career, he continued to work in stain glass, adenine well as ceramics, tapestry, stage design, and illustration.

Power of the heart

New Expressionism

In February 1958, Georges Rouault dies in Paris and is given a country funeral. His devout Catholic faith had given much of his work a profoundly spiritual quality.

american Neo-Expressionist artist Julian Schnabel is given his first solo exhibition in 1976 at the Contemporary Arts Museum in Houston, Texas.









natural Paris, France, May 27, 1871 ; died Paris, February 13, 1958

While Expressionist paintings were exploring new district, modern dance was besides focusing on self-expression. Rejecting the qualities that define authoritative ballet—precise technique, storytelling, and elaborate designs—the new expressive style involved publicize feet, elementary draped costumes, lack of plot, and spare movement inspired by emotion. Some Modernists, such as the german pioneer Mary Wigman ( right ), occasionally danced without music. Mary Wigman





MASTERWORK The Street Ernst Ludwig Kirchner 1908 MoMA, New York, NY

Crowded city streets were a favorite subject for Die Brücke ( german for “ The Bridge ” ), the early german Expressionist group founded in 1905 with Kirchner as its leader. The original members—Kirchner, Erich Heckel, Fritz Bleyl, and Karl Schmidt-Rottluff—were Dresden architecture students who had turned to paint, and wanted to break away from the academic custom. They shared a captivation with 19th-century philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche, from whose writing they took their name : “ The great thing about man is that he is a bridge and not a goal. ” Kirchner ’ s Dresden scenes portray the isolation and anxiety he felt in the midst of impersonal city life. Everything about this persona is jarring—the colors are harsh and collide, the street has an abnormal gradient, the paving is crowded, and escape is blocked by a streetcar car in the setting. With its masklike, vacant faces and lonely figures, The Street absolutely embodies what Kirchner referred to as “ agonizing restlessness ” —the defining quality of so many Expressionist works. Kirchner ’ south alienation increased when he left provincial Dresden in 1911 for Berlin. Between 1913 and 1915, he produced seven street scenes that expressed the even more heavy isolation he felt in the huge, anonymous city. In 1918 he suffered a breakdown and moved to an alpine farmhouse in Switzerland, where he painted peaceful mountain scenes. In 1937, the Nazis declared Kirchner ’ second work “ devolve ” and removed all examples from populace collections. The trace year, he took his own life.



CUBISM C.1907 –1920


The Smoker Juan Gris 1913 Museo Thyssen-Bornemisza, Madrid, Spain

In this affectionate portrayal of the american english artwork patron Frank Haviland, Gris separated assorted elements of the face and reordered them geometrically. The use of strong tinge is a have of subsequently Cubism—early examples are about monochromatic.

Cubism—like Expressionism—developed in an senesce that produced automobiles, airplanes, cinema, and the widespread adoption of photography. The growth of photography was crucial, because it meant that paint was no long tied to its traditional character of reproducing people, places, and objects realistically. rather, painters could explore fresh ways of looking at subjects, sometimes from different angles at the like time, as in Juan Gris ’ s The Smoker ( left ). Cubism, which began around 1907, initially involved the work of only two artists, Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque. But by 1911 it had become democratic among other progressive artists in Paris, including Gris, Marcel Duchamp, Fernand Léger, Robert and Sonia Delaunay, and Jean Metzinger. From there, it spread widely— to Italy, Britain, and Russia, for example, and besides to the United States, notably in the cultivate of Charles Sheeler.



Modernism manifest 1905 Einstein ’ s Special Theory of Relativity is published, revolutionizing the accept laws of physics in the direction that Cubism was to revolutionize art. spanish artist José Gonzáles adopts the pseudonym Juan Gris.

A new room of seeing in the theater. contemporary paintings had a alike capacity to inspire violent reaction. At the clock time, it was fashionable to read into Cubism an try to comment on, or interpret, advanced doctrines of science and doctrine, but Picasso and Braque never made this connection, and they had no time for those who did. A climate of transfer surely nurtured the newfangled manner, but as Picasso made clear : “ Cubism has kept itself within the limits and limitations of paint, never pretending to go beyond it. ” Picasso and Braque never turned to revolutionary think or technology for their subjugate matter—however extreme the style they invented, they chose to paint landscapes, people, musical instruments, and still-life studies with roll of yield, fair as artists had always done. Both artists had the lavishness of financial patronize from their dealer, so they could afford to play repeatedly with the lapp subjects. In contrast, chap Cubists had to sell their knead on the open market to survive, so they frequently chose more attention-getting subjects, and offshoots of Cubism such as Futurism and Vorticism were inspired by themes including aviation. The outbreak of World War I ended the close and fat collaboration between Picasso and Braque, but the motion they established went on to be one of the most significant and influential in modern art.

Camera Cubism Vorticism, a british growth from Cubism, was expressed in photography vitamin a well as paint. Alvin Langdon Coburn used a trilateral agreement of mirrors over his lens to create geometric forms in images that were called vortographs.

1907 Picasso paints Les Demoiselles d ’ Avignon, frequently described as the first Cubist work. Braque is initially shocked by the painting, but subsequently responds with a large Cubist nude of his own. 1908 The art critic Louis Vauxelles makes his first reference to cubes in describing Braque ’ sulfur study, suggesting the movement ’ south name for the first time.


At the change state of the twentieth hundred, the boundaries of science, technology, locomotion, and communication were being extended about beyond imagination. Albert Einstein was revolutionizing the world of physics, fingerprint evidence was used for the first time to solve a murder, and radio ( wireless telegraph ) equipment was installed in offices and on ships. Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque changed artwork in a way that was equally revolutionist. There was an agitation in early art forms as well. Igor Stravinsky, for example, had been commissioned to compose The Rite of Spring, to be performed by Serge Diaghilev ’ s Ballet Russes. On its opening night in Paris in 1913, the audience were therefore appalled by the avant-garde nature of both the music and Vaslav Nijinsky ’ s angular choreography that there was a near-riot

1912 Albert Gleizes and Jean Metzinger publish On Cubism, the first record dealing with the submit. Picasso and Braque introduce the proficiency of collage—the summation of non-artistic materials such as newspaper fragments to their images. 1914 World War I is declared. Braque ’ s enlistment in the french Army ends his close artistic partnership with Picasso.





BEGINNINGS BUILDING BLOCKS OF MODERNISM The most revolutionary of all modern artwork movements, Cubism was the creation of the artists Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque. The critic Louis Vauxelles unwittingly christened the movement when, commenting on exhibitions in 1908 and 1909, he used the terms “ cubes ” and “ bizarreries cubiques ” ( cubic eccentricities ). Soon, more painters began to work in the style, and Cubism provided inspiration for related movements elsewhere—Futurism in Italy, Vorticism in Britain, Constructivism in Russia, and Precisionism in America.

ARTISTIC INFLUENCES Picasso and Braque had identical unlike personalities, but for a fourth dimension they shared the same vision in their work. rather of reproducing precisely what they saw, they experimented with break up and rearranging their subjects, appearing to look at them from more than one vantage degree at the like prison term. african artwork fascinated Picasso and other Cubists. Like many progressive artists, they were excited by its vibrant, expressive qualities. Some collect african tribal masks, which were common and brassy in Paris curio shops.

Ceremonial mask from Gabon, late 19th or early twentieth hundred, is typical of the style of African art that influenced Cubists.

Cézanne was a key influence. He did not try to create depth with traditional position, and viewed his subjects from shifting positions. His works are less windows on the earth as flat surfaces with their own integrity.

Mont SainteVictoire, c.1904, illustrates how Cézanne used color to suggest phase. Kunsthaus, Zürich, Switzerland

Daniel-Henry Kahnweiler was the artwork dealer who brought Picasso and Braque together. He promoted Cubism, and represented Fernand Léger, Juan Gris, and Fauve artists André Derain and Maurice de Vlaminck.

Daniel-Henry Kahnweiler was a German-born dealer and critic work in Paris. He was the first to show Cubist work.

Paul Gauguin inspired the Cubists in his use of simple, flat shapes, with his captivation for “ primitive ” cultures ( polynesian rather than African ), and through the freedom from inhibition that characterizes much of his function.

Woman Holding a Fruit, 1893, shows Gauguin ’ s lush, uninhibited style. Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg, Russia


TURNING POINT Les Demoiselles d ’ Avignon Pablo Picasso 1907 MoMA, New York, NY

This startle exercise is seen as not only heralding the birth of Cubism, but as a key landmark in the integral history of paint. Overthrowing conventional ideas about form, tinge, and perspective, it broke aside from traditional art so radically and ferociously that even some of Picasso ’ s closest friends and associates were baffled and shocked by it. The painting was not shown in public until 1916. The five women in the paint are prostitutes—the title is a reference point to Barcelona ’ s Carrer vitamin d ’ Avinyo ( Avignon Street ), which was ill-famed for its brothels. Picasso made hundreds of preparatory drawings for this paint, indicating that he primitively intended to create a more detail and denotative whorehouse setting that included one or more male figures.

Pablo Picasso


born Málaga, Spain, October 25, 1881 ; died Mougins, France, April 8, 1973

The most celebrated artist of the modern age, Pablo Picasso was the son of a painter and art teacher who showed him how to draw when he was a belittled child. He studied at art schools in Barcelona and Madrid, but soon outgrew them, and had his own studio apartment by the time he was 16. In 1900, he began visiting Paris, where he settled in 1904. soon, his influence became popular with discerning patrons such as Gertrude and Leo Stein, and by the end of World War I, he was affluent and firmly established as a lead artist. For the rest of his liveliness, Picasso was inordinately prolific—not only as a painter, but besides as a sculptor, printmaker, potter, and stage designer—and he was however working within hours of his death at the old age of 91.



TIMELINE Once Picasso and Braque joined forces, their collaboration was close, acute, and enormously fat. They met regularly to discuss their knead and for a fourth dimension they produced paintings so like that experts still find it difficult to tell their function apart. Soon, other avant-garde Paris-based artists adopted the conventions they had established, and variations of Cubism went on to spring up in early countries. Cubist ideas were besides adopted and adapted in sculpture, the cosmetic arts, and to a lesser extent, computer architecture.

IN THE EVOLUTION OF THE NEW ART, THE CONTRIBUTIONS OF PICASSO AND BRAQUE ARE…OFTEN HARDLY DISTINGUISHABLE 1920 | Daniel-Henry Kahnweiler Art dealer and critic, writing in The advance of Cubism

Viaduct at L’Estaque Georges Braque 1908 Musée National five hundred ’ Art Moderne, Paris, France

This is one of the paintings that gave rise to the terminus Cubism. The identify continued to be used, even though Braque and Picasso soon moved away from the blocklike forms seen here, and later Cubism has nothing to do with cubes.



Birth follows death Following Cézanne ’ s death, a commemorative exhibition of his work is mounted in Paris in 1907, inspiring many progressive artists and playing a separate in the birth of Cubism.

Marcel Duchamp born Blainville, France, July 28, 1887 ; died Neuilly-sur-Seine, France, October 2, 1968



Although he had a huge shock on 20th-century artwork, Marcel Duchamp actually produced relatively little of it. Like many artists of the time, he was drawn to the ferment of Paul Cézanne, and around 1910 he began to paint in the Cubist vogue. By 1917, he was experimenting with Dada, and late he was involved with Surrealism. Producing pieces that were much characterized by humor, Duchamp shifted attention from the appearance of works of artwork to the ideas that lay behind them—a rotatory notion that is inactive enormously influential in the twenty-first century.


The Town No.2 Robert Delaunay 1910 Musée National vitamin d ’ Art Moderne, Paris, France

Born in Paris, Delaunay was basically self-taught, and worked in both Impressionist and Post-Impressionist styles before turning to Cubism. here, the extreme point fragmentation of a townscape hints at his move toward full abstraction.

Dynamism of a Soccer Player Umberto Boccioni 1913 MoMA, New York, NY

The Knife Grinder

Boccioni was one of the leading exponents of Futurism, an italian development from Cubism. This work portrays the athletic energy of a ballplayer through his interaction with the flickering standard atmosphere around him.

Kasimir Malevich 1912–13 Yale University Art Gallery, New Haven, CT

Malevich experimented with a number of Modernist movements. The style of this painting, which combines elements of Cubism and Futurism, is sometimes called Cubo-Futurist. Its subtitle is “ Principle of Glittering. ”






Looking to the future Futurism is officially launched when the Futurist Manifesto is published by Filippo Tommaso Marinetti in Paris in February 1909.

Gothic inspiration In the spring of 1909, Robert Delaunay begins work on his Saint-Severin series of seven paintings. These portray in disconnected Cubist expressive style the inside of a little Gothic church near his studio.

Nude Descending a Staircase, No. 2 Marcel Duchamp 1912

The Conquest of the Air Roger de La Fresnaye 1913

Philadelphia Museum of Art, PA

MoMA, New York, NY

Duchamp ’ s semiabstract nude, with its extraordinary common sense of movement, attracted considerable negative criticism when it was exhibited at the Armory show in New York ( 1913 ). One observer likened it to “ an explosion in a shingle factory ” —the resulting publicity made Duchamp a celebrity in the United States.

La Fresnaye produced distinctive function that was strongly influenced by Cubism. His best-known paint shows the artist and his brother relax outdoors, with a boastfully balloon in the background.

Making history During February and March 1913, the Armory Show in New York ( a huge exhibition of modern artwork ) introduces Cubism to the american english public.



still Life Jean Metzinger 1916 Private Collection

On the Way to the Trenches CRW Nevinson 1915

Nevinson created this woodcut for Blast, the ephemeral journal of Vorticism in Britain. As an official war artist, he witnessed the wide horror of battle, and the work he produced reflected his know.



The world at war In July 1914, war breaks out in Europe and belated affects countries around the world. Artists of every discipline portray the conflict ( see above ), and many others die in the fight.

Amedeo Modigliani behave Livorno, Italy, July 12, 1884 ; died Paris, France, January 24, 1920



Modigliani was the ultimate bohemian artist. Born into a jewish italian family, he studied art in Florence and Venice before settling in 1906 in Paris, where he met Chaim Soutine, Juan Gris, and the Cubist sculptor Jacques Lipchitz, and pursued a life of ebullient excess. While not involved directly with Cubism ( or any other movement ), Modigliani had great respect for Picasso, he socialized in the group ’ s orb, and many of his portraits display balmy Cubist distortion. During his life, Modigliani had little commercial success, and he died when he was only 35, so far within a few years he was acknowledged as one of the most original artists of his time.

One of the first artists to be won over to Cubism, Metzinger tended to apply its principles in a more cosmetic way than some of his associates. With Albert Gleizes, he wrote the first book on the subject, On Cubism ( 1912 ).




Portrait of Hanka Zborowska Amedeo Modigliani 1917 Galleria Nazionale vitamin d ’ Arte Moderna, Rome, Italy

Like the early Cubists, Modigliani was fascinated by african masks, and his deadpan portraits reflect this. here, he portrays the wife of his art dealer Léopold Zborowski. Toward the end of the artist ’ s life sentence the pair allowed him to use their firm as a studio apartment.

Bargeman Fernand Léger 1918 MoMA, New York, NY

Léger ’ s post of Cubism was particularly classifiable, and by 1912, he was using it to explore his fascination with technology. Bargeman depicts a river craft against a backdrop of houses—in the upper leave section, the title trope grips his wheel with clawlike hands on the end of huge tubular arms.


Pertaining to Yachts and Yachting


Charles Sheeler 1922 Philadelphia Museum of Art, PA

A photographer deoxyadenosine monophosphate well as a cougar, Sheeler was the run exponent of Precisionism, an american mutant of Cubism. He portrayed urban and industrial subjects in a legato, linear style—here, several big vessels appear to skim across the ocean ’ s come on.

Inspired by the 1925 Exposition des Arts Décoratifs in Paris, the Art Deco style dominated lend oneself arts in the late 1920s and 1930s. several factors shaped its classifiable attend : the designs of Léon Bakst and Alexandre Benois for the Ballets Russes, the discovery of Tutankhamun ’ sulfur grave and the leave fashion for all things Egyptian, and the singular style of Léger-brand Cubist paint, as seen in the work of Deco potter Clarice Cliff.

Expert opinion Daniel-Henry Kahnweiler ’ s book The Rise of Cubism is published in 1920. Never a commercial success, it soon became an authoritative source sour, and it is still used in this way nowadays.

Clarice Cliff Art Deco coffee bean pot


In January 1920, Amedeo Modigliani dies in Paris of tubercular meningitis brought on by poverty, overwork, and addiction to alcohol and drugs.




Friends together In 1921, Pablo Picasso produced two similar Cubist paintings entitled Three Musicians. Experts believe that the artist is one of these, and his friends, poets Guillaume Apollinaire and Max Jacob, are the others.


Fernand Léger bear Argentan, France, February 4, 1881 ; died Gif-sur-Yvette, France, August 17, 1955



Death of Modigliani

Originally apprenticed to an architectural draftsman, Léger supported himself in this trade while he attended art school, and went on to become a major figure in Cubism. After serving in World War I, he established a distinctive style in which he portrayed cityscapes and technology in potent colors and geometric shapes. During World War II, he lived and worked in the United States, returning permanently to France in 1945. A giant of 20th-century art, Léger besides produced stunning stain glass, mosaics, tapestries, and ceramics.




MASTERWORK Le Portugais ( the Emigrant ) Georges Braque 1911 Kunstmuseum, Basel, Switzerland

In the classic Cubist manner, Braque produced this sepia-hued portrayal of a musician by analyzing the subject ’ s form, breaking the effigy into multiple fragments, then arranging them to reflect a issue of unlike angles and different moments in time—and besides to suggest light and trace. here, the effect is so complete and building complex that it is difficult at first for the spectator to make out what is being portrayed, although the cardinal figure, the curtain and its tasseled cord, and the still-life visualize on the rampart reveal themselves fairly promptly. The tophatted subject is a portuguese guitar player the artist had once seen in a Marseilles measure. After working in concert on Cubism for several years, Braque and Picasso began to experiment with stencil and collage. In doing this, they extended the oscilloscope of Cubism flush far by challenging the process of painting adenine well its treatment of subjects. At first,

blended into the composition, these techniques had no particular function. here though, across the break up central persona, Braque stenciled selected letters and numbers in order to enhance the nature of the paint ’ second coat as a subject of matter to in its own justly, preferably than an aim on which to create a representational trope. At the lapp meter, the realism of these elements highlights the paint ’ south outline nature. At top right, the stencil fragment from a poster announcing a GRAND BAL ( a dancing ) not merely serves the paint ’ south intricate composition, it besides adds a bohemian café atmosphere. Le Portugais was painted during the summer that Braque spent working with Picasso in Céret in France, a picturesque town at the foot of the Pyrenees near the Spanish-French border. Céret attracted many writers, musicians, and artists of the time, including expressionist painters Henri Matisse and André Derain.

Georges Braque


born Argenteuil, France, May 13, 1882 ; died Paris, France, August 31, 1963

Georges Braque



The son and grandson of house painters, Braque took up the family trade wind, but chose to study painting at the lapp clock time. In 1900, he moved to Paris to train as a overcome decorator, but besides attended art schools. early paintings show a strong Impressionist influence, but after seeing the exercise of the Fauves in 1905, he adopted their stylus. then, from the fourth dimension he met Picasso in 1907, he focused on developing the form that became known as cubism. They worked in concert until 1914, when Braque went to fight in World War I, during which he suffered a dangerous head wound. After the conflict, his style became less angular, featuring subtle, muted colors and a more naturalistic interpretation of nature. He continued to work in Paris for the respite of his liveliness, even during World War II. angstrom well as paintings, Braque produced theatrical designs, lithograph, engravings, book illustrations, sculptures, stained-glass windows, and jewelry designs. In 1961, he became the first animation artist to be exhibited in the Louvre.



Tango Sonia Delaunay 1913 Private Collection

The Bal Bullier was a stylish Paris cabaret from 1859 to 1940, and Sonia Delaunay ’ s huge and building complex finished painting of it looks at first like an placement of bright, organic shapes. In this study though, these shapes are revealed as the dancing bodies—and even the alien headwear—of glamorous young Parisians.

Of all the modern art forms and movements to emerge during the twentieth century, abstract art is possibly the most digest. Any work of art that does not depict the recognizable, ocular earth can be described as abstract. Some abstract paintings, like this study by Sonia Delaunay, distort the figures or objects being portrayed without disguising their nature wholly. Certain Cubist paintings, such as Marcel Duchamp ’ second 1912 Nude Descending a Staircase, No. 2 ( see p.327 ) besides follow the like principle. At the most extreme extent of abstraction however, there is no attempt to reproduce or evening to suggest nature—paintings explore the might of lineage, color, and imprint for their own sake in ordering to bypass literal perception and access unconscious awareness. Leading abstractionists of the time included František Kupka, Wassily Kandinsky, Theo vanguard Doesburg, Kazimir Malevich, Ben Nicholson, and Piet Mondrian.



A world in agitation 1917 Start of the russian Revolution, during which Tsar Nicholas II and his family are killed. This event leads to the universe of the communist Soviet Union.

The art of freedom of a triangle on a set produces an effect that is fair a powerful as Michelangelo ’ s “ finger of God touching the finger of Adam. ” World War I changed the structure of club across Europe and beyond. When it was over, servants who had enlisted or undertake war sour had little desire to return to domestic service, and the women who had toiled in offices and factories to take the place of men conscripted for military service would never again be message to stay at home—the fixed but familiar class arrangement that had been in place for hundreds of years began to crumble. The postwar decades brought more turbulence in the form of a crushing global depression in the 1930s, and the rise of the Nazi party in Germany, which led to another World War. finally, abstraction not entirely came to dominate advanced art, but besides represent the victory of western exemption over the absolutism of Nazi Germany and Soviet Russia, both of which had banned it.

1918 World War I ends. For a few years after the war the american economy flourishes, making it an external financial capital and a focus on for the arts. 1929 The New York livestock market crashes, contributing to an external depression. This encourages a patriotic type of figurative painting in the US. 1932 In the Soviet Union, Socialist Realism is decreed the merely acceptable type of art. Abstraction ( along with Expressionism and Cubism ) is outlawed. 1933 Adolf Hitler, drawing card of the Nazi party, is declared Germany ’ s Chancellor. Most modern art is labeled as “ pervert ” and much is destroyed.


Early outline art grew out of the lapp quickly changing culture as expressionism and Cubism. It developed slenderly former, though, so it besides reflected a world of increased political bodily process and far-flung social upheaval. In the years leading astir to World War I, the parturition of abstract art was very much an international phenomenon that emerged more or less at the like time in the knead of artists in diverse countries. In their different ways, all discovered the boundless electric potential of coloring material and shape divorced from representation. Pioneers included the Russian Kasimir Malevich ; Wassily Kandinsky, besides a russian, working in Germany ; František Kupka, a Czech exist in Paris ; Dutch painter and writer Theo van Doesburg ; and Piet Mondrian, a Dutchman, who spent full of life years of his career in Paris. For such artists, this was not simply a newfangled style, but a rotatory artistic style, uniquely suited to portraying their feelings, and appropriate to a new populace view. Kandinsky once claimed that the impact of the acute angle

1936 During preparations for the Cubism and Abstract Art exhibition at the Museum of Modern Art, New York, 19 sculptures are denied entry from Europe because US Customs define sculpt as “ imitations of natural objects. ”


Horrors of war Having suffered appallingly under the Tsar, the russian people still endured awful conditions after the Revolution, including starvation. Some regions fought for their independence—to escape slaughter in Latvia in 1917, these peasants fled into the woods near Riga.



BEGINNINGS MOVING TOWARD THE FUTURE Toward the end of the nineteenth century and at the begin of the 20th, painting began to move away from the theme that the accurate reproduction of world was one of its implicit in functions. fauvism and Expressionism developed this concept far, then Cubism finally opened the door to pure abstraction by treating paintings as surfaces on which artists create a reply to the world, preferably than as windows through which they view a part of it. Some abstract art—like the Kupka painting pictured opposite—is based, however

František Kupka born Opocno, Bohemia, September 23, 1871 ; died Puteaux, Paris, France, June 24, 1957



Born in Bohemia ( immediately separate of the Czech Republic ), Kupka studied at the Academies of Fine Arts in both Prague and Vienna. In 1896, he settled in Paris and began his career producing illustrations and satirical caricatures. His early paintings displayed Fauve influences, and he developed a fascination with color that led him to abstraction as a way of exploring its spiritual symbolism, and using it to create effects like those of music. When World War I was declared, Kupka enlisted in the french Army and fought in the Battle of the Somme. late, he went on to become a teacher, developing a more geometric style in his own shape. Kupka ’ s character as a pioneer of abstract art began to be generally appreciated lone after his death in 1957. The follow year a major exhibition of his work opened at the Musée National vitamin d ’ Art Moderne in Paris.

sidelong, on the populace around us, but saturated abstractedness, sometimes called abstract art, portrays no concrete reality at all, as seen in the work of Theo vanguard Doesburg, Kazimir Malevich, Ben Nicholson, and Piet Mondrian. The first abstract works appeared a little after 1910, and images in this idiom continued to flourish throughout the rest of the twentieth hundred, and beyond. now, in the first decades of the twenty-first century, abstract art is still a vibrant, and frequently challenge, vein of modernism.

ARTISTIC INFLUENCES As they shifted toward abstraction, the movement ’ sulfur pioneers explored a wide roll of influences that offered enrichment and delight entirely through the employment of line, practice, texture, and color. sometimes they were drawn to the sour of other painters—even those from earlier, profoundly conventional, disciplines—but folk-art techniques and effects made possible by newly engineering besides had much to offer. James McNeill Whistler prefigured abstraction by emphasizing the agreement of form and tinge, preferably than the subject. ( His celebrated “ Whistler ’ s Mother ” is actually titled Arrangement in Grey and Black No. 1. ) In this dramatic firework scene, he plays with color, shape, and light.

Nocturne in Black and Gold : The Falling Rocket, 1875, by Whistler has a title alluding to the yoke between painting and music. Detroit

Multiple-exposure photograph by the french scientist Etienne-Jules Marey depicting the movement of the bodies of people and animals fascinated some early abstractionists.This technique became known as chronophotography.

Record of the several Phases of a Jump, 1886, Etienne-Jules Marey, shows how multiple-exposure photography creates rhythmical patterns.

Maurice Denis, the french Symbolist painter and theorist, believed in suggestion rather than misprint representation. His work has powerfully abstract qualities, a concept he wrote about : “ A mental picture is … basically a flat come on covered with colors arranged in a certain decree. ”

The green Christ, 1890, Maurice Denis, distinctly portrays Jesus, but the painting is more about colors and shapes.

The bohemian tradition of adorning traditional wooden cottages with handpainted squares, arrows, dots, and zig-zags influenced Kupka as he grew up in the bohemian countryside. They besides encouraged his fascination with tune and blueprint.

Simple motifs adapted by local anesthetic women from their needlework designs decorate cottages in the area of Bohemia where Kupka was born.

Institute of Arts, MI

Private Collection


TURNING POINT Study For Amorpha : fugue in Two Colors II František Kupka 1910–11 Cleveland Museum of Art, OH

No prototype can be singled out as the first to be strictly abstract, but this painting is surely among the movement ’ mho key pioneering works. One of a series that preoccupied Kupka between 1909 and 1912, it was inspired when the artist watched his stepdaughter running with a ball. Based on his belief that rhythmical forms in pure colors reflect cosmic energy, Kupka interpreted his memory in pilfer mode. In abstractedness, he found a parallel with the musical fugue, “ where the sounds evolve like authentic forcible entities, intertwine, come and go. ”







Wassily Kandinsky 1929

Soon after 1910 Kandinsky, Kupka, and a few others began to produce the first examples of pure outline art. In the years that followed, a number of artists such as Piet Mondrian and Theo vanguard Doesburg used the revolutionary new artistic style to create their own classifiable styles. finally, during the early 1940s, abstraction led to the birth of the first major art movement of the american avant-garde—Abstract expressionism.

Peggy Guggenheim Collection, Venice, Italy

This abstract head is composed of geometric planes and non-naturalistic colors, accentuated by barlike shapes. Two forms in the painting ( in the lead ’ mho base, and at top right ) suggest the letter E, which may refer to the work ’ s original title in german, Empor ( Upward ).

Composition Theo van Doesburg 1925 Private Collection

In 1917, along with Piet Mondrian and others, van Doesburg founded the group De Stijl ( “ The Style ” ). By the time he produced this painting though, he was moving away from the hard-and-fast horizontals and verticals associated with it.

Superior shapes The Suprematist movement is launched in 1915 by Kasimir Malevich at an exhibition of avant-garde artwork in Petrograd ( now St. Petersburg ), Russia.






Female Torso Suprematist Composition

Joan Miró 1931

Kasimir Malevich 1916

Philadelphia Museum of Art, PA

Private Collection

Miró ’ sulfur function does not slot well into a unmarried movement—like many artists of his time, he was influenced by Fauvism and Cubism, and he is widely associated with the Surrealists, but some of his work—like this naïve, playful painting—is arrant abstraction.

After his cubist period, Malevich developed a style he called Suprematism, in which he aimed to show “ the domination of arrant form. ” This austere discipline finally led him to paint a picture of a white square on a blank background.


End of an era


Founded in 1919, the Bauhaus was a german design school dedicated to bringing all the ocular arts together. Kandinsky was one of the many distinguished teachers. It flourished until 1933, when it was closed under press from the Nazis.

1938 ( painting ) Ben Nicholson 1935 Private Collection

A go number in british avant-garde artwork, Nicholson began as a figurative painter, then experimented with Cubism until he established his own style of abstraction. After meeting mondrian in 1934, he began to paint geometric shapes in neutral and primary colors.


Trafalgar Square Piet Mondrian 1939–42

The originator of a dangerous type of abstraction called NeoPlasticism, Mondrian reduced his paintings to horizontal and vertical lines, and used merely elementary colors, plus black and white. Trafalgar Square, painted in London, is one of a series he named in honor of cities that had offered him cordial reception.

1940 Degeneracy on display

Ben Nicholson


born Denham, UK, April 10, 1894 ; died London, UK, February 6, 1982

A initiate of modern british artwork, Nicholson attended the Slade School of Art ( London ) before traveling extensively in Europe, where he absorbed a broad range of influences—throughout his life sentence he produced both figurative and pilfer work. particularly known for ascetic geometric paintings, he besides created images in relief—many small, but a few large. With his second gear wife, sculptor Barbara Hepworth, he was at the center of the St. Ives group of artists who lived and worked in Cornwall, UK.

© 2012 Mondrian/Holtzman Trust c/o HRC International USA, Oil on canvass, 57 ¼ x 47 ¼ in ( 145.2 adam 120 curium )

The Nazi party labeled abstract and other avant-garde art “ devolve ” and outlawed it. But in 1937 they mounted a propaganda exhibition of such banned art in Munich, in which works were hung chaotically and derided on explanatory labels. The exhibition traveled around several german cities.


MoMA, New York, NY

In 1965, fashion designer Yves St. Laurent adapted Piet Mondrian ’ sulfur blocks of boldface color for a solicitation of couture dresses that became symbols of the ten. St. Laurent realized that mondrian ’ mho function would adapt absolutely to the straight lines of the then-fashionable “ switch ” stylus. As a dressmaker, his skill lay in concealing each garment ’ s elusive body shaping in the grid of fine seams. Robe mondrian by Yves St Laurent




MASTERWORK Composition VI Wassily Kandinsky 1913 Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg, Russia

Wassily Kandinsky considered music to be a superior art shape to paint because of its inherently abstract nature, and his close friendship with the avant-garde composer Arnold Schoenberg inspired much of his solve. In 1910 he began planning a serial of paintings called Compositions—a condition that is common to the languages of both music and art. Kandinsky claimed that when he saw color he heard music, and he believed stormily that artwork could have the same aroused world power as music. He painted ten Compositions—all monumental in size ; all carefully planned using preliminary studies ; and all potent celebrations of abstraction. Composition VI takes the biblical Deluge as its root, and its wild colors and swirling forms clearly suggest elemental forces. The artist wrote more amply about this paint than about any of his other works. initially, he identified two centers : on the bequeath, a “ tender, pink, reasonably diffuse concentrate with unaccented precarious lines in the middle ; ” and on the right, a fiddling higher, “ a coarse red-blue center, slightly discordant, with sharp, solid, very accurate and rather malefic lines. ” He then mentioned a third base center between them, closer to the left—while noting that this is less obvious than the others, he called it “ the independent center. ” hera, he described “ pink and white foam ” that seems to be “ floating in air, surrounded by vapor. ” Kandinsky ’ s first three Compositions were destroyed during World War II, but black-and-white photograph of the completed works survive, along with some of his studies.






The Human Condition René Magritte 1933 National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC

In explaining The Human Condition, Magritte wrote : “ In front of a window seen inside a board, I placed a painting covering precisely that assign of the landscape covered by the painting. frankincense, the tree in the picture hides the tree behind it, outside the room. For the spectator it is both inside the room within the painting, and outside in the actual landscape. ” Although he refers to the very landscape as opposed to the paint, there is actually nothing real here—Magritte is toying with reality in genuine Surrealist fashion.

Dada, a motion without governing principles, appeared about 1915 as a disgust against the civilization that had engulfed the global in war. The Dadaists sought to embody the absurd in their work on the footing that absurd art reflects an absurd society. Its precede exponents included Marcel Duchamp, Francis Picabia, and George Grosz. Dada was ephemeral though, and during the 1920s, its ideas were absorbed into Surrealism, a linked movement that besides questioned the status quo and the accept notions of world, as Magritte demonstrated in The Human Condition ( above left ). Surrealism concentrated less on random absurdity than Dada, and more on the richness of the unconscious mind mind and its ability to forge a ranking, or “ sur, ” reality. Magritte was a head artist of the motion, along with Man Ray, Max Ernst, Salvador Dalí, and late practioners including Frida Kahlo.



An era of global convulsion 1899 In his innovative treatise The Interpretation of Dreams, Sigmund Freud sets out his theories of the unconscious mind take care. The reserve takes many years to gain respect, but later has a brawny influence on André Breton ’ s Manifesto of Surrealism.

The world turned top down practitioners went on to become involve with Surrealism, which shared many of its frustrations, and played with reality in a alike way. Its founder, the french writer and poet André Breton, wanted to create a motion across the arts that was wider and more integrated than the chaos of Dada. In 1924, he published his manifesto of Surrealism, in which he described a movement that could “ express…the actual functioning of thought. ” To this end, he focused largely on Sigmund Freud ’ second study of the unconscious mind mind, arsenic well as on his captivation with dreams. Freud himself had no sympathy with Surrealism, and had no wish to be connected with the movement. His ideas differed from those of the artists in one critical way—the key to Freud ’ second compulsion with dreams was his impression that, with sufficient skill and have, psychoanalysts could interpret them to provide patients with profound insight and heal. For the Surrealists, dreams were a rich and complex beginning of artistic imagination in themselves.

1914 World War I breaks out. Artists and intellectuals react to the scale of the slaughter and destruction of the four-year conflict with a sense of alienation. 1918 A pandemic of spanish flu spreads across the populace, killing between 20 and 50 million people, including the austrian painter Egon Schiele and the french poet and art critic Guillaume Apollinaire. 1925 John Logie Baird transmits the first television prototype in London, England. His invention leads to the most knock-down mass-communication medium in history.


World War I had a heavy impression on most artists of the clock, but more than any early movement, Dada was a mastermind reaction to the thrashing, propaganda, and inanity of the conflict and—by extension—to the society that allowed it to happen. The Dadaists were connected not by an aesthetic dash, but by their rejection of what they saw as an uncontrolled excitement of idealism, nationalism, capitalism, and progress. They were besides rebelling against tired artistic conventions, so they turned to unorthodox forms of formula. In an early Dadaist gesture, Marcel Duchamp developed the concept of the “ cliched ” —an existing mass-produced object declared to be a work of art. One of his earliest and best-known ready-mades was a urinal, which he called Fountain ( 1917 ). In a sense, the founders of Dada saw themselves as non-artists creating non-art in a company where artwork was meaningless. The Dada apparent motion began to fall apart during the early 1920s at a time when it started to become acceptable, but some of its

1933 The Nazi government in Germany establishes a culture Chamber under Joseph Goebbels. only groups that are members of this chamber are allowed to be “ productive in our cultural life. ” 1939 The UK, France, New Zealand, and Australia declare war on Germany, marking the begin of World War II.


Treating the unconscious mind mind Austrian-born neurologist Sigmund Freud was the collapse of psychoanalysis, the skill of treating mental illness by exploring the relationship between the conscious and unconscious mind. unconstipated conversations between affected role and analyst were keystone to this process— during his last years, Freud conducted such sessions in this London consult room.



BEGINNINGS THE PATH TO ABSURDITY Emerging from the horrors of World War I — “ the war to end all wars ” —Dada was the invention of a group of painters and poets who frequented the Cabaret Voltaire in Zurich. According to one theory, the mention Dada was inspired by two romanian artists who repeatedly expressed agreement by saying “ district attorney, district attorney ” ( “ yes, yes ” ). But some think Dada was barely a appropriately babyish give voice for a movement that embraced nonsense—it means “ hobbyhorse ” in French. however it got its appoint, the new campaign soon spread to Berlin and further afield, embracing literature, dramaturgy, and graphic design, equally well as art and poetry. Surrealism, Dada ’ mho successor, was a more rational expression of similar artistic and political sympathies, and its influence extended in the lapp way to include not only literature and drama, but besides film, music, and political theory.

Max Ernst born Brühl, Germany, April 2, 1891 ; died Paris, France, April 1, 1976



Born into a middle-class syndicate of nine children, Max Ernst learned about painting from his founder, but he never had dinner dress discipline. After studying psychology and philosophy in college, he fought in the german army during World War I —the horrors of his have had a heavy consequence on his study, which often depicted absurd or apocalyptic scenes. In 1922, Ernst moved to France, becoming a leader of the Surrealist campaign, and developing the technique of frottage ( rubbing newspaper with a pencil over a textured open ) as a random device for exploring the unconscious mind. During World War II, he escaped to New York, where he did much to inspire and shape the american avant-garde drift that became Abstract Expressionism. In 1953, he returned to France, where he lived until his death.

TURNING POINT Celebes Max Ernst 1921 Tate Modern, London, UK

Produced during the transition period from Dada to Surrealism, Celebes is considered one of the first Surrealist paintings. The title comes from a childish german poem get down, “ The elephant from Celebes has sticky, scandalmongering bed grease. ” Ernst was fascinated by collage, with which he altered existing images and arranged bizarre juxtapositions. In this movie though, he used trompe fifty ’ oeil to create the impression of collage with his brush—the sinister elephant was inspired by a photograph of a huge, boilerlike sudanese corn whiskey bank identification number, and the portrayal of a live creature in this mechanical shape makes it particularly disturbing. Setting it alongside a headless charwoman and an eyeless horned head gives the painting both the absurd qualities of Dada and the pipe dream imagination of Surrealism. Ernst ’ s first large poll, Celebes was bought by a supporter, the poet Paul Eluard.

ARTISTIC INFLUENCES While Dada and Surrealism took absurdity to an extreme point degree, artists have always experimented with world to create work that is rich in imagination and fantasy. early in the twentieth century, practioners of both movements found inspiration in works created by earlier masters of foreignness, from the disturbing Renaissance fantasies of Hieronymus Bosch, through to more contemporary oddities, such as Henri Rousseau ’ s picture-book hobo camp scenes and Georgio de Chirico ’ randomness strange, quasi-classical, landscapes. Hieronymus Bosch has been called the original Surrealist, but he was more a painter of nightmares than of dreams, as illustrated in his ambitious triptych The Garden of Earthly Delights.

Detail from Bosch ’ s The Garden of Earthly Delights, c.1500, is part of a panel remember to portray Hell. Museo del

Henri Rousseau ’ s paintings of exotic landscapes have a dreamlike quality that appealed to the Surrealists. Rousseau never saw a real jungle, merely tropical plants in a botanical garden.

The Assault of the Jaguar, 1910, by Rousseau features a fairy-tale sawhorse under attack in fantasy foliation. Pushkin Museum of

Giorgio de Chirico invented Metaphysical Painting, which had a strong influence on Surrealism. The Soothsayer ’ s Recompense is one of a series with a lone statue in a classical music plaza.

The Soothsayer ’ second Recompense, 1913, by de Chirico, uses a steam coach to play with the concept of time. Philadelphia

Prado, Madrid, Spain

Fine Arts, Moscow, Russia

Museum of Art, PA




Republican Automatons


George Grosz 1920 MoMA, New York City, NY

The Dada campaign was extreme, but ephemeral. It started about 1915—a year before german writer and performer Hugo Ball read out a Dada Manifesto in Zurich. The movement lasted until the early on 1920s, when many of its proponents turned to the more positive concept of Surrealism. Centered in Paris, Surrealism spread further than Dada, and it lasted long. As an organize motion, it did not survive much longer than World War II, but its influence endured. In particular, the work of the Surrealists directly influenced the birth of Abstract Expressionism.

Grosz was a leave member of the Berlin Dada group. He produced images of acuate social and political sarcasm that feature faceless figures with hooks for hands and gears for soul. In republican Automatons, one design wears a bowler hat, the other an Iron Cross.

The end of nonsense By 1923, Dada activity, concentrated in Paris, is dying out—Picabia has abandoned it, and many other Dada artists are increasingly attracted to the new movement being formed by André Breton—Surrealism.

New blood Traveling display In 1918, german writer Richard Huelsenbeck founds a Dada group in Berlin, and in April, publishes a second Dada Manifesto.

The Zurich Dada group, reinforced by the arrival of Francis Picabia in 1919, carries on attracting attention and making headlines for another year.




1923 A wave of change In 1922, in Barcelona, André Breton makes a language denouncing Dada as “ impudent in its negation ” and “ offensive in its style. ”

Joan Miró born Barcelona, Spain, April 20, 1893 ; died Palma de Mallorca, Spain, December 25, 1983

L.H.O.O.Q. Marcel Duchamp 1919 Private Collection

Parade Amoureuse Francis Picabia 1917 Private Collection

Born in Paris, Picabia experimented with respective artistic styles before taking up Dada at its beginning. This sour dates from his “ machinist ” or “ mechanomorphic ” period. He subsequently rejected Dada and, in turn, Surrealism.

This “ rectified ready-made ” is a postcard of Leonardo ’ s Mona Lisa with add mustache, beard, and dedication. In English, the letters of its entitle spell “ Look ” phonetically, while in French, reading the letters out loudly forms a lascivious sentence.



Born in Catalonia, Miró studied art in Barcelona, and from 1919 he spent much of his time in Paris. Although he signed the 1924 Surrealist manifesto, he never allied himself with this, or any other, apparent motion. During the spanish Civil War ( July 1936–April 1939 ), Miró designed posters for the anti-Franco forces, and during the 1940s he began to work in the fields of sculpt and ceramics, creating a number of murals including, in 1958, Wall of the Sun and Wall of the Moon for the UNESCO Building in Paris. In 1972, he opened the Joan Miró Foundation in Barcelona, donating a huge body of exercise including around 240 paintings, 175 sculptures, and 8,000 drawings.


Deutschland Deutschland über Alles


John Heartfield 1929

The Surrealists were fascinated by film, a medium in which the worldly concern could be refashioned inside a darken room. Funded by affluent patrons, a few enduring surrealist films were created, such as Luis Buñuel and Salvador Dalí ’ s Un Chien Andalou ( 1929 ) and Jean Cocteau ’ s The Blood of a Poet ( 1932 ).

Private Collection

A photomontage artist powerfully influenced by Dada, John Heartfield ( born Helmut Herzfeld in Berlin ) produced this anti-Nazi cover example for a volume of pictorial sarcasm by the jewish diarist Kurt Tucholsky.

Dream frank


In this scene from The Blood of a Poet, photographer Lee Miller plays a statue that comes to life.

A new reality

Over a period of ten-spot days in March 1928, film maker Luis Buñuel and artist Salvador Dalí shoot the first Surrealist film, a plotless dream narrative called Un Chien Andalou. It was released the stick to year.

Words and pictures

In 1924, André Breton publishes his first Manifesto of Surrealism, setting out principles intended to apply to both art and life in general.


In 1927, René Magritte publishes an try entitled “ The Word and the Image, ” in which he explains their relationship using dim-witted sketches. From this time, he begins to incorporate words into his paintings.



Carnival of Harlequin Joan Miró 1924–25 Albright-Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo, NY

In this depiction of the commedia dell ’ arte clown, Miró paints him as a guitar, with a signature diamond motif on his body, and an admiral ’ mho hat on his head. All around him, strange creatures and inanimate objects are dancing, jump, sing, and broadly celebrating the Mardi Gras festival of the title. According to Miró, the black triangle seen through the window represents the Eiffel Tower.



The Two Fridas

Frida Kahlo born Coyoacán, Mexico, July 6, 1907 ; died Coyoacán, July 13, 1954


Born to a German-Jewish church father and a Spanish-American amerind mother, Kahlo contracted poliomyelitis when she was six years honest-to-god. At the historic period of 18, she was involved in a bus accident—her spine was broken, her legs and pelvis were shattered, and a rail pierced her abdomen. She spent the rest of her life in pain, enduring grueling operations. During her initial recovery, Kahlo discovered paint, and she turned for advice to the respected muralist Diego Rivera. In 1929, they entered into a trouble oneself on-off marriage, during which Kahlo produced a serial of disturbing self-portraits, all reflecting profound forcible or emotional pain. During their clock time together, Rivera was a lot better known than his wife, but during the 1980s she emerged from his apparition and gained international recognition of her own.


Frida Kahlo 1939 Museo de Arte Moderno, Mexico City, Mexico

Kahlo ’ second images are often based on her dreams, and many of them involve the physical damage and grief she suffered throughout her life. In this double self-portrait, both hearts are exposed—the leave one is broken and bleeding from her late divorce, while the right one is unharmed, as if her husband silent loved her.

Defeated by war The outbreak of World War II in 1939 marked the effective dissolution of the Surrealist motion, since many of its lead figures escaped the conflict by taking up residence in the United States.




Art and life In 1932, André Breton publishes a script called Communicating Vessels, in which he attempts to explain how surrealist ideas could be used to aid recovery from depression.

René Magritte bear Lessines, Belgium, November 21, 1898 ; died Brussels, Belgium, August 15, 1967

Time Transfixed René Magritte 1938 Art Institute of Chicago, IL

Magritte had a particularly touch talent for placing the commonplace next to the strange. In this domestic specify, a mantel clock sets the theme of run time, while, barreling out of the wall, a steam locomotive freezes in apparent motion.



Born in rural Belgium, Magritte studied at the Académie Royale des Beaux-Arts in Brussels. Under the influence of Giorgio de Chirico, he began to work in the Surrealist style and produced his first crucial paint, The Menaced Assassin, in 1926. From 1927 to 1930, he worked with the Surrealists in Paris, but fell out with André Breton and returned to Brussels, where he remained for the rest of his life, producing an impressive body of Surrealist work.




Kurt Schwitters 1942–43 Albright-Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo, NY

A Dada-like artist flying solo long after the campaign had died, German-born Schwitters is best known for creating collages—pictures made from pluck paper, bus tickets, cigarette wrappers, string, and other often cast-off materials. He gave his employment a special identify, Merz, derived from a fragment of print words he used in one of these images.

Having become a surrealist in 1929, Salvador Dalí continued to engage sky-high with popular culture, designing jewelry, books, and furnishings in that idiom throughout his biography. One of his most iconic pieces, dating from the late 1930s, is a sofa called Mae West ’ south Lips, inspired by the Hollywood actress, Mae West.


Mae West ’ sulfur Lips, a sofa designed by Salvador Dalí

Merz no more In January 1948, Kurt Schwitters dies in England, where he had fled to escape the war. The day before his death, he was granted british citizenship.



Rude reference As an antidote to the ghastliness of occupied Europe in 1943, René Magritte finds unlikely divine guidance in the ferment of Auguste Renoir, producing the bucolic Ocean, a vaguely obscene court to Renoir ’ randomness Young Shepherd in Repose.

Aline and Valcour Man Ray 1950 Private Collection

Death of a surrealist In 1944, Felix Nussbaum, a German-Jewish Surrealist, dies in Auschwitz concentration camp. He and his wife had taken recourse from the Nazis in Belgium, but they were finally arrested and imprisoned.

Painter, photographer, and film maker Man Ray was the merely american english to be involved with both Dada and Surrealism. Named after an erotic novel by the Marquis de Sade, this image features motifs from the artist ’ second past work, including the faze human body of the joint mannequin, the geometric forms, and the severed, blindfolded promontory.




MASTERWORK The Persistence of Memory Salvador Dalí 1931 MoMA, New York City, NY

Possibly the most celebrated of all Surrealist paintings, The Persistence of Memory takes time as its theme, featuring melting pocket watches that symbolize flowing eternity. Ants crawling on one of the watches convey the mind of decay and death, while the rocks and cliffs ( modeled on those about Dalí ’ s home in Catalonia, Spain ) suggest life sentence ’ s hard reality. The monstrous face is drawn from the artist ’ s own profile. Dalí intentionally rendered his fantastic visions with dainty preciseness and clarity—he called his paintings “ hand-painted ambition photographs. ” Yet he never distinctly explained their meaning—when he was asked to comment on one critic ’ mho view that this work alludes to Einstein ’ s Theory of Relativity, he replied that it was actually a surrealist vision of Camembert cheese thaw in the estrus of the Sun. Dalí ’ s endowment for flamboyance and self-publicity— in 1936, he appeared in a dive suit at the afford of the London Surrealist Exhibition—brought him fame far beyond the earth of art. angstrom well as paintings, he produced work in the fields of sculpture, record exemplification, jewelry and furniture plan, and filmmaking. He besides wrote a novel, Hidden Faces ( 1944 ), and produced respective volumes of excessive autobiography. In Dalí ’ s hometown of Figueras in Spain, a museum devoted to his work has become a major tourist attraction, and there are several other Dalí museums around the populace, including a big one in St. Petersburg, Florida.




Merritt Parkway Willem de Kooning 1959 Detroit Institute of Arts, MI

Unlike many Abstract Expressionists, Dutch-born de Kooning found inhalation in the real world—the Merritt Parkway is a scenic thoroughfare that runs through Long Island in New York State, where he was living at the time. The straight, slashing brushstrokes suggest travel rapidly, while his limit color palette represents sky, sunlight, grass, earth, and water.

Abstract Expressionism is not always abstract, nor necessarily expressive. The name was applied to it by the American critic Robert Coates in 1946, respective years after the campaign appeared ( though the term had been used vitamin a early as 1919 in relation back to the work of Wassily Kandinsky ). The pilfer Expressionists themselves preferred “ New York School ” as a group name, largely because they were united not by one cohesive style, but by a general attitude—their study was fleshy with moral themes and profound emotions, and they placed a eminent value on identity, exemption of formulation, and ad-lib improvisation, much interpreted on huge canvases. Despite the movement ’ s name, the influence that most shaped it was Surrealism, with its emphasis on intuition and universal themes. The major figures involved, among whom were the first genesis of american artists to achieve global acclaim, include Willem de Kooning ( his brawny Merritt Parkway is shown above entrust ), Mark Rothko, Jackson Pollock, Barnett Newman, Arshile Gorky, and Clyfford still.



Fall and advance of a world power 1929 The US lineage market has become increasingly inflated, and on Black Tuesday—October 29,1929—stock prices plumb bob and prices collapse, contributing to the Great Depression.

The age of America Another immigrant of major importance was the painter and teacher Hans Hofmann, who had arrived earlier, in 1932. besides in New York City, the work of modern artists was exhibited increasingly wide, so american painters were able to learn from it and to be inspired in their search for a newfangled artistic style. By the second half of the 1940s, the US had played a decisive function in two worldly concern wars, it was full-bodied in natural resources, it had a huge labor pool to draw on that was enhanced by ceaseless immigration, and its economy was stable and hard. The country was emerging as a capital populace world power at the same prison term that Abstract Expressionism—the first sincerely american avant-garde idiom—was born. The modern movement became one of the most important artistic developments of the postwar era, and it helped New York to replace Paris as the world center of contemporaneous art—a position that it however maintains.

1935 Established by President Franklin D. Roosevelt, the US politics ’ south Works Progress Administration ( WPA ) creates jobs in huge quantities for the unemployed. 1939 The Museum of Non-Objective Art opens in New York City to display the collection of philanthropist Solomon R. Guggenheim. It reopens in 1959 in a new build designed by Frank Lloyd Wright that bears the name of its benefactor. 1945 Peace is declared at the end of World War II. US affair in the Allied victory late helps it to become a populace world power in the postwar era.


Many of the Abstract Expressionists were born in the US around the time of World War I, and grew up during the Great Depression in the 1930s. Some began their careers as figurative painters working in the vein known as Social Realism, the main discipline of which was the asperity and suffering so many Americans endured at that clock. Most were flush supported by the US government ’ second Works Progress Administration ( WPA ), which funded a special course of study, the Federal Art Project ( FAP ). Later though, in the early 1940s, these artists wanted a new form of expression—one that was profound, meaningful, and original, however unblock of politics and provincialism. At the same time, the US ( and peculiarly New York City, where many artists lived ) was attracting leading figures in european modernism escaping from World War II. Among these were Salvador Dalí, Max Ernst, André Masson, Piet Mondrian, and Fernand Léger.

1950 US involvement in the war against communism in North Korea—which leads to the death of 5,000,000 people— inspires a sense of profound alienation in many Americans, including the morally conscientious Abstract Expressionists.


Inspired by suffering During the 1930s, hapless farm practices and drought in the american Midwest led to the Dust Bowl time period. One of the causes of the Great Depression, it inspired works of artwork including Social Realist paintings and John Steinbeck ’ s authoritative novel The Grapes of Wrath.




BEGINNINGS BROTHERS IN ART During the late 1930s, many american artists working in New York felt about overwhelmed by their exposure to modern european artwork. By the 1940s, though, a few of them had gained the confidence to develop a new linguistic process of painting that reflected the United States. Although they shared a common purpose, each extremity of the group had his own style : Jackson Pollock developed his dribble technique ; Mark Rothko worked in boastfully, soft-edged blocks of color ; and Arshile Gorky explored fluid, organic shapes.


In 1950, a group of them wrote to the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City, protesting against its anti-abstraction diagonal. In the following year they posed for a photograph in Life magazine, in which they were labelled “ the Irascibles. ” Clement Greenberg, a conduct american artwork critic of the postwar era, was an enthusiastic ace of the new bowel movement, and he coined a identify for it that highlights its basically New-World character— “ American-Type Painting. ” Abstract Expressionism, however, was the name that stuck.

ARTISTIC INFLUENCES Living in New York during the 1930s, the painters who became known as pilfer Expressionists were hungry for exposure to the best of modern european artwork, which was increasingly on display in the city. While most of these artists had begun their careers producing figurative work, they were inspired to forge a new movement by their exposure to Cubism, Expressionism, and most of all, Surrealism. Social Realism is a broad condition for art that comments on social conditions. many Abstract Expressionists began by creating work in this figurative idiom, illustrated in the make of the mexican painter José Clemente Orozco, who specialized in bold murals.

The Epic of American Civilization, detail, 1932–34, from Orozco ’ s 24-panel fresco. Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH

Arshile Gorky Carl Jung believed in a collective unconscious —a pool of instincts and archetypes that is universal, and coarse to all humans. This concept was central to the Surrealists, and late to Abstract Expressionists, who used such symbols in their study.

Swiss psychologist and psychiatrist Carl Jung ( 1875–1961 ), photographed hera in 1922, five years after developing his theory of the collective unconscious.

Surrealism had a hard influence on the Abstract Expressionist bowel movement. The brilliantly colors and constituent forms in Roberto Matta ’ second paintings are discernible in the work of Gorky in especial, and Matta besides worked with Jackson Pollock.

Psychological Morphology, 1938, by Matta depicts the fantasy scenes and biomorphic shapes typical of many Surrealist works. Private Collection

Hans Hofmann, a German-born painter and teacher, was one of the major postwar influences on american art. In Paris, he had known Picasso, Matisse, and Braque, and acquired a profound reason of their bring that he passed on to his students.

Landscape, 1940, by Hofmann displays exuberant color and brushstrokes that echo Expressionism and look to Abstract Expressionism. Private Collection



Arshile Gorky born Khorkom, Armenia [ now in Turkey ], c.1902 ; died Sherman, CT, July 21, 1948

Water of the Flowery Mill During the early 1940s, Gorky evolved a paint style that combined the watery, organic abstraction of Surrealism with the knock-down brushwork of Abstract Expressionism ; the visible drips in Water of the Flowery Mill reflect the way the Surrealists cultivated accident and randomness as a key to the unconscious mind. The image was inspired by the remains of an old mill and bridge on the Housatonic River in Connecticut.


Arshile Gorky 1944 MoMA, New York City, NY

Born Vosdanig Adoian in an armenian province of Turkey, Gorky arrived in the US in 1920. Although he attended art school in New York, he was largely self-taught, taking inspiration from Cézanne, Picasso, and Miró. late, he met Surrealists André Breton and Roberto Matta, both of whom influenced his mature vogue. During the mid-1940s, Gorky suffered a series of personal tragedies that led him to commit suicide.



TIMELINE The Abstract Expressionists painted potent, large-scale works of artwork that were inspired by personal experience and emotions. By the late 1950s, however, the movement was no longer at the center of the art world, and its concepts were failing to inspire the new generation of artists. Nevertheless, important shape in this parlance continued to be produced, and many experts consider Abstract Expressionism to be the most significant artwork movement since World War II.


Woman 1 Willem de Kooning 1950–52 MoMA, New York City, NY

De Kooning ’ s shifts between abstraction and figuration display that the differentiation between them was becoming less crucial. Featuring his typically aggressive brushwork and dramatic colors, this intimidating image—it measures about 6 x 5ft ( 190 ten 150cm ) —reflects endless male ambivalence between fear for women and fear of them.

Flying high During 1936 and 1937, under the US Federal Art Project program, Arshile Gorky produces a serial of ten mural panels documenting the history of aviation for Newark Airport in New Jersey. today, only two outlive.



In 1929, Mark Rothko takes a half-time subcontract teaching in a jewish school in New York ( a position he holds until 1952 ). He late claimed to learn a great softwood from children ’ s ability to communicate in elementary ocular terms.




Onement 1

The eyes of babes

Barnett Newman 1948 MoMA, New York City, NY

Originally an amateur figurative artist, Newman gave up painting in his thirties, but a few years by and by, inspired by surrealism, he took it up again. Onement 1, his breakthrough work, established his signature device—a vertical band, or nothing that both divides and unites the composition.

Barnett Newman born New York City, NY, January 29, 1905 ; died New York, July 4, 1970



The son of polish immigrants, Newman attended classes at the Art Students League in New York, but besides earned a academic degree in philosophy at City College. After college, he worked at several jobs before taking up painting again in 1944. In 1950 he had his first one-man indicate at the Betty Parsons Gallery, but did not achieve major success until the final ten of his life. a well as paintings, Newman besides produced lithographs and sculptures, and wrote perceptively about advanced artwork.

1949 Clyfford still 1949 Private Collection

A initiate of Abstract Expressionism, inactive ground his own pigments, applying them thick to the sail in jag forms using both a pallette knife and a brush. Although he claimed, “ I paint merely myself, not nature, ” his images frequently suggest aboriginal landscapes.


Violet Center


Mark Rothko 1955

Robert Motherwell 1975 National

Private Collection

Gallery of Australia, Canberra, Australia

One of the foremost artists of his generation, russian immigrant Mark Rothko produced canvases defined by courtly elements such as shape, color, balance, depth, typography, and scale. Like many of his mature works, Violet Center expresses acute emotion using stacked, soft-edged rectangles of pure, aglow color.

American-born Motherwell was an imaginative printmaker arsenic well as a painter. In this lithograph ( based on a collage ) he creates a active composition around a Corsican cigarette mailboat.



Art for the few In 1958, Mark Rothko agrees to create a series of paintings for a restaurant in New York ’ second Seagram Building. He late withdrew, declaring the luxury space to be inappropriate for his artwork.


FIRST SHOWING In October 1942, art patron and dealer Peggy Guggenheim opened her art of This Century gallery in New York. The veranda exhibited many works by artists in her own solicitation, including Cubists, Surrealists, and abstract painters. It was besides one of the first galleries to champion Abstract Expressionism. The home design ( by gallery architect Frederick Kiesler ) was unique, with concave walls and canvases that protruded into the home as if they were floating in space.

Gray Scramble ( Single ) Frank Stella 1969 Private Collection

In his very early work, Stella was an abstract expressionist, but he moved into a linked style known as “ Post-Painterly Abstraction, ” which rejected emotional gesture in favor of emphasizing paintings as “ flat surfaces—nothing more. ” early examples of his concentric squares ( which echo the contemporary Op-art parlance ) feature either colors or tones of gray—here he scrambles them. A model of the Art of This Century gallery, created for an exhibition at London ’ s Victoria and Albert Museum in 2007





MASTERWORK Number 1 ( Lavender Mist ) Jackson Pollock 1950 National Gallery of Art, Washington DC

Born in Wyoming in 1912, Pollock moved to New York in 1929 and studied there at the Art Students League. He began as a figurative painter, and figurative elements reappear later in his career, but for several years Pollock created and explored a unique abstract vogue that assured his place as the leading figure in Abstract Expressionism. During the Great Depression, Pollock was employed by the Federal Art Project along with Rothko, de Kooning, Gorky, and others. ( At assorted times, they all worked on large murals, which may have inspired the huge scale of much Abstract Expressionist work. ) In 1943, Peggy Guggenheim arranged his first one-man picture at her artwork of This Century gallery ( see p.355 ), but Pollock did not develop his touch drip technique until 1947. This radical invention involved laying a canvas on the floor, then using sticks and brushes to throw, dribble, and spatter paint onto it in complex threads and layers, with no discernible focal point or formal composition. Although this procedure appeared random and ad-lib, it was very manipulate. “ There is no accident, ” Pollock insisted. Number 1 ( Lavender Mist ) is one of Pollock ’ s most important and impressive works, considered a landmark in the history of Abstract Expressionism. Its brawny ocular rhythm and ravishing atmosphere were created by the intricate marble of enamel paint in black, white, and subtle hues of grey and salmon pink. Pollock was married to the painter Lee Krasner, and settled with her on Long Island, New York, where he was killed in a cable car accident in 1956.




Gallery Gasper Allen Jones 1966–68 Private Collection

A run trope in the exploitation of Pop art, Allen Jones specialized in hyper-glamorous female figures, often posing in high-heeled shoes. Drawing on the accurate, linear expressive style of illustrations from the 1940s and ‘ 50s, he created his own distinctive, provocatively erotic style within the Pop-art campaign.

Pop artists set out to dismantle the barriers between fine artwork and democratic culture. Emerging in the mid-1950s, they drew on all the exciting images that appeared after World War II—in films, magazine and koran illustrations, comics, box, and advertise. The Pop-art motion originated in Britain, with a group of artists that included Richard Hamilton, Eduardo Paolozzi, and Allen Jones ( best known for his provocative female subjects in the vogue of ad graphics—see above ), who broadened the scope of artwork to include cultivate that was not dinner dress and academic, but bright, fresh, and accessible. As the 1960s dawned, American Pop art emerged, with its vehemence on technology and mass product. Leading figures such as Roy Lichtenstein and Andy Warhol not only secondhand consumer items as their subjects, but besides used mechanically make prints as a major medium. Op art was a terminus coined in 1964 to describe a kind of abstraction that sought to dazzle or create the consequence of movement. Both Pop and Op art reached a wide consultation and exerted a potent influence on the worlds of design and fashion.



A change, popular culture 1954 Bill Haley and His Comets release “ Rock Around the Clock. ” This was not the first rock and seethe record, but it is wide acknowledged as the one that brought rock and roll into the international mainstream, ushering in the youth culture of the 1950s and ‘ 60s.

Swinging toward the future family items ; newsstands stacked with colorful magazines ; supermarkets piled eminent with alluring packaging ; and cinemas showing a apparently endless pour of glossy films with even glossier, picture-perfect stars. In this new economic and cultural democracy, democratic images saturated casual life to such an extent that the images themselves were now displayed as art, ready to compete with Old Masters for public attention. In his celebrated 1957 definition of what Pop art entail to him, the influential british artist Richard Hamilton, one of the apparent motion ’ second pioneers, distinctly drew a link with the thrilling fresh populace it inhabited : “ Popular ( designed for a aggregate audience ) ; ephemeral ( short-run solution ) ; expendable ( easily forgotten ) ; depleted cost ; multitude produced ; young ( aimed at youth ) ; witty ; aphrodisiac ; gimmicky ; glamorous ; and last but not least, Big Business. ”

1958 A best-selling reserve, The Hidden Persuaders, by american diarist and social critic Vance Packard, exposes the psychological handling involved in all forms of ad. 1958 The importance of television in popular culture is underline when Pope Pius XII names Clare of Assisi as the medium ’ randomness patron enshrine.


Pop art was rooted in postwar prosperity and optimism. Although it began in the 1950s, the apparent motion flowered in the social revolution of the 1960s, when manner and music dominated a culture that was soon labeled as “ swing, ” particularly in London, where the movement first flourished. Wartime rationing had ended, the economy was smash, and everything was oriented toward young person : teenagers and youthful adults were no longer waiting to grow up to join the mainstream—they were the mainstream. And, more than at any early prison term, this new elect came from every class—high-born socialites mix with actors and musicians, and fashionable artists and photographers were just adenine probably to be propertyless as titled—barriers of every kind were beginning to be broken down. On both sides of the Atlantic, greater affluence brought increase access to democratic culture in the form of television sets as standard

1960 A Woolworth ’ s lunch rejoinder in North Carolina agrees to serve a black customer. This marks an early on milestone in the destruction of another cultural boundary. 1963 After the american president John F. Kennedy is assassinated, Andy Warhol responds by creating an iconic Pop-art portrayal of his wife, Jackie.


A world of dreams In the ideal kitchens of 1950s ’ advertisements, décor was fashionably modern, food was bountiful, equipment was streamlined and labor-saving, and housewives were absolutely groomed at all times.



BEGINNINGS INDEPENDENT SPIRITS In the dowdy postwar London of 1952, a group of artists, architects, and writers met occasionally at the Institute of Contemporary Arts ( ICA ) to discuss the impression developments in skill and engineering had on contemporaneous art—they called themselves the Independent Group. From these discussions, they developed the interest in mass acculturation that inspired the beginnings of the Pop-art motion. The group disbanded in 1955, but one of its members, writer and critic Lawrence Alloway, is much credited with coining the term Pop art.

Richard Hamilton born London, UK 24 February 1922 ; died London 13 September 2011



A highly influential painter, printmaker, teacher, and writer, Hamilton began his career as an illustrator, then went on to study first at London ’ s Royal Academy and then at the Slade School of Fine Art. In 1952, he was one of the founders of the Independent Group, which laid the basis for the Pop-art motion. Although he worked largely with collage, Hamilton stepped outside his usual style and medium in 1968 to design the cover for The Beatles ’ “ White Album ” ( actually named The Beatles ). Hamilton ’ s design was so amazingly bare it gave the album its popular name. In late life, Hamilton ’ s fascination with consumer polish was much tinged with political sarcasm.

TURNING POINT Just What is it that Makes Today ’ second Homes So Different, So Appealing ? Richard Hamilton 1956 Kunsthalle, Tübingen, Germany

In 1956, architect and writer Theo Crosby—with erstwhile members of the Independent Group —organized an exhibition at London ’ s Whitechapel Art Gallery called “ This is Tomorrow. ” Taking modern survive as its theme, the event showcased artworks and installations that involved collaboration between artists and architects. One picture that featured in the catalog and on an exhibition poster was Richard Hamilton ’ south collage, Just What is it that Makes Today ’ second Homes So Different, So Appealing ?, widely considered the first amply fledged exercise of Pop artwork. Taking its title from an american magazine ad, it references virtually all the elements of popular culture that inspired the motion. The work depicts a live room full of cardboard cutout people and furnishings, a amusing koran, box, television and advertise graphics, and modern appliances. Visible through the window can be seen a film showing the first film talking picture, The Jazz Singer, starring Al Jolson.

ARTISTIC INFLUENCES Both the original british Pop artists and their american counterparts were fascinated by the colorful, advanced, and amazingly knock-down images that surrounded them. These could be found on billboards, in consumer publications and packaging, and on the moving screen—the belittled one in the corner of the survive room, or the glorious wide-screen translation at the local cinema. Stars of the silver screen became idols to millions of people, and their images were everywhere. With his series of fabled screen-print portraits, Andy Warhol made the charge that celebrities had virtually become consumer products themselves.

Stars like Elizabeth Taylor posed for publicity photograph to be used in fan magazines, product endorsements, and interviews.

Comic-book graphics were brassy, bright, punchy, and very wide available. With a few bluff strokes, they brought to biography a broad crop of well-loved characters, from weather superheroes to slender-waisted glamor girls and appealingly grubby children.

Eagle Comics champion Dan Dare was a space fly. Eagle has another place in Pop-art history—David Hockney, as a adolescent, had his first work published there.

Victor Vasarely was a Hungarian/French artist who experimented with optical magic trick in a number of different media during the 1930s. His work had a major influence on the Op-art apparent motion that flourished aboard Pop.

Zebra, c.1938 is a two-tone trope by Victor Vasarely that takes the form of a hand-loomed tapestry. private Collection





David Hockney bear Bradford, UK, July 9, 1937

Although Pop art didn ’ t become a movement until around 1960, it was closely linked with the workplace of two american english artists, Jasper Johns and Robert Rauschenberg, who were associated with a slightly earlier idiom known as Neo-Dada. Johns in particular prefigured Pop with paintings that, for him, referenced “ things the thinker already knows. ” In both the US and Britain, Pop practitioners turned the companion into artwork, but british artists tended to adapt their sources more, introducing sarcasm or political comment. At the lapp clock, Op art elevated the condition of complex ocular illusions from intriguing patterns to exhibits on gallery walls.



The most celebrated british artist of his coevals, Hockney attended Bradford School of Art and the Royal College of Art in London. A headliner of british Pop art in swinging London, he began to make regular visits to Los Angeles in the mid-1960s, before settling there in 1976. In 2005, he returned to live in Yorkshire, England, and continued to work prolifically —in addition to paintings, Hockney has produced book illustrations, stage designs, and photographic collages.

Wittgenstein in New York Sir Eduardo Paolozzi 1965 Pallant House Gallery, Chichester, UK

Fertile anchor

This is one in a series of prints entitled “ As Is When, ” inspired by the work of AustrianBritish philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein. The images feature text from his writings combined with collagelike elements, all produced in bright Pop-art colors.

In 1950, London ’ s Institute of Contemporary Arts ( ICA ) launches its inaugural address exhibition. It is at the ICA that the Independent Group meet to discuss ideas that nurtured the Pop-art movement.



1956 early Warhol In February 1956, an exhibition of Andy Warhol ’ s early work opens at New York ’ south Bodley Gallery. Although it was called “ Studies for a Boy Book, ” no book was always published.

Flag Jasper Johns 1955 MoMA, New York City, NY

Taking as his theme one of the “ things the mind already knows, ” Johns built up this collage using paint, framework, plywood, and scraps of newspaper that are faintly visible under the stars and stripes. His double portrays the american english flag at a time when there were only 48 states.

Campbell ’ s Soup Can Tomato Andy Warhol 1962 MoMA, New York City, NY

Originally, Warhol created a collective oeuvre entitled Campbell ’ s Soup Cans —32 individual silk-screened images, one for each assortment in the company ’ mho range. When first exhibited, they were arranged in four rows of eight, like cans on supermarket shelves.





A Bigger Splash David Hockney 1967 Tate Modern, London, UK

Hockney spent considerable time working in Los Angeles before he settled there. The result images much feature himself and his friends, but A Bigger Splash showcases his most park California theme—the glamorous swimming-pool culture—without visible figures.

Sheng-Tung Bridget Riley 1974 Private Collection

London-born Riley is a leading Op artist who typically produces images that have a dazzle, disorienting consequence on the eye. Her early work is all black and whiten, but late she experimented with the shimmering effects of tinge.





Landmark album In 1967, The Beatles dismissal Sgt. Pepper ’ s Lonely Hearts Club Band, with its legendary Pop-art collage cover by Peter Blake.

Andy Warhol


born Pittsburgh, PA, August 6, 1928 ; died New York City, NY February 22, 1987

Born to slovakian immigrants, Warhol graduated in Pictorial Design from the Carnegie Institute for Technology, Pittsburgh, before moving to New York City in 1949. After working as a successful commercial illustrator, he turned to Pop artwork in 1961, documenting consumer goods and celebrities, from Marilyn Monroe to Mao Zedong. In 1964 he opened a print-producing studio called The Factory, and went on to produce books and films—he even appeared on television receiver, popular culture ’ mho signature medium.

Double Metamorphosis III Yaacov Agam 1968–69 Musée National vitamin d ’ Art Moderne, Paris, France

Israeli yield, Paris-based artist Yaacov Agam was a pioneer of optical and kinetic artwork. In the latter artistic style, he produced a serial of Double Metamorphosis paintings on raised slats, so the effigy changes as the spectator moves across it. His aim was to “ transcend the visible. ”





MASTERWORK Whaam ! Roy Lichtenstein 1963 Tate Modern, London, UK Based on an image from All-American Men of War, published by DC Comics in 1962, Whaam ! was subtly adapted by Lichtenstein from the original, then blown-up to a huge scale—together, its two

panels measure around 175 x 400 centimeter ( 70 ten 160 in ) —to produce a knock-down, stylized, and emblematic workplace of Pop art. The artist much drew on commercial sources—such as comedian books, cartoons, and commercial illustrations—because the means they depicted emotional content using simpleton, graphic techniques allowed him to present highly charged subjects in an obviously superficial way. Lichtenstein besides favored the comic-book color palette of bright crimson, chicken, amobarbital sodium, and green, often outlined in black. vitamin a well as referencing popular culture, his choose style was an dry remark on what he saw as the trivialization of culture in american english biography. Lichtenstein was a major pioneer of the american Pop-art movement. An only child, he was born in New York City and grew up with a sleep together of comics, science, and drawing. Like many celebrated artists, he attended


the Art Students League in the city, then went on to study for a degree in fine art at Ohio University. While he was there, he was drafted to fight in World War II, but he returned to finish his undergraduate degree, followed it with a maestro ’ sulfur, and went on to become a teacher. As an artist, Lichtenstein was constantly fascinated by american culture, and he spent his early career depicting historical scenes involving celebrated battles or tales of the Far West. He started experimenting with Pop art in the early on 1960s, turning to his early beloved of comics as the inspiration for Whaam !, which is both his best-known cultivate and a milestone in american art. address inspiration is said to have come when one of his children held up a comic and challenged him : “ I bet you can ’ metric ton paint adenine good as that. ”




Red Yellow Blue Painting Number 1 Brice Marden 1974 Albright-Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo, NY

This is one of a series of similarly named works, each of which features different shades of the three elementary colors arranged in different orders. For all of them, Marden developed a proficiency of mixing melted beeswax with oil paint to make it less glistening and to enhance the texture of the paint coat.


Nurtured during the restless years prior to World War I, abstract art was one of the most momentous developments in the history of art. At first it shocked or baffled many people, and for a long time it was appreciated only by a minority, but in the generation after World War II it won public acceptance and indeed came to occupy a cardinal military position in contemporaneous art. At this time, in the wake of the persecution of modernist artwork in Nazi Germany and Stalinist Russia, abstraction had the significant attraction—especially in the US—of being considered an formula of western freedom of intend. In more holocene years, abstraction painting has no retentive been at the vanguard of artistic developments, but it has continued to thrive in different ways into the twenty-first hundred. noteworthy practitioners include Karel Appel, Cy Twombly, Howard Hodgkin, Brice Marden ( with his bright, boldface compositions, see above entrust ), Gerhard Richter, and Damien Hirst.



Landmarks of a mod age 1959 The US goes to war in Vietnam, supporting rebel nationalists against the communist regimen. The destruction and ultimate bankruptcy of this conflict ( which ends in 1973 ) inspired far-flung horror, and led to the disaffection and disenchantment of many Americans, including some artists in every field.

Freedom and flexibility Although there have been artists in every senesce who are difficult to classify in terms of styles and movements, advanced painters express themselves with greater flexibility and exemption from conventions than ever before. In particular, they feel no need to be defined as either mainstream figures or rebellious outsiders, and some moderate artists produce acclaim oeuvre in both pilfer and figurative idioms.

1969 In July, as part of the Apollo space program ( named after the Greek god of light, music, bring around, and prophecy ), astronaut Neil Armstrong becomes the first man to walk on the daydream.

Ancient and modern

1975 Bill Gates and Paul Allen establish computer-software company Microsoft, leading the way for the computer revolution that will transform modern life.

In April 2010, the Louvre unveiled a raw acquisition—the ceiling of its classical Salle des Bronzes drift had become a giant pilfer painting. Marrying dramatically contrasting styles and periods, Cy Twombly ’ s abstract creation features a sweep of Aegean blue with huge disk floating near the edges, and the enroll names of ancient greek sculptors. “ It ’ s that bare, ” Twombly declared.

1990 East and West Germany are reunited after the fall of the Berlin Wall. The like class, Mikhail Gorbachev ’ mho reforms in Russia begin to sweep communism from eastern european states and bring an end to the Cold War.


Most of nowadays ’ s artists are working in societies that have not been touched by universe war, crippling low, or political turbulence, and ones that are less and less restricted by rules and conventions. One aspect of this situation is the smear or abandon of traditional boundaries and categories in art. Rather than thinking in terms of media ( painting, sculpture, printmaking, and so on ) or stylistic “ isms, ” commentators now often refer themselves more with the issues that art addresses or the themes with which the artists engage. Photography was once a clearly distinct field, but since the 1960s it has routinely been used in respective artistic context, and modern engineering enables large-scale color prints to compete with the ocular presence of paintings.

2001 On September 11, a group of Muslim extremists launch a series of suicide attacks, including the destruction of New York ’ second World Trade Center. In all, more than 3,000 people die.





BEGINNINGS PICTURES AND WORDS The early work of american artist Cy Twombly—one of the global ’ s most august contemporary abstractionists—was nourished by his connection with a issue of outstanding american artists. During his scholar days in New York, he shared a studio with Neo-Dadist Robert Rauschenberg, and late he was taught by the leading abstract Expressionists Franz Kline and Robert Motherwell. Twombly began his career as an Abstract Expressionist, and he has been called “ the successor to Jackson Pollock. ” His move to Italy in 1957,


however, signaled a chemise away from this dominant modern american art apparent motion and toward a wide, looser artistic style, sometimes fat with color. Twomby ’ mho work is normally defined by disparate, sometimes intricate shapes, and— in particular—by writing : words, or scraps of words, signatures, swirls, quotations, numbers, and motifs. Blurring traditional distinctions between painting and drawing, brush and pencil, and images and words, Twombly created a cryptic populace of iconography, metaphor, and myth.

ARTISTIC INFLUENCES From early in his career, and particularly after his move to Italy, Twombly was profoundly influenced by european culture and history in general, and in particular the classical world—its history, its landscape, its mythology, its art, and its poetry. This compulsion colored much of his knead : not lone his images, but besides his characteristic scribbles and graphic effects. Catalan-American artist Pierre Daura, one of Twombly ’ s first teachers, was a great influence on his early on make. They both revered Paul Cézanne. Daura lived in Paris before settling in Virginia, but returned regularly to France.

church at St. Cirq, 1955–65, records the french township where Daura kept a house. Daura Gallery, Lynchburg College, VA

Lake Bolsena near Rome gave its name to all Twombly ’ mho works in this series. When he was creating them, he stayed at a 19thcentury, classically styled palazzo on the lake shore, where there has been a colony since pre-Roman times.

The largest volcanic lake in Italy, Bolsena has attracted nation dwellers and summer visitors for millennium.

The lyric poetry of Sappho, a greek poet born in the seventh hundred BCE, appears as fragments in a number of Twombly ’ second works, including some paintings in the Bolsena series. Sappho ’ s lyric poetry was widely admired in ancient times.

Dating from about 50 CE, this fresco from Pompeii is thought to portray the poet with a write stylus and wax tablet. Museo Archeologico

german Expressionism was of bang-up interest to Twombly as a young man. Franz Marc, a fall through of Der Blaue Reiter ( see p.316 ), shared Twombly ’ s captivation with Greece. Like Twombly, Marc used line and symbol, but he used them in a very different way.

Nazionale di Napoli, Italy

The Fox, 1913, illustrates Marc ’ s symbolic consumption of color—red stands for brutality and risk. Kunstmuseum, Düsseldorf, Germany



Cy Twombly born Lexington, VA, April 25, 1928 ; died Rome, Italy, July 5, 2011

Untitled ( Bolsena ) During the summer of 1969, Twombly produced a serial of 14 works in oil-based sign of the zodiac paint, crayon, and pencil on canvas. Part paint, and part graphic artwork, the Bolsena images feature cautiously drawn shapes, calligraphy, and measurements ( some of which reflect his compulsion with the Apollo outer space mission ) scattered across a cream background. Combining these with apparently random swirls, scratches, and other expressive gestures, Twombly created his own classifiable, highly recognizable style.


Cy Twombly 1969 Private Collection

In 1953, after studying at the Museum of Fine Arts School in Boston, the Art Students League in New York, and Black Mountain College in North Carolina, Twombly traveled through Europe and North Africa on a concede from the Richmond ( Virginia ) Museum of Fine Arts. He then lived in New York City before spend time in the united states army ( where he worked on codes ) and late, teaching. After settling in Italy, he continued to produce paintings and sculptures until his death.





After the dramatic dominance of Abstract Expressionism in the 1940s and ‘ 50s, abstraction paint opened up and became more varied, and artists working in a number of unlike styles came to prominence. From the angst-ridden expressionism of Karel Appel and the dark symbolism of Anselm Kiefer to the rhythmical geometry of Simon Hantaï and Damien Hirst and the simple colored panels of Ellsworth Kelly and Gerhard Richter, outline painters in the mod historic period express astonishing individuality within their common artistic artistic style.



Developed during the 1940s, acrylic fiber paints were intended for use in decorating. Containing pigments suspended in acrylic polymer ( a type of fictile ), the newfangled paints were quick-drying and could be thinned with water, even they were water-repellent when dry. By the 1960s, a interpretation suitable for artists was wide available, and the acrylic paints used by contemporaneous artists have changed short since then. Easy to use, compatible with other materials ( like methamphetamine, pastel, or even backbone ), and desirable for consumption on most surfaces, acrylic fiber paints are now available in flat, color, or silk ( semimatte ) finishes. Acrylic key

Tabula Simon Hantaï 1974 Musée d ’ Art et five hundred ’ Industrie, Saint-Étienne, France

Hungarian-born, Hantaï lived and worked in France until his death in 2008. A insurgent and a recluse, he produced huge canvases, rich people with impregnate color punctuated by saturated white. To create works such as this, he folded and tied the canvas before applying the paint —a march known as pliage.

Hirst born On June 7, 1965, Damien Hirst—one of the most influential ( and commercially successful ) artists of his generation—is born in Bristol, UK.





Das Wölund-Lied ( Wayland ’ mho Song ) Anselm Kiefer 1982 Saatchi Collection, London, UK

Angry Landscape Karel Appel 1967 Private Collection

A Dutch-born cougar and sculptor, Appel lived and worked in Paris, New York, and Monaco, producing— on the whole—strongly expressionist images characterized by slurred, swirling key, crimson colors, and aggressive brushstrokes. Although powerfully outline, they much feature human forms.

Inspired by the culture of his native Germany ( from the Rhine legends to the Third Reich ), Kiefer frequently layers references and media in his work. This persona incorporates vegetable oil rouge, emulsion, straw, a photograph, and a lead fender. Wayland is a scandinavian blacksmith.

Eastern influence During the mid-1980s, Brice Marden began to find divine guidance in eastern calligraphy. between 1985 and 1987, he produced a serial of 25 images, Etchings to Rexroth, in which he referenced chinese symbols.



Ferrocene Damien Hirst 2008 Private Collection

Best known for installations and sculptures, Hirst is besides a fecund painter. Ferrocene, one of his signature Spot Paintings ( there are around 1,400 ), features rows of 4in ( 10 curium ) dots executed in family semblance, each of which is a slenderly different color. The championship, like many in the serial, was chosen randomly from a chemical company catalog.

Bridging the centuries In June 2011, the Dulwich Picture Gallery in London mounts an exhibition called “ Twombly and Poussin : arcadian Painters. ” A week after its possibility, Cy Twombly dies in Rome.





Gerhard Richter


born Dresden, Germany, February 9, 1932

One of the most acclaim artists of his genesis, Richter is a versatile figure who produces work that encompasses diverse styles and approaches. His own sword of Superrealism utilize news-type images, blurred like photograph taken from a moving car, often resembling his abstract paintings. Richter spent his childhood under an oppressive government in a country at war, but he went on to study artwork at Academies in Dresden and Düsseldorf. He lives and works in Cologne.

Grey Space ( distractor ) Julie Mehretu 2006 St. Louis Art Museum, MO

Abstract Painting ( 812 ) Gerhard Richter 1994 Art Gallery of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia

Born in eastern Germany, Richter showcases paint in his abstract work—not as a medium, but as a meaning of interest in its own right. To create this trope, he dragged buttery yellow vegetable oil color across a previously painted analyze, highlighting the wooden stretcher bars underneath.

Born in Ethiopia, Julie Mehretu lives and works in the US. Her distinctive technique employs elements of describe, collage, and painting to create building complex images that suggest landscape, architecture, and consumer culture. Grey Space ( distractor ) uses bold sweeps of color and elaborately entangled lines to evoke the urgency and changeless drift of an increasingly complex world.





MASTERWORK Small Tree Near Cairo Sir Howard Hodgkin 1973–77 Private Collection

Born in London in 1932, Howard Hodgkin determined at the historic period of five that he was going to be a cougar. In 1940, following the outbreak of World War II, he moved with his mother and sister to Long Island, and exposure to the Museum of Modern Art ( MoMA ) in nearby New York City reinforced his early ambition. Settled back in England after the war, he studied at both Camberwell School of Art in London and Bath Academy of Art, and late traveled wide in Europe, India, and North Africa. Hodgkin ’ sulfur images consist largely of simple shapes on a little surface—this work was painted on a wooden panel 11¼ adam 15¾in ( 28.5 x 40cm ) in size— yet he is regarded as one of the greatest colorists in contemporary art. While his brushstrokes may appear casual, hurried, and about childlike, he frequently takes years of painstaking british labour party to finish a paint ; his images may look like pure abstractedness, but his work is rooted in world, in personal experience, and in memory. The flat colors and cosmetic margin that characterize Small Tree Near Cairo, for case, reflect his love of indian miniatures, which he collects. A regent of several major galleries in the UK, where he however lives, Hodgkin was knighted in 1992.




Large Nude With Drapery Pablo Picasso 1920–21 Musee de l’Orangerie, Paris, France

In the early 1920s Picasso painted a number of pictures featuring massively imposing figures, either nude or with “ dateless ” draperies. These works clearly show the influence of classical antiquity, and they are depart of a course in which certain avant-garde artists reacted against the revolutionary experiment of the prewar period with a request for clearness and stability.


Added to the art-historical dictionary as a response to the concept of abstraction, the term “ figurative ” describes art that is recognizably based on the visible world. Some figurative painters have been powerfully opposed to abstraction and avantgarde art in general, but others have embraced both modern and traditional ideas—as Picasso did in his “ Neoclassical ” phase in the 1920s ( see left ). similarly, Balthus has hard links with Surrealism, and Tamara de Lempicka with Art Deco. A few painters—Gerhard Richter, for example—have achieved distinction in both abstract and figurative styles ( see pp.371 and 381 ). Richter ’ s ferment shows particularly clearly the influence of photography, which has left an indelible tag on the room in which we see the worldly concern. other outstanding figurative painters in the modern age include John Singer Sargent, Augustus John, Edward Hopper, Paula Rego, and Lucian Freud.



Ways of seeing 1870s The development of the dry plate negative means that hand-held cameras can be used. As a consequence, photography becomes more widely accessible.

New challenges figurative painting continues to have many devoted adherents. political or ideological concerns have much been the motivation for mod figurative painting. In the inhibitory Soviet Union, this meant the compulsory— and normally banal—glorification of the State, although an artist a gifted as Aleksandr Dejneka was able to rise above the restrictions to create images of vigor and dignity ( see p.379 ). A more personal point of view is seen in the workplace of Paula Rego, whose paintings comment with nuance on might and sex ( feminism has become a major theme in the art of late years ). Some painters, however, have eschewed such issues : Matisse ’ s career embraced two world wars, but he aimed for “ an art of poise, honor, and peace. ”

1915 D.W. Griffith ’ s film Birth of a nation is released, and the cinema begins to take over from painting as the principal medium for ocular narrative. 1923 The german critic Gustav Hartlaub coins the phrase “ New Objectivity ” to describe a type of realist paint that heralds a fall to “ count of factness, ” after Expressionism and Dada. 1933 socialistic Realism, which combines elementary naturalism with political ossification, is declared the official artistic doctrine of Stalin ’ s Soviet Union. Hitler ’ s Nazi Germany besides rejects modernism.


During the last two centuries, artists have developed ten thousand ways of expressing themselves that move away—to a greater or lesser extent—from the basic concept of reproducing the world around them. The results include Impressionism, Expressionism, Cubism, Abstraction, Dada, Surrealism, and Pop, as well as—since the 1960s—newer forms of art, such as facility, video recording, and performance artwork. These new aesthetic expressions have had such an impact on contemporary art that some commentators no long consider painting to be a distinctly discrete class. Rather, painting is regarded by many as equitable part of the varied spectrum of activities in which artists engage. Some even see painting as an anachronism. Nevertheless,

1955 The exhibition The Family of Man at MoMA implies that photography—rather than painting—is the ocular medium that most illuminates the homo condition. 2005 The Royal Academy of Arts in London, once regarded as a bastion of custom, allows photography and television in its annual Summer Exhibition.


Henri Matisse drawing with a bamboo stick Matisse is frequently bracketed with Picasso as the leading cougar of the twentieth hundred. Throughout his career he close studied the human design, but he freely distorted forms for expressive effect. Here—with a charcoal-tipped stick—he outlines gloriously lissome and energetic dancers for a huge mural.




BEGINNINGS THE VAN DYCK OF OUR TIMES Figurative painting, the prevailing idiom for millennium, encompasses a huge range of different styles and subjects. In the advanced historic period, one of its greatest interpreters is John Singer Sargent. His career as a portraitist covered the period when Expressionism, Cubism, and abstract art came into being, yet his style reflects the work of early masters such as Rembrandt and Velázquez. The sculptor Auguste Rodin described him as “ the Van Dyck of our times. ” At the altitude of his fame, he about gave up portraiture. During World War I he became a war artist, and it was then that he produced Gassed, possibly his greatest masterpiece.

ARTISTIC INFLUENCES Sargent ’ s mother Mary was an enthusiastic amateur artist who encouraged him to draw, and the family ’ s extensive travels in Europe furnished him with plentiful topic matter. His mania was always the painterly tradition of the Old Masters, and when he arrived in Paris, he sought out a teacher who shared these values. Pieter Bruegel ’ s The Parable of the Blind suggested the basic composition of Gassed. In both images, eyeless figures move in a line, each touching the shoulder of the valet in front man for guidance.

Diego Velázquez was the painter most admired by Sargent, many of whose portraits echo the fluid brushwork, slightly fish postures, and hard impression of personality distinctive of the Spaniard ’ second bring.

The Parable of the Blind, detail, c.1568, by Bruegel, conveys—like Gassed—sympathy preferably than feel for. Museo di Capodimonte, Naples, Italy

Lady With a Fan, c.1640, by Diego Velázquez, depicts a sitter who has never been identified with certainty. Wallace Collection, London, UK

Carolus-Duran was a stylish parisian portraitist when sargent became his pupil in 1874. He encouraged his students to paint from life sentence, and the immediacy of Sargent ’ south work reflects this rationale.

The Woman With the Glove, detail, 1869, by Carolus-Duran, portrays the artist ’ sulfur wife. Musée

Sargent ’ sulfur Madame X created a scandal in Paris that inspired his go to London. At first, his notoriety discouraged british patrons, but during the 1890s, he became the country ’ s leading company portraitist.

Madame X ( Madame Pierre Gautreau ), 1883–84, by Sargent, has a provocative pose that shocked parisian society. Metropolitan Museum

five hundred ’ Orsay, Paris, France

of Art, New York City, NY




John Singer Sargent bear Florence, Italy, January 12, 1856 ; died London, UK, April 15, 1925

Gassed In 1918, the british government commissioned Sargent to produce a memorial to those who died in World War I. Asked to take as his composition “ anglo-american cooperation, ” he chose alternatively to portray the horrors of mustard accelerator as a chemical weapon. In this ghastly scene, which Sargent witnessed after an attack on the western Front, two lines of soldiers make their room to a dressing station ( its ridicule ropes lead off to the right ). Their eyes burned and bandaged, each victim holding on to the matchless in battlefront, they are led by comrades, similarly injured, lying on the ground in untended heaps. In portraying both their suffering and their desperate dignity, Sargent highlights the dismay horrors of war and the obscene godforsaken of life it entails. A cogent detail is the football game in the background, between the fourth and fifth soldiers. Its inclusion provides a dramatic line between the maim soldiers and the strong, full of life sportsmen, and may besides allude to the impression of killing as a form of sport. The enormous exponent of Gassed is enhanced by its huge size—it measures around 9 x 20ft ( 2.75 ten 6m ).


John Singer Sargent 1919 Imperial War Museum, London, UK

Born to wealthy Americans living in Europe, Sargent had little conventional education, so far he spoke several languages and he was an accomplished pianist. In 1873, he enrolled at the Accademia di Belle Arte, Florence, and the adjacent year his forefather sent him to Paris, where he studied at the École des BeauxArts and in the studio apartment of Carolus-Duran—an early paint of his teacher established his skill as a portraitist and inspired commissions for farther portraits. After the Madame X scandal in 1884, Sargent settled permanently in London. His first major success came in 1887, when Carnation Lily, Lily Rose, an exquisite study of two little girls in a garden, was exhibited at the Royal Academy. At the altitude of his fame, he took on more than a twelve portrait commissions a year, his sitters including Robert Louis Stevenson and Theodore Roosevelt. In 1907, he abandoned portrayal as his main occupation and devoted himself to murals and watercolors. In his later years he much visited the United States, and traveled wide in Europe and the Middle East. After Sargent died, his work was discredited for decades, but since the 1970s, he has regained his position as one of the great figurative painters of his age.





David and Dorelia in Normandy Augustus John 1908 Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge, UK

For millennium, human beings have drawn and painted what they can see or imagine—around 15,000 years ago, on cave walls in Lascaux, France, for example, huntergatherers created an astonishing collection of animal images that still fascinate us today ( see pp.12–21 ). Whether representational pictures are created as forms of worship, entertainment, decoration, status, or record keeping, they have formed an integral part of about every acknowledge culture. Throughout the twentieth hundred and beyond, alongside the burgeon of countless new art forms, styles, and media, world ’ s need to preserve, manipulate, and fabricate elements of the worldly concern around them in the class of pictures has continued to inspire great works of art.

Living connect In 1903, Gwen John visited France with her acquaintance, Dorelia McNeill. During their travels, John made three portraits of Dorelia including the observe Dorelia in a Black Dress.


Augustus John, the shape of a gypsy with his long byssus, weakness for alcohol, and building complex aroused life, studied at London ’ s Slade School, where there was a solid emphasis on calculate drawing. This learn features his son by his first wife, Ida, aboard Dorelia, his long-time mistress and second, common-law wife. John met Dorelia though his baby Gwen, a fine painter in her own right.

Ultimate award In 1906, the Uffizi Gallery in Florence asked John Singer Sargent to paint himself for their solicitation of self-portraits. He agreed, but the follow year he turned away from portraiture to focus his energy on other subjects.


1920 A GREAT MAN OF ACTION INTO WHOSE HANDS THE FAIRIES HAD PLACED A PAINTBRUSH INSTEAD OF A SWORD Wyndham Lewis English Vorticist painter and writer, on Augustus John

Nordic Summer Evening Richard Bergh 1900 Museum of Art, Gothenburg, Sweden

Making a sport of the classifiable scandinavian twilight, this amatory picture suggests not entirely the relationship between man and womanhood, but the connection between people and nature. The painter, who was besides a writer on art hypothesis and politics, used two friends as models—Prince Eugen of Sweden and the opera singer Karin Pyk.



American Gothic Grant Wood 1930 Art Institute of Chicago, IL

Painted with a accurate reality aromatic of northern Europe in the fifteenth century, American Gothic communicates the potent Puritan character typical of the american Midwest ( or does it suggest intolerance and inflexibility ? ). Portraying a farmer and his spinster daughter, the paint takes its name from the style of the outstanding gable window.


Relay Race Around the Streets of Moscow Aleksandr Dejneka 1947 Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow, Russia

Highly regarded in the Soviet Union and beyond, Dejneka was an acclaim painter, graphic artist, sculptor, and mosaicist. According to the contemporary doctrine of Socialist Realism, it was the responsibility of artists to portray a positivist view of their society—in this sour, Dejneka interprets the message with honesty and humanity.



One-way tag In 1933, Tamara de Lempicka married her patron and fan, Baron Raoul Kuffner. When war threatened a few years late, the couple fled Europe for the United States, where they settled.

Edward Hopper born Nyack, NY, July 22, 1882 ; died New York City, NY, May 15, 1967

Tamara in the Green Bugatti Tamara de Lempicka 1925

A quintessential Art-Deco work, Lempicka ’ s stylized self-image features a tight composition ; twist colors ; and a impregnable sense of amphetamine, chic, and degeneracy. A painter of polish or russian give birth who was active in Paris, Los Angeles, and New York, she portrays herself as an ambitious, froward, and very modern womanhood.


Private Collection

Born in upstate New York, Hopper lived in New York City for most of his life, but traveled wide in the United States. Trained as a commercial artist, he earned his live as an illustrator before taking up full-time painting in 1924. A lead exponent of american Scene Painting, he never sought to express emotion in his paintings, yet their mighty comment on modern life soon established him as one of the leading exponents of the figurative tradition. Hopper has besides been described as the greatest american etcher of the twentieth hundred.

Compartment C, Car 293 Edward Hopper 1938 IBM Collection, Armonk, NY

The main theme running through Hopper ’ randomness work is urban alienation—the aloneness of city life—and many of his paintings feature lone women in arrant settings.



The stage is set

West Interior

In 1950, having studied drawing at night school, and supported himself by painting both commercial signs and theatrical performance sets, Gerhard Richter decides to become a master artist.

Interior Bernard Buffet 1950 Musée National d ’ Art Moderne, Paris, France

The leading french figuratist of the 1950s, Buffet produced portraits, still lifes, and cityscapes a well as domestic scenes. With its linear black shapes and drab tones, this image documents a solicitation of contemporary purpose classics—tiled floor, painted shutters, and café-style bentwood seat.

Alex Katz 1979 Philadelphia Museum of Art, PA

Born in Brooklyn, Katz studied at Manhattan ’ s Cooper Union artwork school. Although his early career coincided with the stature of Abstract Expressionism, he remained a figural painter, using fields of flat color years before they featured in Pop art. This is Katz ’ mho wife Ada.

Friends at home As well as a being a Pop artist, David Hockney has besides worked in a more traditional figural manner. One of his best-known works, Mr. and Mrs. Clark and Percy ( 1970–71 ) is a portrayal of the artist ’ sulfur friends, designers Ossie Clark and Celia Birtwell.





Katia Reading Balthus 1968–76 Private Collection

Born in Paris of Polish-French descent, Balthus ( Balthazar Klossowski de Rola ) had no formal training. Working in a simplified figural style, he often portrayed adolescent girls in a slightly voyeuristic way, and he could take years to complete one of his paintings. Believing that art should be experienced, not discussed, this enigmatic artist always refused requests for biographic information.


S With Child Gerhard Richter 1995 Hamburger Kunstalle, Hamburg, Germany

Dame Paula Rego


wear Lisbon, Portugal, January 26, 1935

Raised in a country dominated by military dictatorship and the Catholic Church, Rego was sent by her parents to study in London in 1951. The following year she enrolled at the Slade School of Fine Art, where she later taught. When she first profit critical recognition during the early 1960s, she was working in a semiabstract manner, but later turned to the stylized, elusively narrative figuration for which she is good known. In addition to painting, Rego is a respected advocate of print and collage, and a mighty female voice in the artwork earth.

One of a series of eight portraits Richter made of his wife ( the artist Sabine Moritz ) and their baby son, this achingly tender image— among the most suggest of his entire body of work— contrasts strikingly with his uncompromising abstraction.



Eternal rhythm In 1989, London ’ s Tate Gallery acquires Paula Rego ’ s The Dance ( 1988 ), an allegorical study in which a village family celebration symbolize passage though the stages of womanhood from youth to old age— the dance of life.

The Cadet and His Sister

John Currin 1993

Paula Rego 1988

Private Collection

Private Collection

Currin is best known for producing work that is both deeply traditional and completely contemporary—Standing Nude portrays a hyperrealistic middleaged woman, her sinewy body and lined grimace set off mercilessly against a blunt black background. With works such as this, John Currin helped to bring figurative paint back into manner.

Much of Rego ’ mho work deals with folklore, childhood, and fantasy, sometimes with dark, disturb overtones. Like many of her images, this one is slenderly faze, with overtones of incest, female domination, and loss.

Standing Nude





MASTERWORK Benefits Supervisor Sleeping Lucian Freud 1995 Private Collection

A grandson of Sigmund Freud, Lucian was born in Berlin, but settled in Britain with his family in 1933, when he was a child. He constantly loved drawing and in 1939 he began to study at the East anglian School of Painting and Drawing, attending on and off until 1942. After that, he established a home and a studio apartment in Paddington, the moth-eaten London district he inhabited for the rest of his life sentence. Freud ’ s heat was the human form—portraits and nudes executed with vigorously textured brushstrokes and muted, however rich, coloration that express the infirmity of his sitters a well as their world ; the prevailing mood is one of alienation. As subjects, he preferred people who were close up to him—his friends, his daughters, and his mother, whom he drew tied after her death. This is the second of his four paintings of benefits supervisory program Sue Tilley—for the first, she was positioned on the studio apartment floor, but she complained sol much that he provided the sofa on which she relaxes here indeed completely. Freud operated within an artwork populace dominated by abstraction and experiment, so far he produced works of searing naturalism and complex atmosphere—in 1987, critic Robert Hughes declared him “ the greatest surviving realist painter. ” Intense in both his work and his personal relationships ( he fathered a boastfully number of children by unlike women ), he worked ferociously until his death in 2011 at the historic period of 88.





GLOSSARY A Abstract artwork Art that does not recognizably typify things from the visible populace. alternatively, it involves the use of colors and forms arranged for their own cosmetic or expressive prize. Abstract Expressionism A type of painting that emerged in New York in the mid-1940s and dominated American art in the 1950s. abstract Expressionists normally worked on boastfully canvases and employed varying degrees of abstraction with impregnable expressive message. Acrylics A type of paint in which a man-made acrylic resin forms the medium. First used by artists in the 1940s, acrylics have become a versatile alternative to petroleum paints. Most types of acrylic key are soluble in water ; they can be used on a variety show of supports and dry more quickly than anoint rouge. aesthetic Movement An aesthetic campaign that flourished in the late 19th century— specially in the 1880s—in Britain and elsewhere, and included literature a well as painting and the cosmetic arts. Adherents believed the arts should above all give pleasure and rejected the notion that they should inevitably have a social or moral determination. Altarpiece A painting or other work of art designed to be set on, above, or behind an altar in a christian church. It normally represents scriptural episodes or sacred people. Art Deco A expressive style of blueprint and department of the interior decoration that developed in the 1920s and 1930s in the United States and Europe, and was characterized by boldface colors and legato geometric or conventionalized forms. It takes its name from the Exposition Internationale des Arts Décoratifs et Industriels Modernes, an exhibition held in Paris in 1925 that featured items of the modern manner. Art Nouveau A cosmetic style that became popular in the United States and Europe at the conclusion of the nineteenth century and in the first decade of the twentieth century. It was characterized by sinuate asymmetrical lines and shapes derived from establish stems, flames, waves, and flowing hair. The name was taken from La Maison de l’Art Nouveau, a shop class that opened in Paris in 1895. Arts and Crafts movement An influential recently social and aesthetic campaign, chiefly in architecture and the cosmetic arts, originating in Britain in the former nineteenth hundred. It championed craft and simplicity of design. The campaign ’ mho adherents produced works that involved traditional skills and demonstrated an “ honesty ” in quality of materials and design. Avant-garde A term applied to artists ( or their works ) who were considered to be innovative or experimental, apparently ahead of their meter.

B Baroque A movement in european artwork and computer architecture that was dominant in the seventeenth century, between the Mannerist and Rococo periods. Baroque paintings are often characterized by dynamic movement, emotional saturation, and theatrical effects.

Bauhaus A modernist school of art and design founded by architect Walter Gropius in Weimar, Germany, in 1919 and noted for its refined, functionalist access to architecture and industrial design. The school moved to Dessau in 1925 and to Berlin in 1932, but was closed by the Nazis in 1933. many distinguished painters taught at the Bauhaus, which is regarded as the most crucial and influential art school of the twentieth century.

values. rather of conventional media, it favored such means of expression as collage, collage, and the ready-made.

Der Blaue Reiter A informal association of Expressionist artists, based in Munich, who were active from 1911 to 1914. The name is german for “ The Blue Rider. ” The shape of the members was vary, but it tended toward semiabstract forms and bright colors.

Disegno An italian news for drawing or design. In the context of Renaissance art, however, the password besides has a broader entail, suggesting the cerebral and creative capacity of the artist.

Die Brücke A group of german Expressionist artists formed in Dresden in 1905 and disbanded in Berlin in 1913. Artists in the group typically produced figure compositions and landscapes with strong colors and angular forms. The list is german for “ The Bridge. ” Byzantine art Art and architecture of the Byzantine ( Eastern Roman ) Empire or areas under its cultural influence. Most byzantine art is religious and profoundly serious in intent. Mosaics and icons are distinctive forms.

C Chiaroscuro An italian condition meaning “ bright-dark ” that is used to describe the effects of light and iniquity in a paint, particularly when they are powerfully contrasting. It originated primarily in the study of Leonardo, but is particularly associated with 17th-century artists, notably Caravaggio and Rembrandt. Classical, classicism Terms describing the spirit of order and harmony associated with the art and computer architecture of Greek and Roman ancientness. In its broadest sense, classicism is the opposition of Romanticism, valuing shared ideals and standards over individual expression. Constructivism An art movement that originated in Russia around 1914, characterized by the function of industrial materials such as glass and metal components arranged in abstract forms. Following the Revolution of 1917, Constructivist art was close linked with politics and was intended to be socially useful. cubism A rotatory and highly influential style of painting created by Braque and Picasso, who worked together closely in Paris from 1907 to 1914. The habit of position with a traditional fixed vantage point was abandoned, and forms were fragmented and rearranged on the mental picture surface. The pictorial exemption this created was enhanced when Braque and Picasso introduced collage elements into their paintings.

D Dada A measuredly meaningless identify chosen by the adherents of an early 20th-century motion in artwork, literature, music, and film. It originated in 1915 in Zurich, Switzerland, and spread to other european countries during and immediately after World War I ; there were besides Dada activities in New York. The movement mocked artistic and social conventions and was characterized by an anarchic intent of disgust against traditional

Diptych A paint or early work of artwork made up of two equal-sized parts facing one another like the pages of a bible. A democratic format for chivalric religious art, the diptych often featured a hinge between the two parts so that the work could be folded for transportation.

Distemper A water-based paint that uses glue as a binder alternatively of an oil base. cheap but impermanent, it is particularly suited to impermanent work, such as phase scenery.

E Encaustic A paint technique in which pigments are shuffle with hot wax. The terminus derives from a greek word mean “ burn in. ” It was one of the principal painting techniques employed in the ancient global. Engraving A bible that can be used as a general condition for the assorted processes of making prints or applied more specifically to one of these processes—sometimes known more precisely as line engraving. In tune engraving the invention is cut into a smooth metallic element ( normally copper ) plate, which is inked and passed through a crusade. From the early sixteenth hundred to the early nineteenth hundred, line engraving played a highly important role as a means of reproducing other works of art. Etching A method of printmaking in which acid is used to create a design on a alloy ( normally copper ) plate. The plate is first covered with a bendable acid-resistant substance, which is drawn upon with a steel etching acerate leaf. The plate is then immersed in an acid bath, which bites the lines exposed by the needle, creating furrows to hold the ink. After the waxen application is cleaned off, the engrave plate is inked and printed in the same manner as an engraving. Expressionism An approach path to art in which the artist or writer seek to express the subjective global of emotion rather than observed reality. Distortion and exaggeration are used for aroused effect. More specifically, Expressionism refers to the dominant allele force in german art at the begin of the twentieth hundred, particularly in the exploit of two groups : Die Brücke and Der Blaue Reiter.

F Fauvism An early on 20th-century movement in painting characterized by vivid expressionist and nonnaturalistic habit of coloring material that briefly flourished in Paris from 1905 to about 1907. The list Fauves, French for “ wild beasts, ” was coined by critic Louis Vauxcelles in 1905. figurative art Art that recognizably depicts figures, objects, or scenes, as opposed to abstract art. Fresco A proficiency of painting on a surface of wet poultice using a assortment of powdered pigments and water. As the paint dries, it

bonds with the poultice, making the movie an integral separate of the wall ( or ceiling ), producing an exceptionally permanent leave. The discussion “ fresco ” is italian for “ fresh, ” referring to the impertinently applied plaster on which the artist paints. Frottage A proficiency of reproducing an image of a pugnacious surface—for model, grained wood—by laying a piece of paper over it, then rubbing the composition with a crayon or pencil until an impression of the come on appears. The identify is french for “ rubbing. ” Max Ernst invented the technique in 1925, and it was adopted by several other surrealist artists. Futurism An italian avant-garde artwork movement founded in 1909 by the italian writer Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The Futurists celebrated the modern world, specially its machines and technology. They worked in assorted fields, but the main exponents were painters.

G Gothic A term applied to the computer architecture and art prevailing in most of Europe in the late Middle Ages, and by extension to the art of this period ( mid-12th hundred to early sixteenth century ). gothic architecture is characterized by point arches, ridicule vaults, and flying buttresses. Gothic art is less precise in its meaning, but painting and sculpture of the period frequently feature of speech figures that have a swing gracefulness. See besides International Gothic. Gouache An opaque version of watercolor, besides called soundbox tinge, in which the pigments are bound with glue. Grand Tour An extensive go of parts of Continental Europe, specially Italy, undertaken by young aristocrats and gentlemen, particularly from Britain. The objective of the Tour, which was at its bill during the eighteenth hundred, was to complete the individual ’ mho education through seeing firsthand the masterpieces of classical and Renaissance art and architecture. Ground A application applied to a surface to prepare it for painting or other artistic use. In Renaissance paint, a common footing was gesso ( a assortment of powderize chalk and glue ), which heightened the intensity of the colors. In etching, the ground is the bendable coating spread on the alloy plate.

I Icon An trope depicting Christ, the Virgin Mary, a canonize, or early holy place person. The term is specially used to describe the sacred control panel paintings of the Byzantine, Russian, and Greek Orthodox Churches. Illuminated manuscript An ornament handwritten book characteristic of the Middle Ages. Adorned with images and versatile kinds of decoration, much in gold and full-bodied colors, manuscripts were normally written on parchment ( made from animal skin ) or vellum ( a fine kind of parchment ). Impasto Thickly applied opaque rouge showing the marks made by the brush or tongue. Many of Rembrandt ’ s paintings have distinctive impasto.


Impressionism A movement in painting that began in France in the 1860s, and went on to have a huge influence on avant-garde artwork throughout Europe and elsewhere. The Impressionists rebelled against the formal type of painting promoted by the academies and were concerned with depicting the ocular impression of the moment, specially in terms of shifting effects of alight and color. International Gothic A style in painting and other arts flourishing in respective european countries from c.1375 to c.1425. The style was marked by aristocratic elegance ( it developed chiefly in courtly environments ) and the manipulation of finespun naturalistic detail.

L Lithography A proficiency, invented in 1798, in which prints are made by drawing immediately on a slab of stone ( or more recently, metallic or formative ) with a greasy crayon. The gem is wetted and ink is applied. The ink is repelled by besotted areas but adheres to the greasy draw, and the design is affixed to paper in a compress.

1980s, notably in the US, West Germany, and Italy. Neo-Expressionist paintings are typically big and aggressively raw in feeling. Neoimpressionism A movement in painting that emerged in France in the 1880s as a development from and chemical reaction against Impressionism. The most significant Neoimpressionist was Georges Seurat, who aimed to make the Impressionist treatment of color and light more rational and scientific. Neo-Plasticism A term coined by Piet Mondrian to describe his austere style of geometric pilfer art, in which he limited himself to straight lines, rectangles, and a little total of colors. mondrian believed that art should be strictly abstract and not attempt to represent the natural global.

O Oil painting Painting in which an oil—such as linseed, walnut, or poppyseed—is used as the medium that binds the pigment.


Op art A type of abstract art that uses certain ocular phenomena to create images that appear to pulsate or flicker. It was highly popular in the 1960s.

Mannerism A term primitively applied to the sophisticate ( and much quite artificial ) style characteristic of much italian art in the period c.1520–1600, and late extended to cover the art of other countries in this period.


“ Master of … ” An fabricate identify given to an unidentified artist for convenience in discussing the works attributed to him. The victor of Flémalle ( now broadly thought to be Robert Campin ) is probably the most celebrated personality created in this way. Medium The material or form of expression with which artists create their exploit : paint, tie, and printmaking, for exercise, are three different media. In painting, it besides refers to the means with which the pigment is mix to make paint. For example, in oil painting the average is an oil such as linseed petroleum, and in watercolor the medium is gum tree arabic. miniature A very little painting, particularly a type of portrayal that was democratic in Europe from the sixteenth hundred to the early nineteenth hundred. Miniatures were primitively painted in watercolor or gouache on vellum, ivory, or batting order. Modernism A very wide terminus for the beliefs and attitudes underlying the root developments in art from about 1900.

N Nabis A group of painters active in Paris in the 1890s who were inspired by the work of Paul Gauguin, particularly his expressive use of color and radiation pattern. The name Nabis derives from the Hebrew discussion for “ prophets, ” reflecting the zealousness with which the group propagated the dash and teachings of Gauguin and besides their pastime in mystic ideas. neoclassicism A movement in art and architecture that spread throughout Europe in the deep 18th and early 19th centuries. Inspired by the orderliness, reason, and high-mindedness of ancient Greek and Roman art and architecture, Neoclassicism was partially a reaction to the frivolities of the Rococo style. Neo-Expressionism A vogue of painting ( and —to a much smaller degree—sculpture ) that flourished peculiarly in the late 1970s and

Panel In paint, a support made from wood, metal, or other rigid fabric. Until sail was introduced in the fifteenth century, closely all portable paintings in Europe were painted on woodwind. Performance art An art form that combines diverse aspects of ocular art, drama, dance, and music. It became popular in the 1960s. Perspective Method of giving a sense of three-dimensional depth on a two-dimensional coat : objects appear smaller the further away they are from the spectator, and latitude lines appear to converge with increasing distance. Pop art Movement in artwork based on modern popular culture and mass media, using images from comic books, advertisements, consumer products, television, and movies. Pop Art emerged in the US and Britain in the belated 1950s and flourished particularly in the 1960s. Postimpressionism Term coined by british critic and artist Roger Fry to describe versatile developments from and reactions against Impressionism, particularly in France, in the period from about 1880 to 1905. Fry used the condition as the title of an exhibition, “ Manet and the Postimpressionists, ” he organized in London in 1910. The exhibition included numerous paintings by Cézanne, Gauguin, and van Gogh, who are immediately regarded as the fathers of Postimpressionism. Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood The name adopted by a group of youthful british painters who came together in 1848 in reaction against what they considered to be the formulaic paint characteristic of the Royal Academy in London. They painted in a style that aimed to capture the sincerity and candor of italian art before the clock time of Raphael.

Realism A movement in 19th-century artwork ( peculiarly french painting ) in which scenes of contemporaneous urban and rural life were presented in an unidealized, frequently earthy way. Renaissance A revival of the arts and learning that began in Italy in the fourteenth century and spread to other parts of Europe during the 15th and 16th centuries. It drew upon the classical music cultures of Rome and Greece, and was informed by scientific developments, including those in perspective and human body. Rococo A manner of art and architecture characterized by lightness and gaiety that succeeded Baroque in the early eighteenth century, initially in France and then throughout Europe. In the second one-half of the eighteenth hundred it gradually gave way to Neoclassicism. Romanesque The dominant allele manner of computer architecture and art in most of Europe during the 11th and 12th centuries. It is characterized chiefly in terms of the massive, round-arched buildings of the period. Romanesque painting is often potently nonnaturalistic, sometimes with about expressionistically distorted figures. Romanticism A drift in the arts in the recently 18th and early 19th centuries that reacted against the cause and formality of Neoclassicism and the Enlightenment. rather, romanticist artists celebrated individual have and construction and often looked to nature for inhalation.

S Screenprinting A printmaking technique in which ink is pressed through a fine interlock riddle by a arctic blade and onto a surface of newspaper or early desirable corporeal below. The design can be created on the screen in versatile ways ( including the transfer of photographic images ). separate screens are broadly used to apply different colors. Sfumato An italian term, literally meaning “ faded away, ” used in painting to describe an extremely insidious blend of tones, which melt into one another ampere imperceptibly as smoke disappear in the publicize. The technique was used to great effect by Leonardo. Socialist Realism The character of art officially promulgated in the Soviet Union from the late 1920s ( and subsequently in other communist countries ). socialist Realism celebrated soviet cultural and technological achievements, broadly in a pigeonhole way that reflected the inhibitory command of the arts by the state. Subjects included industrial and urban landscapes and scenes on collective farms. De Stijl A group of artists ( chiefly Dutch ) founded in 1917. Their appoint, Dutch for “ The Style, ” was besides the title of a magazine published intermittently from 1917 to 1928 in which they promoted their austere abstraction artwork. Piet mondrian and Theo van Doesburg were the leading members of the group, which embraced sculpture, architecture, and plan vitamin a well as painting.


Support The material—such as wood, sail, paper, or tied a wall—on which a painting or drawing is made.

ready-made name given by Marcel Duchamp to a type of artwork he invented consisting of an average, everyday object removed from its common functional context and displayed alternatively as a work of artwork. Duchamp exhibited his first ready-made in 1913.

Suprematism A Russian abstract art bowel movement persistent from about 1915 until 1918, involving the use of simple geometric forms such as squares, triangles, and circles. Kasimir Malevich was the creator and main advocate of this identical austere form of abstractedness.

Surrealism A apparent motion in artwork, literature, and ideas, officially founded by the poet André Breton in Paris in 1924, although it had been emerging for some time before this. It was the most far-flung and influential avant-garde campaign of the 1920s and 1930s, and its ideas continued to echo long after this. In its unconventionality and love of the bizarre, Surrealism was close related to its harbinger Dada, but it was more positive in lookout, seeking to release the creative potential of the unconscious beware. Symbolism An aesthetic and literary movement flourishing in the deep 19th and early twentieth centuries. Adherents rejected the naturalistic ideals of Realism and Impressionism, favoring subjective, poetic representations of the world, often influenced by mystic ideas.

T Tempera A term that can be applied to any paint using an organic gum or glue as the medium, but which about constantly refers to the most coarse rouge of this type, egg tempera. This was the chief proficiency for panel painting in Europe until anoint paints began to take over in the fifteenth hundred. Triptych A mental picture or relief carve on three panels, frequently hinged together, with the extinct sections capable of being folded over the central part. As with the diptych, this format was often used in little, portable altarpieces, although some triptychs are identical large. Trompe-l ’ oeil A painting ( or a part of a painting ) done with such nice illusionism that it initially deceives viewers into believing they are looking at a real object preferably than a two-dimensional word picture of it. The term is french for “ deceives the eye. ”

V Vorticism A ephemeral british avant-garde art and literary motion that was launched in 1914 and broken up by World War I. Influenced by italian Futurism and french Cubism, Vorticism aggressively expressed the vigor of modern liveliness, reacting against the perceived complacency of british society at the clock.

W Watercolor A type of rouge bound with a medium—usually gum arabic—soluble in water. Watercolor of assorted kinds has been employed in many times and places, but is best known for use by british landscape painters in the 18th and 19th centuries. Woodcut A printmaking proficiency in which the design is created on a block of woodwind saw along the ingrain ( as in a plank ). It was first used in Europe around 1400 and was the head means of creating prints until it was gradually superseded by course engraving during the sixteenth hundred. Wood engraving A printmaking technique in which the design is created on a hardwood parry saw across the grain—rather than along the grain of a softer wood, as in woodcut. The hard, smoother surface and the use of finer tools means that woodwind engravings are normally more accurate and detail than woodcuts, although they can look very like. The proficiency was developed in England in the eighteenth hundred and was much used for book illustrations in the nineteenth hundred.




INDEX OF ARTISTS In this index, page numbers in boldface type argue main references, including biographic boxes, while numbers in italic type refer to illustrations.

Avercamp, Barent 182 wear Kampen, Netherlands, 1612 ; buried Kampen, October 24, 1679

For dates in Russia before 1918, both Julian ( Old Style ) and Gregorian ( New Style ) calendar dates are given when known ; the julian date ( used in Russia ) is listed first, with the equivalent gregorian date ( used about everywhere else ) following in square brackets. other conventions are reasonably standard : a question grade indicates that the date or seat is probable but not absolutely certain ; c. ( for circa ) indicates an approximate date that is known to be accurate, based on the best available testify.

Avercamp, Hendrick 182, 182 baptized Amsterdam, Netherlands, January 25, 1585 ; buried Kampen, Netherlands, May 15, 1634

Bernini, Gianlorenzo 157, 157, 161,

Brouwer, Adriaen 178, 183, 183

161, 162, 172 give birth Naples, Italy, December 7, 1598 ; died Rome, Italy, November 28, 1680

born Oudenaarde ?, Flanders, c.1605 ; buried Antwerp, Flanders, February 1, 1638

Blake, Sir Peter 363 have a bun in the oven Dartford, UK, June 25, 1932

Brown, Ford Madox 258, 259, 259, 261, 261 born Calais, France, April 16, 1821 ; died London, UK, October 6, 1893

Blake, William 234, 238, 238–9, 258, 258 bear London, UK, November 28, 1757 ; died London, August 12, 1827

Bruegel, Pieter 124, 129, 129, 376, 376

Bleyl, Fritz 320 bear Zwickau, Germany, October 8, 1880 ; died Bad Iburg, Germany, August 19, 1966

Brunelleschi, Filippo 89, 90

born Florence, Italy, 1425 ? ; died Florence, August 29, 1499

Boccioni, Umberto 327 born Reggio di Calabria, Italy, October 19, 1882 ; died Sorte, nr. Verona, Italy, August 17, 1916

Buffet, Bernard 380

born Cologne, Germany, 1552 ; died Prague, Bohemia [ now Czech Republic ], March 4, 1615

Baldung Grien, Hans 128, 236 bear Schwäbisch Gmünd, Germany, 1484/85 ; died Strasbourg, Germany, September 1545

Böcklin, Arnold 302, 302, 303 have a bun in the oven Basle, Switzerland, October 19, 1827 ; died San Domenico, Italy, January 16, 1901

Burne-Jones, Sir Edward 257, 260, 261,

Abate, Niccolò dell ’ 144, 148, 148

Balthus 374, 380

have a bun in the oven Modena, Italy, c.1510 ; died Fontainebleau ?, France, 1571

hold Paris, France, February 29, 1908 ; died Rossinière, Switzerland, February 18, 2001

Bonnard, Pierre 292 hold Fontenay-aux-Roses, France, October 3, 1867 ; died Le Cannet, France, January 23, 1947

Agam, Yaacov 363

Bardin, Jean 226

born Rishon-le-Zion, Palestine, May 11, 1928

born Montbard, France, October 31, 1732 ; died Orléans, France, October 6, 1809


B Bakst, Léon 306, 329 bear Grodno, Russia, April 28 [ May 10 ], 1866 ; died Paris, France, December 27, 1924

Baldovinetti, Alesso 94

Aachen, Hans von 143, 151

Barocci, Federico 136, 139, 139

342, 342 bear ’ s-Hertogenbosch ?, Netherlands, c.1450 ; buried ’ s-Hertogenbosch, August 9, 1516

born Urbino, Italy, 1535 ? ; died Urbino, September 30, 1612

Bosschaert, Ambrosius 171

Bartolommeo, Fra 89, 105, 106

baptized Antwerp, Flanders, November 18, 1573 ; died The Hague, Netherlands, 1621

Albers, Josef 333 born Bottrop, Germany, March 19, 1888 ; died New Haven, CT, March 25, 1976

Allori, Alessandro 138, 140 wear Florence, Italy, May 31, 1535 ; died Florence, September 22, 1607

Altdorfer, Albrecht 128

bear Florence, Italy, March 28, 1472 ; died Florence, October 31, 1517

Baselitz, Georg 319

born Amberg ?, Germany, c.1480 ; died Regensburg, Germany, February 12, 1538

born Deutschbaselitz, Germany, January 23, 1938

Altichiero 84

Bassano, Jacopo 116

active Verona and Padua, Italy, 1370s and 1380s

hold Bassano, Italy, c.1515 ; died Bassano, February 13, 1592

Andrea da Firenze 84 died Florence ?, Italy, 1378 ?

Bastien-Lepage, Jules 272, 272, 273 bear Damvillers, France, November 1, 1848 ; died Paris, France, December 10, 1884

Angelico, Fra 85, 88, 90, 91, 91, 93 natural nr. Vicchio, Italy, c.1395 ; died Rome, Italy, February 18, 1455

Batoni, Pompeo 214, 217

Anquetin, Louis 290, 292

born Lucca, Italy, January 25, 1708 ; died Rome, Italy, February 4, 1787

born Étrépagny, France, January 26, 1861 ; died Paris, France, August 19, 1932

Antolínez, José 174 baptized Madrid, Spain, November 7, 1635 ; died Madrid, May 30, 1675

Antonello da Messina 95, 112, 114 hold Messina, Italy, c.1430 ; died Messina, February 14–25, 1479

Apelles 36, 37, 37

Bosch, Hieronymus 124, 126, 126–7,

Bazille, Frédéric 276, 280, 280 born Montpellier, France, December 6, 1841 ; died Beaune-la-Rolande, France, November 28, 1870 Bellini, Gentile 111, 114 wear Venice, Italy, c.1430–35 ; buried Venice, February 23, 1507

Bellini, Giovanni 110, 110, 111, 112,

Botticelli, Sandro 88, 89, 92, 94, 97, 98, 98–9, 102, 102, 262 bear Florence, Italy, c.1445 ; buried Florence, May 17, 1510 Boucher, François 200, 200, 201, 204, 205, 206, 206 bear Paris, France, September 29, 1703 ; died Paris, May 30, 1770 Boudin, Eugène 278, 278–9, 279, 287 born Honfleur, France, July 12, 1824 ; died Deauville, France, August 8, 1898

Bouts, Dirk 125 born Haarlem ?, Netherlands, c.1420 ; died Louvain, Flanders, May 6, 1475

born nr. Breda ?, Netherlands, c.1525 ; died Brussels, Flanders, 1569 have a bun in the oven Florence, Italy, 1377 ; died Florence, April 15, 1446 hold Paris, France, July 10, 1928 ; died Tourtour, France, October 4, 1999 262, 263, 263, 308, 309 born Birmingham, UK, August 28, 1833 ; died London, UK, June 16/17, 1898

C Caillebotte, Gustave 282 bear Paris, France, August 18, 1848 ; died Gennevilliers, France, February 21, 1894

Campin, Robert 122, 124 bear c.1375 ; died Tournai, Flanders, April 26, 1444

Canaletto 211, 214, 215 born Venice, Italy, October 17, 1697 ; died Venice, April 19, 1768

Caravaggio 156, 158, 159, 160, 168, 170, 192, 192, 195, 268, 268 baptized Milan, Italy, September 30, 1571 ; died Porto Ercole, Italy, July 18, 1610 Carolus-Duran 376, 376, 377 bear Lille, France, July 4, 1837 ; died Paris, France, February 18, 1917 Carpaccio, Vittore 114 bear Venice, Italy, c.1460 ; died Venice, 1525/26

Carracci, Annibale 139, 156, 158, 160, 160, 192, 192, 212, 212 baptized Bologna, Italy, November 3, 1560 ; died Rome, Italy, July 15, 1609

Bramante, Donato 101, 108 born Monte Asdrualdo [ nowadays Fermignano ] ?, Italy, c.1444 ; died Rome, Italy, April 11, 1514

Carreño de Miranda, Juan 175

Braque, Georges 322, 323, 324, 326, 326,

born Avilés, Spain, March 25, 1614 ; died Madrid, Spain, October 3, 1865

330, 331 natural Argenteuil, France, May 13, 1882 ; died Paris, France, August 31, 1963

Carriera, Rosalba 214 yield Venice, Italy, January 12, 1673 ; died Venice, April 15, 1757

wear Colophon, Ionia [ now Turkey ] ; active voice fourth century BCE

112–13, 113, 114, 118 digest Venice, Italy, c.1430–35 ; died Venice, November 29, 1516 ?

Apollodorus 36

Bellini, Jacopo 85, 112, 112, 114

active Athens, Greece, belated fifth century BCE

bear Venice, Italy, c.1400 ; died Venice, 1470/71

Appel, Karel 366, 367, 370, 370 born Amsterdam, Netherlands, April 25, 1921 ; died Zurich, Switzerland, May 3, 2006

Benois, Alexandre 306, 329 digest St. Petersburg, Russia, April 21 [ May 3 ], 1870 ; died Paris, France, February 9, 1960

bear Bletchingley, UK, December 8, 1831 ; died London, UK, January 7, 1902

Arcimboldo, Giuseppe 143, 149

Berckheyde, Gerrit 186 wear Haarlem, Netherlands, June 6, 1638 ; died Haarlem, June 10, 1698

born Antwerp, Flanders, c.1554 ; died Rome, Italy, October 7, 1626

Cavallini, Pietro 80, 80

Broederlam, Melchior 122, 122

Cellini, Benvenuto 143, 147, 300, 300

born Dieppe, France, c.1615 ; buried Amsterdam, Netherlands, October 3, 1652

Bergh, Richard 378

bear Ypres, Flanders, c.1350 ; died Ypres, c.1411

bear Florence, Italy, November 3, 1500 ; died Florence, February 13, 1571

Audran, Claude 204

Bernard, Emile 290, 292, 293, 296

born Lyons, France, August 25, 1658 ; died Paris, France, May 28, 1734

born Lille, France, April 28, 1868 ; died Paris, France, April 16, 1941

Bronzino, Agnolo 132, 132, 133, 134, 138, 140, 141 digest Monticelli, nr. Florence, November 17, 1503 ; died Florence, November 23, 1572

Cézanne, Paul 276, 288, 289, 290, 292, 293, 294, 294, 314, 324, 324, 326 digest Aix-en-Provence, France, January 19, 1839 ; died Aix-en-Provence, October 23, 1906

born Milan ?, Italy, c.1527 ; died Milan, July 11, 1593

Asselyn, Jan 184

born Stockholm, Sweden, December 28, 1858 ; died Storängen, Sweden, January 29, 1919

Breton, Jules 273, 273 born Courrières, France, May 1, 1827 ; died Paris, France, July 5, 1906

Brett, John 260

Bril, Paul 170

Cassatt, Mary 283 digest Allegheny City, PA, May 22, 1844 ; died Le Mesnil-Théribus, France, June 14, 1926

Castagno, Andrea del 93 digest Castagno, Italy, c.1418 ; buried Florence, August 19, 1457 active Rome and Naples, Italy, c.1270–1330


Chagall, Marc 312, 318

Coysevox, Antoine 197 hold Lyons, France, September 29, 1640 ; died Paris, France, October 10, 1720

Denis, Maurice 292, 293, 334, 334 hold Granville, France, November 25, 1870 ; died Paris, France, November 13, 1943

Eworth, Hans 143, 147 bear Flanders ?, c.1520 ? ; died London ?, England, 1574 ?

Derain, André 295, 312, 312, 313, 317,

Exekias 35, 35 active Athens, Greece, c.550–520 BCE

Champaigne, Philippe de 191, 195, 196

Cranach, Lucas 142, 146 have a bun in the oven Kronach, Germany, 1472 ; died Weimar, Germany, October 16, 1553

baptized Brussels, Flanders, May 26, 1602 ; died Paris, France, August 12, 1674

Crivelli, Carlo 97

born Vitebsk, Russia [ now Vitsyebsk, Belarus ], July 7, 1887 ; died Saint-Paul-de-Vence, France, March 28, 1985

Chardin, Jean-Siméon 200, 205, 205, 207 bear Paris, France, November 2, 1699 ; died Paris, December 6, 1779

Chassériau, Théodore 243, 300, 300 wear Sainte-Barbe de Samano, Santo Domingo [ nowadays Dominican Republic ], September 20, 1819 ; died Paris, France, October 8, 1856

Chirico, Giorgio de 342, 342, 346

born Venice ?, Italy, c.1430–35 ; died Ascoli Piceno, Italy, 1493/95

Cross, Henri-Edmond 293, 295 behave Douai, France, May 20, 1856 ; died Le Lavandou, France, May 16, 1910 Currin, John 381 born Boulder, Colorado, September 19, 1962

324, 330 born Chatou, France, June 17, 1880 ; died Garches, France, September 8, 1954

Desportes, Alexandre-François 197 yield Champigneulle, nr. Varennes, France, February 24, 1661 ; died Paris, France, April 20, 1743 Dioskurides of Samos 38, 38 born Samos ?, Asia Minor ; active c.1st hundred BCE

Doesburg, Theo van 332, 333, 334,

born Volos, Greece, July 10, 1888 ; died Rome, Italy, November 20, 1978


Christus, Petrus 120, 120, 122

Daddi, Bernardo 83 died Florence ?, Italy, 1348

born Baerle-Duc [ nowadays Baarle-Hertog ] ?, Flanders, c.1410 ; died Bruges, Flanders, 1475/76

Dalí, Salvador 340, 345, 347, 348, 348–9,

336, 336 born Utrecht, Netherlands, August 30, 1883 ; died Davos, Switzerland, March 7, 1931

Domenichino 156, 160 behave Bologna, Italy, October 21, 1581 ? ; died Naples, Italy, April 6, 1641

351, 375 bear Figueras, Spain, May 11, 1904 ; died Figueras, January 23, 1989

Domenico di Bartolo 93

Domenico Veneziano 93

Cimabue 80, 80

Dalou, Jules 273 hold Paris, France, December 31, 1838 ; died Paris, April 15, 1902

digest c.1240 ; died Pisa, Italy, 1302 ?

Danby, Francis 241

Claude Lorraine 148, 190, 194, 196, 220, 253

digest Common, Ireland, November 16, 1793 ; died Exmouth, UK, February 10, 1861

Cignani, Carlo 212, 212 bear Bologna, Italy, May 15, 1628 ; died Forlì, Italy, September 6, 1719

natural Asciano, Italy, c.1400 ; died Siena, Italy, c.1445 born Venice ?, Italy ; buried Florence, Italy, May 15, 1461

Donatello 87, 90, 90, 94

Eyck, Hubert van 122 die 1426 ?

Eyck, Jan van 120, 122, 123, 124 born Maaseik ?, Flanders, c.1390 ; died Bruges, Flanders, June 1441

F Fabris, Pietro 248 active Naples, Italy, 1756–84 Fanzago, Cosimo 162 baptized Clusone, Italy, October 13, 1591 ; died Naples, Italy, February 13, 1678 Flaxman, John 227 born York, UK, July 6, 1755 ; died London, UK, December 7, 1826 Floris, Frans 142, 148, 148 wear Antwerp, Flanders, 1519/20 ; died Antwerp, October 1, 1570 Fortescue-Brickdale, Eleanor 263 born Upper Norwood, UK, Jan 25, 1872 ; died London, UK, March 10, 1945

natural Florence, Italy, c.1386 ; died Florence, December 13, 1466

Fouquet, Jean 125, 125 bear Tours, France, c.1420 ; died Tours, c.1481

Daubigny, Charles-François 278, 278 born Paris, France, February 15, 1817 ; died Paris, February 19, 1878

Dossi, Dosso 106

Doyen, Gabriel-François 208

Clouet, François 149, 149, 152

Daumier, Honoré 270, 270 born Marseilles, France, February 26, 1808 ; died Valmondois, France, February 10, 1879

Fragonard, Jean-Honoré 200, 204, 207, 207, 208, 209 born Grasse, France, April 5, 1732 ; died Paris, France, August 22, 1806

natural Tours ?, France, c.1510 ; died Paris, France, September 22, 1572

Daura, Pierre 368, 368 yield Menorca, Spain, February 21, 1896 ; died Rockbridge Baths, VA, January 1, 1976

Dubreuil, Toussaint 194

Cocteau, Jean 345

David, Jacques-Louis 221, 222, 223, 226, 228, 229, 229, 230, 230–1, 239 hold Paris, France, August 30, 1748 ; died Brussels, Flanders, December 29, 1825

Duccio di Buoninsegna 78, 80, 82, 82, 83

born Chamagne, France, 1604/05 ? ; died Rome, Italy, November 23, 1682

Clérisseau, Charles-Louis 225 baptized Paris, France, August 28, 1721 ; died Auteuil, France, January 19, 1820

born Maisons-Laffitte, France, July 5, 1889 ; died Milly-la-Forêt, France, October 11, 1963

Coello, Claudio 175 bear Madrid, Spain, March 2, 1642 ; died Madrid, April 20, 1693

Cole, Thomas 253, 254, 254–5

born Tramuschio ?, nr. Ferrara, Italy, c.1485 ? ; died Ferrara, 1541/42 digest Paris, France, May 20, 1726 ; died St. Petersburg, Russia, March 13, 1806 born Paris ?, France, c.1561 ; died Paris, November 22, 1602 died Siena, Italy, 1318/19

Duchamp, Marcel 322, 326, 327, 332, 340, 341, 344, 375 wear Blainville, France, July 28, 1887 ; died Neuilly-sur-Seine, France, October 2, 1968

born Bolton, UK, February 1, 1801 ; died Catskill, NY, February 8, 1848

de Kooning, Willem 350, 350, 351, 354, 356 natural Rotterdam, Netherlands, April 24, 1904 ; died East Hampton, NY, March 19, 1997

Collinson, James 256

De Morgan, Evelyn 263

bear Mansfield, UK, May 9, 1825 ; died London, UK, January 24, 1881

born London, UK, August 30, 1855 ; died London, May 2, 1919

born Jefferson Village [ nowadays Maplewood ], NJ, August 21, 1796 ; died Jefferson Village, September 17, 1886

Constable, John 237, 242, 248, 252, 252

Degas, Edgar 276, 277, 280, 280, 285

Dürer, Albrecht 115, 120, 121, 124, 127,

born East Bergholt, UK, June 11, 1776 ; died Hampstead, London, UK, March 31, 1837

born Paris, France, July 19, 1834 ; died Paris, September 27, 1917

Copley, John Singleton 217

Dejneka, Aleksandr 375, 379

born Boston, MA, July 3, 1738 ; died London, UK, September 9, 1815

born Kursk, Russia, May 8 [ 20 ], 1899 ; died Moscow, Russia, June 12, 1969

Cornelis van Haarlem 150, 180

Delacroix, Eugène 167, 234, 235, 238, 240,

172, 217 bear Antwerp, Flanders, March 22, 1599 ; died London, England, December 9, 1641

bear Haarlem, Netherlands, 1562 ; died Haarlem, November 11, 1638

242, 242, 243, 252, 268, 300, 300 bear Charenton-Saint-Maurice, France, April 26, 1798 ; died Paris, France, August 13, 1863


Correggio 106, 107, 107 bear Correggio, Italy, c.1490 ; died Correggio, March 5, 1534

Delaroche, Paul 243, 243

Durand, Asher B 253

127, 128, 134, 146 have a bun in the oven Nuremberg, Germany, May 21, 1471 ; died Nuremberg, April 6, 1528

Dyck, Sir Anthony avant-garde 166, 170, 171, 172,

Eakins, Thomas 270, 274, 275

Freud, Lucian 374, 382–3, 383 bear Berlin, Germany, December 8, 1922 ; died London, UK, July 20, 2011 Friedrich, Caspar David 234, 246, 250, 253 yield Greifswald, Germany, September 5, 1774 ; died Dresden, Germany, May 7, 1840

Fuseli, Henry 236, 237, 237, 238, 238 wear Zurich, Switzerland, February 6, 1741 ; died Putney, London, UK, April 16, 1825

G Gainsborough, Thomas 210, 217, 217 baptized Sudbury, UK, May 14, 1727 ; died London, UK, August 2, 1788 Gallé, Emile 299 give birth Nancy, France, May 4, 1846 ; died Nancy, September 23, 1904 Gallen-Kallela, Akseli 306 give birth Pori, Finland, April 26, 1865 ; died Stockholm, Sweden, March 7, 1931 Gauguin, Paul 288, 290, 291, 291, 292, 293, 294, 295, 295, 296, 304, 314, 324, 324 hold Paris, France, June 7, 1848 ; died Atuona, Marquesas Islands, May 8, 1903 Gaulli, Giovanni Battista 156 wear Genoa, Italy, May 8, 1639 ; died Rome, Italy, April 2, 1709

bear Paris, France, July 17, 1797 ; died Paris, November 4, 1856

born Philadelphia, PA, July 25, 1844 ; died Philadelphia, June 25, 1916

270–1, 271, 278 natural Ornans, France, June 10, 1819 ; died La Tour-de-Peilz, Switzerland, December 31, 1877

Delaunay, Robert 322, 327, 327 give birth Paris, France, April 12, 1885 ; died Montpellier, France, October 25, 1941

Elsheimer, Adam 248 baptized Frankfurt, Germany, March 18, 1578 ; buried Rome, Italy, December 11, 1610

Delaunay, Sonia 322, 332, 332 born Gradizhsk, Ukraine, November 14, 1885 ; died Paris, France, December 5, 1979

Ensor, James 303 give birth Ostend, Belgium, April 13, 1860 ; died Ostend, November 19, 1949

Gentileschi, Artemisia 160, 160 hold Rome, Italy, July 8, 1593 ; died Naples, Italy, 1654 ?

Cowper, Frank Cadogan 263 bear Wickham, UK, October 16, 1877 ; died Cirencester, UK, November 17, 1958

Delville, Jean 305 natural Louvain, Belgium, January 19,1867 ; died Brussels, Belgium, January 19, 1953

Ernst, Max 340, 342, 343, 351

Gentileschi, Orazio 192

born Brühl, Germany, April 2, 1891 ; died Paris, France, April 1, 1976

baptized Pisa, Italy, July 9, 1563 ; died London, England, February 7, 1639

Cortona, Pietro da 156, 157, 160, 161, 164 have a bun in the oven Cortona, Italy, November 1, 1596 ; died Rome, Italy, May 16, 1669

Courbet, Gustave 266, 267, 268, 269, 270,

Geertgen tot Sint Jans 180, 180 born Leiden ?, Netherlands, 1460 ? ; died Haarlem ?, Netherlands, 1490 ? Gentile district attorney Fabriano 85, 85, 87, 94, 112, 114 wear Fabriano, Italy, 1385 ? ; died Rome, Italy, 1427




Gérard, François 228

Greuze, Jean-Baptiste 207

born Rome, Italy, May 4, 1770 ; died Paris, France, January 11, 1837

born Tournus, France, August 21, 1725 ; died Paris, France, March 21, 1805

Hiroshige, Ando 290, 290 hold Edo [ now Tokyo ], Japan, 1797 ; died Edo, October 12, 1858

Géricault, Théodore 240, 240–1, 241, 242

Gris, Juan 322, 322, 323, 324, 328

Hirst, Damien 366, 370, 371

born Rouen, France, September 26, 1791 ; died Paris, France, January 26, 1824

born Madrid, Spain, March 23, 1887 ; died Boulogne-sur-Seine, France, May 11, 1927

bear Bristol, UK, June 7, 1965

Ghiberti, Lorenzo 92

Gros, Antoine-Jean 239

behave Florence, Italy, c.1380 ; died Florence, December 1, 1455

bear Paris, France, March 16, 1771 ; died Meudon, France, June 25, 1835

baptized Amsterdam, Netherlands, October 31, 1638 ; died Amsterdam, December 7, 1709

Ghirlandaio, Domenico 89, 97, 105

Grosz, George 340, 344

Hockney, David 362, 363, 380

bear Florence, Italy, c.1449 ; died Florence, January 11, 1494

born Berlin, Germany, July 26, 1893 ; died West Berlin, Germany, July 6, 1959

digest Bradford, UK, July 9, 1937

Giambologna 168, 168

Grünewald, Mathis 121, 124, 127

Hodgkin, Sir Howard 366, 372, 372–3 bear London, UK, August 6, 1932

born Douai, Flanders, 1529 ; died Florence, Italy, August 13, 1608

born Würzburg ?, Germany, c.1475–80 ; died Halle, Germany, August 30/31, 1528

Hodler, Ferdinand 304, 304–5

Giampietrino 144

Guercino 164, 164–5

wear Berne, Switzerland, March 14, 1853 ; died Geneva, Switzerland, May 19, 1918

active Milan, Italy ; died c.1550

baptized Cento, Italy, February 8, 1591 ; died Bologna, Italy, December 22, 1666

Hofmann, Hans 351, 352, 352

Gillot, Claude 202, 202, 204 bear Langres, France, April 27, 1673 ; died Paris, France, May 4, 1722

Guérin, Pierre-Narcisse 221, 226, 227 wear Paris, France, March 13, 1774 ; died Rome, Italy, July 16, 1833

born Southampton, UK, September 1, 1937

Jongkind, Johan Barthold 278, 278, 287 bear Lattrop, Netherlands, June 3, 1819 ; died La-Côte-Saint-André, France, February 9, 1891

Joos van Ghent 95 active Flanders and Italy, c.1460–80

Jordaens, Jacob 170, 173 bear Antwerp, Flanders, May 19, 1593 ; died Antwerp, October 18, 1678

K Kahlo, Frida 340, 346, 347 natural Coyoacán, Mexico City, Mexico, July 6, 1907 ; died Coyoacán, July 13, 1954

Kandinsky, Wassily 312, 316, 316,

Guthrie, Sir James 272, 272

Hokusai, Katsushika 290, 290 hold Edo [ now Tokyo ], Japan, October 1760 ; died Edo, May 10, 1849

yield Greenock, Scotland, UK, June 10, 1859 ; died Rhu, Scotland, UK, September 6, 1930

Holbein, Hans the Younger 120, 121,

Guillaumin, Armand 281, 281 bear Paris, France, February 16, 1841 ; died Orly, nr. Paris, June 26, 1927

Giotto di Bondone 78, 78, 79, 80, 80–1, 81, 82, 83, 87 born Colle di Vespignano ?, Italy, c.1270 ; died Florence, Italy, January 8, 1337

Jones, Allen 358, 358

Kalf, Willem 184

Giorgione 106, 110, 115, 118 bear Castelfranco, Italy, c.1477 ; died Venice, Italy, October 1510

born Weissenburg, Germany, March 21, 1880 ; died New York City, NY, February 17, 1966

natural Augusta, GA, May 15, 1930

Hogarth, William 215, 236 bear London, England, November 10, 1697 ; died London, October 25/26, 1764

Giordano, Luca 160, 162, 175 have a bun in the oven Naples, Italy, October 18, 1634 ; died Naples, January 3, 1705

Hobbema, Meindert 187

Johns, Jasper 362, 362


130–1, 130–1, 150 bear Augsburg, Germany, 1497 ; died London, UK, October/November 1543

born Rotterdam, Netherlands, 1619 ; died Amsterdam, Netherlands, July 31, 1693 332, 333, 336, 337, 338, 338–9, 350 bear Moscow, Russia, November 22 [ December 4 ], 1866 ; died Neuilly-sur-Seine, France, December 13, 1944

Katz, Alex 380 hold New York City, NY, July 24, 1927

Hals, Frans 178, 180, 181, 181, 182, 183, 185

Honthorst, Gerrit van 182, 182

born Antwerp, Flanders, 1582/83 ; died Haarlem, Netherlands, August 29, 1666

born Utrecht, Netherlands, November 4, 1592 ; died Utrecht, April 27, 1656

Hamilton, Gavin 224, 224

Hooch, Pieter de 184

born Murdieston House, Lanarkshire, Scotland, UK, 1723 ; died Rome, Italy, January 4, 1798

baptized Rotterdam, Netherlands, December 20, 1629 ; buried Amsterdam, Netherlands, March 24, 1684

Giroust, Marie-Suzanne 217 bear Paris, France, March 9, 1734 ; died Paris, August 31, 1772

Hamilton, Richard 358, 359, 360, 361 bear London, UK, February 24, 1922 ; died London, September 13, 2011

Hoogstraten, Samuel van 188 hold Dordrecht, Netherlands, August 2, 1627 ; died Dordrecht, October 19, 1678

Girtin, Thomas 250, 250, 251

Hantaï, Simon 370, 370

Hopper, Edward 374, 379, 379

bear London, UK, February 18, 1775 ; died London, November 9, 1802

born Bia, Hungary, December 8, 1922 ; died Paris, France, September 11, 2008

have a bun in the oven Nyack, NY, July 22, 1882 ; died New York City, NY, May 15, 1967

Giulio Romano 137

Hassam, Childe 285, 285

Houbraken, Arnold 214

born Rome, Italy, 1499 ? ; died Mantua, Italy, November 1, 1546

have a bun in the oven Dorchester, MA, October 17, 1859 ; died East Hampton, NY, August 27, 1935

born Dordrecht, Netherlands, March 28, 1660 ; died Amsterdam, Netherlands, October 14, 1719

Gleizes, Albert 323, 328

Heartfield, John 345

bear Paris, France, December 8, 1881 ; died Avignon, France, June 23, 1953

born Berlin, Germany, June 19, 1891 ; died East Berlin, Germany, April 26, 1968

Goes, Hugo van five hundred 126, 126

Heckel, Erich 312, 316, 317, 317, 320

Hunt, William Holman 256, 260, 260, 262, 263, 264 hold London, UK, April 2, 1827 ; died London, September 7, 1910

born Ghent ?, Flanders, c.1440 ? ; died Rode Klooster, Flanders, 1482

born Döbeln, Germany, July 31, 1883 ; died Radolfzell, Germany, January 27, 1970

Goltzius, Hendrick 180, 180 bear Mühlbracht, Flanders, January/February 1558 ; buried Haarlem, Netherlands, January 1, 1617

Heemskerck, Maerten van 142, 146,

Gorky, Arshile 350, 352, 353, 353, 354, 356 bear Khorkom, Armenia [ now Turkey ], c.1902 ; died Sherman, CT, July 21, 1948

Helleu, Paul 284 hold Vannes, France, December 17, 1859 ; died Paris, France, March 23, 1927

Gossaert, Jan ( Mabuse ) 146, 146

Hepworth, Dame Barbara 337

born Maubeuge ?, Flanders, c.1478 ; died Veere ?, Flanders, October 1, 1532

behave Wakefield, UK, January 10, 1903 ; died St. Ives, Cornwall, UK, May 20, 1975

Goya, Francisco de 234, 238, 240, 244–5, 245 bear Fuendetodos, Spain, March 30, 1746 ; died Bordeaux, France, April 16, 1828

Herkomer, Sir Hubert von 273 bear Waal, Germany, May 26, 1849 ; died Budleigh Salterton, UK, March 31, 1914

Janssen, Abraham 170–1 bear c.1575 ; buried Antwerp, Flanders, January 25, 1632

Klinger, Max 302

Herrera, Francisco the Younger 174 baptized Seville, Spain, June 28, 1627 ; buried Madrid, Spain, August 25, 1685

John, Augustus 374, 378 bear Tenby, Wales, UK, January 4, 1878 ; died Fryern Court, Hampshire, UK, October 31, 1961

Kokoschka, Oskar 318–19

John, Gwen 378 hold Haverfordwest, Wales, UK, June 22, 1876 ; died Dieppe, France, September 18, 1939

Krasner, Lee 356

Giovanetti, Matteo 72 born Viterbo ?, Italy, c.1300 ; died Rome, Italy, 1368/69

Girodet, Anne-Louis 228, 228, 239 bear Montargis, France, January 29, 1767 ; died Paris, France, December 9, 1824

Gozzoli, Benozzo 94 bear Florence, Italy, c.1421 ; died Pistoia, Italy, October 4, 1497

Greco, El 142, 146, 150–1, 151, 168, 168 have a bun in the oven Candia [ now Iraklion ], Crete, c.1541 ; died Toledo, Spain, April 7, 1614

148–9, 149, 180, 180 hold Heemskerck, Netherlands, 1498 ; died Haarlem, Netherlands, October 1, 1574

Hilliard, Nicholas 143, 150, 150, 151, 152, 153 wear Exeter, England, c.1547 ; buried London, England, January 7, 1619

Kauffmann, Angelica 226 bear Chur, Switzerland, October 30, 1741 ; died Rome, Italy, November 5, 1807

Kelly, Ellsworth 370 hold Newburgh, NY, May 31, 1923

Keyser, Hendrick de 183 born Utrecht, Netherlands, May 15, 1565 ; died Amsterdam, Netherlands, May 15, 1621

Keyser, Thomas de 183 born Amsterdam ?, Netherlands, c.1597 ; buried Amsterdam, June 7, 1667

Khnopff, Fernand 303, 303, 308–9, 308–9

Huysum, Jan van 187 born Amsterdam, Netherlands, April 15, 1682 ; died Amsterdam, February 7/8, 1749

I Ingres, Jean-Auguste-Dominique 221, 229, 238, 240 bear Montauban, France, August 29, 1780 ; died Paris, France, January 14, 1867

born Grembergen, Belgium, September 12, 1858 ; died Brussels, Belgium, November 12, 1921

Kiefer, Anselm 370, 370 yield Donaueschingen, Germany, March 8, 1945

Kirchner, Ernst Ludwig 312, 316, 320, 320–1 bear Aschaffenburg, Germany, May 6, 1880 ; died Frauenkirch, Switzerland, June 15, 1938

Klee, Paul 312, 316, 318 natural Munchenbuchsee, Switzerland, December 18, 1879 ; died Muralto, Switzerland, June 29, 1940

Klimt, Gustav 305, 306, 306–7, 307, 309, 316 born Baumgarten, Austria, July 14, 1862 ; died Vienna, Austria, February 6, 1918

Kline, Franz 368


born Wilkes-Barre, PA, May 23, 1910 ; died New York City, NY, May 13, 1962 born Leipzig, Germany, February 18, 1857 ; died Grossjena, Germany, July 5, 1920 behave Pöchlarn, Austria, March 1, 1886 ; died Montreux, Switzerland, February 22, 1980 behave New York City, NY, October 27, 1908 ; died New York City, June 19, 1984


Kupka, František 332, 333, 334, 335, 335 hold Opocno, Bohemia [ now Czech Republic ], September 22, 1871 ; died Puteaux, Paris, France, June 24, 1957

Lichtenstein, Roy 358, 364–5, 364–5

Martin, John 252, 252

born New York City, NY, October 27, 1923 ; died New York City, September 29, 1997

born Haydon Bridge, UK, July 19, 1789 ; died Douglas, Isle of Man, UK, February 17, 1854

Limbourg brothers 73, 73

Martini, Simone 78, 79, 82, 90, 90

died Bourges, France, 1416


Liotard, Jean-Étienne 210, 216 natural Geneva, Switzerland, December 22, 1702 ; died Geneva, June 12, 1789

born Siena ?, Italy, 1284 ? ; died Avignon, France, July/August 1344

La Fosse, Charles de 202 bear Paris, France, June 15, 1636 ; died Paris, December 13, 1716

La Fresnaye, Roger de 327

Lipchitz, Jacques 328 bear Druskieniki, Lithuania, August 10 [ 22 ], 1891 ; died Capri, Italy, May 26, 1973

born Le Mans, France, July 11, 1885 ; died Grasse, France, November 27, 1925

Lippi, Fra Filippo 94

La Hyre, Laurent de 196 hold Paris, France, February 26, 1606 ; died Paris, December 29, 1656

Longhi, Pietro 216

La Tour, Georges de 194, 195, 195 baptized Vic-sur-Seille, France, March 14, 1593 ; died Lunéville, France, January 30, 1652

La Tour, Maurice-Quentin de 206 born Saint-Quentin, France, September 5, 1704 ; died Saint-Quentin, February 17, 1788

digest Florence, Italy, c.1406 ; died Spoleto, Italy, October 10, 1469 bear Venice, Italy, November 15, 1701 ; died Venice, May 8, 1785

Lorenzetti, Ambrogio 79, 82–3, 83 active Siena, Italy, 1319–48

Lorenzetti, Pietro 79, 83 active Siena, Italy, 1320–45

Lorenzo Monaco 84, 87 Lairesse, Gérard de 187 bear Liège, Flanders, September 11, 1640 ; buried Amsterdam, Netherlands, July 28, 1711

hold c.1370 ; died Florence ?, Italy, c.1425

Lotto, Lorenzo 116, 116 Lallemant, Georges 193, 194 bear Nancy, France, c.1575 ; died Paris, France, 1636

Lancret, Nicolas 206 born Paris, France, January 22, 1690 ; died Paris, September 14, 1743

Largillière, Nicolas de 197, 204, 204–5 wear Paris, France, October 10, 1656 ; died Paris, March 20, 1746

Le Nain, Louis 195 yield Laon ?, France, c.1600 ; died Paris, France, May 23, 1648

Léger, Fernand 322, 323, 324, 328–9, 329, 351 bear Argentan, France, February 4, 1881 ; died Gif-sur-Yvette, France, August 17, 1955

Lehmann, Henri 243 hold Kiel, Germany, April 14, 1814 ; died Paris, France, March 30, 1882

Leibl, Wilhelm 272 yield Cologne, Germany, October 23, 1844 ; died Würzburg, Germany, December 4, 1900

Lemoyne, François 205 behave Paris, France, 1688 ; died Paris, June 4, 1737

Lempicka, Tamara de 379 born Moscow ?, Russia, c.1895 ? ; died Cuernavaca, Mexico, March 18, 1980

Leonardo district attorney Vinci 97, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 104, 106, 108, 134, 150, 158, 158, 300, 344 bear Anchiano or Vinci, Italy, April 15, 1452 ; died nr. Amboise, France, May 2, 1519

Massys, Quentin 127, 128 digest Louvain, Flanders, c.1466 ; died Antwerp, Flanders, April/September 1530

Matisse, Henri 295, 300, 312, 314, 315,


born Zaandam, Netherlands, September 18, 1838 ; died Arnhem, Netherlands, February 5, 1888

Magritte, René 340, 340, 341, 345,

born Pastrana, Spain, January 1578 ; died Madrid, Spain, April 1, 1641

346, 346, 347 born Lessines, Belgium, November 21, 1898 ; died Brussels, Belgium, August 15, 1967

Mehretu, Julie 371

Maître de Flore 152

Meissonier, Ernest 267, 267

active France, c.1555–70

bear Lyons, France, February 21, 1815 ; died Paris, France, January 31, 1891

born Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 1970

336, 336 born nr. Kiev, Russia, February 11 [ 23 ], 1878 ; died Leningrad, Russia, May 15, 1935

Memling, Hans 102, 102, 126

Man Ray 340, 347 behave Philadelphia, PA, August 27, 1890 ; died Paris, France, November 18, 1976

Memmi, Lippo 82, 90 active Siena, Italy, 1317–47

Mander, Karel van 129, 180, 180, 182

born Aussig, Bohemia [ immediately Ústí nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide Labem, Czech Republic ], March 12, 1728 ; died Rome, Italy, June 29, 1779

bear Paris, France, January 23, 1832 ; died Paris, April 30, 1883

Mantegna, Andrea 88, 92, 94, 94, 97, 112, 112, 164, 300 born Isola di Carturo ?, Italy, c.1431 ; died Mantua, Italy, September 13, 1506 Maratta, Carlo 162, 162, 214 give birth Camerano, Italy, May 15, 1625 ; died Rome, Italy, December 15, 1713 bear Munich, Germany, February 8, 1880 ; died nr. Verdun, France, March 4, 1916

Marden, Brice 366, 366, 370

Modigliani, Amedeo 328, 328, 329 behave Livorno, Italy, July 12, 1884 ; died Paris, France, January 24, 1920

Monet, Claude 276, 277, 278, 279, 280–1,

born Rome, Italy, 1690 ; died Rome, October 19, 1768

Mayno, Juan Bautista 170, 176

Manet, Edouard 276, 277, 280, 281, 283

Miró, Joan 336, 344, 345 natural Barcelona, Spain, April 20, 1893 ; died Palma de Mallorca, Spain, December 25, 1983

Masucci, Agostino 224

Mauve, Anton 273

born Meulebeke, Flanders, 1548 ; died Amsterdam, Netherlands, September 11, 1606

Millet, Jean-François 266, 267, 268, 270, 270, 271, 278, 279, 296 natural Gruchy, France, October 4, 1814 ; died Barbizon, France, January 20, 1875

watch besides Robert Campin

Lucas van Leyden 128 born Leiden, Netherlands, 1494 ? ; died Leiden, May–August 1533

Malevich, Kasimir 327, 332, 333, 334,

Millais, Sir John Everett 256, 260, 260–1, 263, 264, 265 yield Southampton, UK, June 8, 1829 ; died London, UK, August 13, 1896

Mondrian, Piet 332, 333, 334, 336, 337, 351 wear Amersfoort, Netherlands, March 7, 1872 ; died New York City, NY, February 1, 1944

Master of Flémalle 122, 122, 124, 124

Matta, Roberto 352, 352, 353 bear Santiago, Chile, November 11, 1911 ; died Civitavecchia, Italy, November 23, 2002

Levy-Dhurmer, Lucien 305

born At ocean, off Nova Scotia, Canada, November 18, 1882 ; died London, UK, March 7, 1957

Masson, André 351 natural Balagny, France, January 4, 1896 ; died Paris, France, October 28, 1987

born Strasbourg, France, October 31, 1740 ; died Chiswick [ now in London ], UK, March 11, 1812

Marc, Franz 312, 316, 316, 368, 368

Lewis, Wyndham 378

Masolino di Panicale 85, 86, 92 born Panicale ?, Italy, c.1383 ; died 1435–40 ?

Loutherbourg, Philip James de 250, 250–1

Lépicié, Nicolas-Bernard 226 yield Paris, France, June 16, 1735 ; died Paris, September 14, 1784 bear Algiers, Algeria, September 30, 1865 ; died Le Vésinet, France, September 24, 1953

have a bun in the oven Castel San Giovanni [ now San Giovanni Valdarno ], Italy, December 21, 1401 ; died Rome, Italy, June 1428/29 ?

315, 317, 318, 330, 375 hold Le Cateau-Cambrésis, France, December 31, 1869 ; died Nice, France, November 3, 1954

digest Venice, Italy, c.1480 ; died Loreto, Italy, 1556/57

Le Brun, Charles 190, 191, 196–7, 197, 202 baptized Paris, France, February 24, 1619 ; died Paris, February 12, 1690

Masaccio 78, 79, 86–7, 86–7, 88, 90, 91, 92, 94

216, 237, 241, 262, 333 born Caprese, Italy, March 6, 1475 ; died Rome, Italy, February 18, 1564

born Seligenstadt, Germany, c.1430/40 ; died Bruges, Flanders, August 11, 1494

Mengs, Anton Raphael 222, 224, 224

Menzel, Adolph 271 born Breslau [ now Wrocław ], Poland, December 8, 1815 ; died Berlin, Germany, February 9, 1905

Metzinger, Jean 322, 323, 328 bear Nantes, France, June 24, 1883 ; died Paris, France, November 3, 1956 Meulen, Adam Frans van five hundred 175 baptize Brussels, Flanders, January 11, 1632 ; died Paris, France, October 15, 1690 Meynier, Charles 228 natural Paris, France, November 25, 1768 ; died Paris, September 6, 1832

Michael Damaskenos 44

born Bronxville, NY, October 15, 1938

behave Candia [ now Iraklion ], Crete ; active 1555–91

Marinetti, Filippo Tommaso 327

Michelangelo 89, 96, 100, 101, 104,

born Alexandria, Egypt, December 22, 1876 ; died Bellagio, Italy, December 2, 1944

105, 105, 106–8, 107, 116, 125, 132, 133, 134, 134, 137, 137, 138, 144, 146, 148–50,

284, 285, 286–7, 286–7 born Paris, France, November 14, 1840 ; died Giverny, France, December 5, 1926

Monnoyer, Jean-Baptiste 197 baptized Lille, France, January 12, 1636 ; died London, England, February 16, 1699 Montañés, Juan Martínez 170 baptized Alcalá la Real, Spain, March 16, 1568 ; died Seville, Spain, June 18, 1649 Mor, Anthonis 129 digest Utrecht, Netherlands, c.1517/20 ; died Antwerp, Flanders, 1576/77 Morales, Luis de 150 born Badajoz ?, Spain, c.1520 ? ; died Badajoz, c.1586 More, Jacob 248, 248 yield Edinburgh, Scotland, UK, 1740 ; died Rome, October 1, 1793 Moreau, Gustave 298, 300, 300, 301, 305, 309, 314, 314, 319 digest Paris, France, April 6, 1826 ; died Paris, April 18, 1898

Morisot, Berthe 276, 280, 281 digest Bourges, France, January 14, 1841 ; died Paris, France, March 2, 1895 Moroni, Giovanni Battista 138 born Bondo Petello, Italy, c.1520/24 ; died Albino, Italy, February 5 ?, 1578 Morris, William 257, 259, 260, 261, 263, 263, 299 give birth Walthamstow, UK, March 24, 1834 ; died London, UK, October 3, 1896

Motherwell, Robert 355, 368 born Aberdeen, WA, January 24, 1915 ; died Provincetown, MA July 16, 1991 Mucha, Alphonse 299 yield Ivancice, Moravia [ nowadays Czech Republic ], July 24, 1860 ; died Prague, Czechoslovakia, July 14, 1939 Munch, Edvard 305, 307, 309, 316 behave Løten, Norway, December 12, 1863 ; died Oslo, Norway, January 23, 1944 Murillo, Bartolomé Esteban 166, 170, 174, 174–5 baptized Seville, Spain, January 1, 1618 ; died Seville, April 3, 1682 Myson 37 active Athens, Greece, fifth hundred BCE




N Natoire, Charles-Joseph 223 bear Nîmes, France, March 3, 1700 ; died Castel Gandolfo, Italy, August 23–29, 1777

Nesterov, Mikhail 306 behave Ufa, Russia, May 19 [ 31 ], 1862 ; died Moscow, Russia, October 18, 1942

Perugino, Pietro 92, 96, 97, 97, 106 behave Castello della Pieve [ now Città della Pieve ], Italy, c.1450 ; died Fontignano, Italy, February/March 1523

Picabia, Francis 340, 344, 344 bear Paris, France, January 22, 1879 ; died Paris, November 30, 1953

yield London, UK, August 13, 1889 ; died London, October 7, 1946

Picasso, Pablo 293, 322, 323, 324, 324–5, 325, 326, 328, 329, 330, 374, 375 bear Málaga, Spain, October 25, 1881 ; died Mougins, France, April 8, 1973

Newman, Barnett 350, 354, 354

Piero della Francesca 88, 89, 95, 95

born New York City, NY, January 29, 1905 ; died New York City, July 4, 1970

born Borgo San Sepolcro [ now Sansepolcro ], Italy, c.1415 ; died Borgo San Sepolcro, October 12, 1492

Nevinson, CRW 328

Nicholson, Ben 332, 334, 337, 337 give birth Denham, UK, April 10, 1894 ; died London, UK, February 6, 1982

Nocret, Jean 196 born Nancy, France, December 26, 1615 ; died Paris, France, November 12, 1672

Nussbaum, Felix 347 give birth Osnabrück, Germany, December 11, 1904 ; died Auschwitz, Poland, August 9, 1944

Piero di Cosimo 97 digest Florence, Italy, January 2, 1462 ; died Florence, April 12, 1522

Piranesi, Giovanni Battista 222, 222 bear Mogliano, Italy, October 4, 1720 ; died Rome, Italy, November 9, 1778

Pisanello 84, 85 born Pisa ?, Italy, c.1394 ; died Rome ?, Italy, 1455 ?

Raphael 96, 97, 100, 100, 104, 106, 106, 108, 108–9, 132, 134, 136, 144, 146, 256 wear Urbino, Italy, March 28 or April 6, 1483 ; died Rome, Italy, April 6, 1520

Rossetti, Dante Gabriel 238, 256, 256, 259,

Rauschenberg, Robert 362, 368 bear Port Arthur, TX, October 22, 1925 ; died Captiva Island, FL, May 12, 2008

Rosso Fiorentino 134, 134, 136, 143, 143,

Read, Katharine 225, 225 natural Dundee, Scotland, UK, February 3, 1723 ; died At sea, December 15, 1778

Redon, Odilon 299, 300, 307, 307 bear Bordeaux, France, April 20, 1840 ; died Paris, France, July 6, 1916 Regnault, Jean-Baptiste 226, 226 bear Paris, France, October 30, 1843 ; died Buzenval [ now in Paris ], France, January 19, 1871

Rego, Dame Paula 374, 375, 381, 381 bear Lisbon, Portugal, January 26, 1935

Rembrandt 178, 178, 182, 183, 184, 184, 188, 188–9, 268, 268, 274, 317, 376 yield Leiden, Netherlands, July 15, 1606 ; died Amsterdam, Netherlands, October 4, 1669 Reni, Guido 156, 157, 160, 161, 192, 192


Pisano, Andrea 83

Oost, Jacob van 174

born Pontedera ?, Italy, c.1290 ; died Orvieto ?, Italy, 1348/49 ?

baptized Bruges, Flanders, July 1, 1603 ; died Bruges, 1671

Pisano, Giovanni 80

Renoir, Pierre-Auguste 276, 276, 282–3,

Orcagna, Andrea 83

born Pisa, Italy, c.1245–50 ; died Siena, Italy, 1314–19

bear Florence, Italy, 1320 ? ; died Florence, 1368 ?

Pisano, Nicola 80, 80

Orozco, José Clemente 352, 352 yield Zapotlán elevation Grande [ immediately Ciudad Guzmán ], Mexico, November 23, 1883 ; died Mexico City, Mexico, September 7, 1949

Oudry, Jean-Baptiste 197, 205 bear Paris, France, March 17, 1686 ; died Beauvais, France, April 30, 1755

Overbeck, Friedrich 258 hold Lübeck, Germany, July 3, 1789 ; died Rome, Italy, November 12, 1869

P Palma Vecchio 111, 116 hold Serina, Italy, c.1480 ; died Venice, Italy, July 30, 1528

Palmer, Samuel 246, 252 born London, UK, January 27, 1805 ; died Redhill, UK, May 24, 1881

Pan Painter 37, 37 active Athens, Greece, c.480–450 BCE

Panini, Giovanni Paolo 215 bear Piacenza, Italy, June 17, 1691 ; died Rome, Italy, October 21, 1765

Paolozzi, Sir Eduardo 358, 362 born Leith, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK, March 7, 1924 ; died London, UK, April 22, 2005

Parmigianino 137, 148 hold Parma, Italy, January 11, 1503 ; died Casalmaggiore, Italy, August 24, 1540

Parrhasius 36 active Ephesus, late fifth century BCE

Patinir, Joachim 128, 128 bear Dinant or Bouvignes ?, Flanders, c.1480 ; died Antwerp, Flanders, 1524 Perov, Vasily 271 yield Tobolsk, Russia, December 21, 1833 [ January 2, 1834 ] ; died Kuz ’ minki [ now in Moscow ], Russia, May 29 [ June 10 ], 1882

born Bologna, Italy, November 4, 1575 ; died Bologna, August 18, 1642

born Apulia, Italy, c.1220 ; died Pisa ?, Italy, 1278–84

Pissarro, Camille 276, 277, 280, 282, 283, 284, 285, 291 born Charlotte Amalie, Virgin Islands, July 10, 1830 ; died Paris, France, November 13, 1903

283, 347 born Limoges, France, February 25, 1841 ; died Cagnes-sur-Mer, France, December 3, 1919

Repin, Ilya 271, 271 born Chuguyev, Ukraine, July 24 [ August 5 ], 1844 ; died Kuokkala, Finland [ nowadays Repino, Russia ], September 29, 1930 Restout, Jean 205 hold Rouen, France, March 26, 1692 ; died Paris, France, January 1, 1768

260, 260, 261, 262, 262, 264 yield London, UK, May 12, 1828 ; died Birchington, UK, April 9, 1882 144, 144, 146, 147, 150 born Florence, Italy, March 8, 1494 ; died Fontainebleau or Paris, France, November 14, 1540

Rothko, Mark 350, 352, 354, 355, 355, 356 born Dvinsk, Russia [ now Daugavpils, Latvia ], September 25, 1903 ; died New York City, NY, February 25, 1970

Rouault, Georges 300, 318, 319 bear Paris, France, May 27, 1871 ; died Paris, February 13, 1958

Roubiliac, Louis-François 215 natural Lyons, France, August 31, 1702 ; died London, UK, January 11, 1762

Rousseau, Henri 293, 293, 342, 342 hold Laval, France, May 21, 1844 ; died Paris, France, September 2, 1910

Rowlandson, Thomas 251, 251 bear London, UK, July 14, 1756/57 ; died London, April 21, 1827

Rubens, Sir Peter Paul 118, 166, 166, 167, 168, 169, 170, 171, 172, 172–3, 191, 192, 202, 202, 239, 241 bear Siegen, Germany, June 28, 1577 ; died Antwerp, Flanders, May 30, 1640

Rublev, Andrei 42, 52, 52–3 hold Russia, c.1360 ? ; died Moscow, Russia, 1430

Ruisdael, Jacob van 185, 187 bear Haarlem, Netherlands, 1628/29 ? ; died Amsterdam ?, Netherlands ; buried Haarlem, March 14, 1682

Pollaiuolo, Antonio 92, 96 wear Florence, Italy, c.1432 ; died Rome, Italy, February 4, 1498 ?

Reynolds, Sir Joshua 221, 225, 236, 236 wear Plympton, UK, July 16, 1723 ; died London, UK, February 23, 1792

Runciman, Alexander 225

Pollaiuolo, Piero 96 wear Florence, Italy, c.1441 ; died Rome, Italy, c.1496

Ribera, Jusepe de 173, 274 baptized Játiva, Spain, February 17, 1591 ; died Naples, Italy, September 3, 1652

Runge, Philipp Otto 234, 240, 240

Pollock, Jackson 350, 352, 356, 356–7, 368 born Cody, WY, January 28, 1912 ; died East Hampton, NY, August 11, 1956

Ricci, Marco 213 wear Belluno, Italy, June 5, 1676 ; died Venice, Italy, January 21, 1730

Pontormo 134, 135, 135, 140

baptized Belluno, Italy, August 1, 1659 ; died Venice, May 15, 1734

Ruysch, Rachel 187, 187 baptized The Hague, Netherlands, June 3, 1664 ; died Amsterdam, Netherlands, August 12, 1750

Richter, Gerhard 366, 370, 371, 371, 374, 380, 381 hold Dresden, Germany, February 9, 1932

Rysselberghe, Théo van 293, 295

born Pontormo, Italy, May 26, 1494 ; died Florence, Italy, December 31, 1556

Poussin, Nicolas 148, 161, 190, 190, 191, 194, 197, 198–9, 199, 248 behave Les Andelys, France, June 1594 ; died Rome, Italy, November 19, 1665

Pozzo, Andrea 163, 164 born Trento, Italy, November 30, 1642 ; died Vienna, Austria, August 31, 1709 Primaticcio, Francesco 143, 143, 144, 146, 147, 147, 148 natural Bologna, Italy, 1504/05 ; died Paris, France, March/September 1570

Procaccini, Camillo 139 natural Bologna, Italy, c.1555 ; died Milan, Italy, August 21, 1629

Puvis de Chavannes, Pierre 298, 298, 300 hold Lyons, France, December 14, 1824 ; died Paris, France, October 24, 1898

R Ramsay, Allan 210, 210 have a bun in the oven Edinburgh, Scotland, UK, October 2, 1713 ; died Dover, UK, August 10, 1784

born Edinburgh, Scotland, UK, August 15, 1736 ; died Edinburgh, October 21, 1785 behave Wolgast, Pomerania [ now in Germany ], July 23, 1777 ; died Hamburg, Germany, December 2, 1810

Russell, John Peter 314, 314 bear Sydney, Australia, June 16, 1858 ; died Sydney, April 22, 1930

Ricci, Sebastiano 212, 213, 213

Rigaud, Hyacinthe 204, 204 born Perpignan, France, July 18, 1659 ; died Paris, France, December 29, 1743 Riley, Bridget 363 born London, UK, April 24, 1931 Rivera, Diego 347 bear Guanajuato, Mexico, December 13, 1886 ; died Mexico City, Mexico, November 24, 1957

Robert, Hubert 206–7, 207 hold Paris, France, May 22, 1733 ; died Paris, April 15, 1808

behave Ghent, Belgium, November 23, 1862 ; died Saint-Clair, Côte d ’ Azure, France, December 13, 1926

S Sánchez Cotán, Juan 170 baptized Orgaz, Spain, June 25, 1560 ; died Granada, Spain, September 8, 1627

Sansovino, Jacopo 111 baptized Florence, Italy, July 2, 1486 ; died Venice, Italy, November 27, 1570

Sargent, John Singer 284, 374, 376,

give birth Paris, France, November 12, 1840 ; died Meudon, France, November 17, 1917

376–7, 377, 378 bear Florence, Italy, January 12, 1856 ; died London, UK, April 15, 1925

Rosa, Salvator 160, 162

Sarto, Andrea del 106, 134, 134

born Arenella, Italy, July 21 [ or possibly June 20 ], 1615 ; died Rome, Italy, March 15, 1673

behave Florence, Italy, July 16, 1486 ? ; died Florence, September 28/29, 1530

Roslin, Alexander 210, 217 wear Malmö, Sweden, July 15, 1718 ; died Paris, France, July 5, 1793

Sassetta 90, 92

Rodin, Auguste 302, 304, 304, 305, 376

hold Siena or Cortona ?, Italy, c.1400 ; died Siena, Italy, April 1, 1450


Savoldo, Giovanni Girolamo 158, 158

Steer, Philip Wilson 284, 284–5

active voice Venice, Italy, 1506–48

born Birkenhead, UK, December 28, 1860 ; died London, UK, March 21, 1942

Scheffer, Ary 243 bear Dordrecht, Netherlands, February 10, 1795 ; died Argenteuil, France, June 15, 1858

born Malden, MA, May 12, 1936

Schiele, Egon 306, 317, 341

distillery, Clyfford 350, 354

born Tulln, Austria, June 12, 1890 ; died Vienna, Austria, October 31, 1918

born Grandin, ND, November 30, 1904 ; died Baltimore, MD, June 23, 1980

Schinkel, Karl Friedrich 251

Stuck, Franz von 306

born Neuruppin, Germany, March 13, 1781 ; died Berlin, Germany, October 9, 1841

born Tettenweis, Germany, February 23, 1863 ; died Munich, Germany, August 30, 1928

Schmidt-Rottluff, Karl 320 hold Rottluff, Germany, December 1, 1884 ; died West Berlin, Germany, August 10, 1976

Schnabel, julian 319

Stella, Frank 355

Subleyras, Pierre 206 yield Saint-Gilles-du-Gard, France, November 25, 1699 ; died Rome, Italy, May 28, 1749

born New York City, NY, October 26, 1951

Schwitters, Kurt 347, 347 born Hanover, Germany, June 20, 1887 ; died Kendal, UK, January 8, 1948

Scorel, Jan van 142, 146, 147, 149 hold Schoorl, Netherlands, August 1, 1495 ; died Utrecht, Netherlands, December 6, 1562

Sebastiano del Piombo 106 give birth Venice ?, Italy, c.1485 ; died Rome, Italy, June 21, 1547 Segantini, Giovanni 304 behave Arco, Italy, January 15, 1858 ; died Schafberg, Switzerland, September 28, 1899 Sérusier, Paul 292 born Paris, France, November 9, 1864 ; died Morlaix, France, October 6, 1927

Seurat, Georges 209, 283, 284, 288, 292, 293, 295, 296 wear Paris, France, December 2, 1859 ; died Paris, March 29, 1891

Shaw, John Byam 263 wear Madras, India, November 13, 1872 ; died London, UK, January 26, 1919 Sheeler, Charles 322, 329 bear Philadelphia, PA, July 16, 1883 ; died Dobbs Ferry, NY, May 7, 1965

Siddal, Elizabeth 256, 260, 262 bear London, UK, July 25, 1829 ; died London, February 11, 1862

Signac, Paul 283, 292, 293, 315 bear Paris, France, November 11, 1863 ; died Paris, August 15, 1935

Signorelli, Luca 104 hold Cortona, Italy, c.1440–50 ; died Cortona, October 23/24, 1523

Sisley, Alfred 276, 277, 284, 284, 285 digest Paris, France, October 30, 1839 ; died Moret-sur-Loing, France, January 29, 1899 Sluter, Claus 122, 122 natural Haarlem, Netherlands, c.1350 ; died Dijon, France, 1405/6 Soutine, Chaim 312, 317, 318, 328 born Smilovitchi, Russia [ now Belarus ], 1893 ; died Paris, France, August 9, 1943 Spinello Aretino 84 born Arezzo, Italy, c.1350 ; died Arezzo, 1410/11



Valdés Leal, Juan de 170, 173 baptized Seville, Spain, May 4, 1622 ; buried Seville, October 15, 1690

Wallis, Henry 270 hold London, UK, February 21, 1830 ; died Croydon, UK, December 20, 1916

Valenciennes, Pierre-Henri de 220, 220 have a bun in the oven Toulouse, France, December 6, 1750 ; died Paris, France, February 16, 1819

Ward, James 251 born London, UK, October 23, 1769 ; died Cheshunt, UK, November 16, 1859

Valentin de Boulogne 192, 194, 194 baptized Coulommiers, France, January 3, 1591 ? ; died Rome, Italy, August 18/19, 1632

Warhol, Andy 358, 359, 360, 362, 362, 363 bear Pittsburgh, PA, August 6, 1928 ; died New York City, NY, February 22, 1987

Vallou de Villeneuve, Julien 268

born Rome, Italy, January 1849 ; died London, UK, February 10, 1917

born Boissy-Saint-Léger, France, December 12, 1795 ; died Paris, France, May 4, 1866

Van Gogh, Vincent 272, 288, 290, 292,


296, 297, 314, 316 yield Zundert, Netherlands, March 30, 1853 ; died Auvers-sur-Oise, France, July 29, 1890

Tassi, Agostino 164 wear Rome, Italy, 1578 ; died Rome, February 1644

Teniers, David the Younger 167 digest Antwerp, Flanders, December 15, 1610 ; died Brussels, Flanders, April 25, 1690 Terbrugghen, Hendrick 182 born The Hague ?, Netherlands, 1588 ? ; died Utrecht, Netherlands, November 1, 1629 Tibaldi, Pellegrino 137, 139 born Puria di Valsolda, Italy, c.1527 ; died Milan, Italy, May 27, 1596

Vasarely, Victor 360, 360 bear Pécs, Hungary, April 9, 1906 ; died Paris, France, March 15, 1997

Vasari, Giorgio 98, 100, 104, 107, 111, 132, 133, 135, 138, 138, 146, 217 born Arezzo, Italy, July 30, 1511 ; died Florence, Italy, June 27, 1574

Velázquez, Diego 118, 166, 167, 170, 173, 176, 176–7, 274, 376, 376 baptized Seville, Spain, June 6, 1599 ; died Madrid, Spain, August 6, 1660

Velde, Willem avant-garde de the Elder 186 Tiepolo, Giambattista 117, 211, 212, 218–19, 219 give birth Venice, Italy, March 5, 1696 ; died Madrid, Spain, March 27, 1770

Tintoretto 114, 116, 117, 151 give birth Venice, Italy, 1518 ? ; died Venice, May 31, 1594

born Leiden, Netherlands, 1611 ; buried London, England, December 16, 1693

Velde, Willem van de the Younger 186, 186, 278, 278 baptized Leiden, Netherlands, December 18, 1633 ; died London, UK, April 6, 1707

Tischbein, Wilhelm 226 born Haina, Germany, February 15, 1751 ; died Eutin, Germany, June 26, 1829

Vermeer, Jan 178, 185, 185

Titian 97, 106, 110, 111, 114, 115, 116, 116,

Vermeyen, Jan Cornelisz. 168

118, 118–19, 151, 168, 192, 192, 212, 212, 213 born Pieve di Cadore, Italy, c.1485 ; died Venice, Italy, August 27, 1576

born Beverwijk, Netherlands, c.1504 ; died Brussels, Flanders, c.1559

Tomaso da Modena 83 give birth Modena, Italy, c.1325 ; died c.1379

Toulouse-Lautrec, Henri de 293, 294, 294, 295, 299 bear Albi, France, November 24, 1864 ; died nr. Langon, France, September 9, 1901 Trevisani, Francesco 214 born Capodistria, Italy [ now Koper, Slovenia ], April 9, 1656 ; died Rome, Italy, July 30, 1746

Turner, JMW 246, 246, 248, 250, 251, 252, 253, 253 born London, UK, April 23, 1775 ; died London, December 19, 1851

Twombly, Cy 366, 367, 368–9, 369, 371 behave Lexington, VA, April 25, 1928 ; died Rome, Italy, July 5, 2011


baptized Delft, Netherlands, October 31, 1632 ; buried Delft, December 16, 1675

Vernet, Claude-Joseph 250, 251 bear Avignon, France, August 14, 1714 ; died Paris, France, December 4, 1789

Vernet, Horace 241 natural Paris, France, June 30, 1789 ; died Paris, January 17, 1863

Veronese, Paolo 111, 114, 117, 117, 202, 202, 212, 212 bear Verona, Italy, 1528 ? ; died Venice, Italy, April 19, 1588 Verrocchio, Andrea del 102, 102 born Florence, Italy, c.1435 ; died Venice, Italy, June/July 1488 Vien, Joseph-Marie 221, 223, 223, 228 born Montpellier, France, June 18, 1716 ; died Paris, France, March 27, 1809

Vigée-Lebrun, Elisabeth 227, 227 bear Paris, France, April 16, 1755 ; died Paris, March 30, 1842

Vlaminck, Maurice de 324

Uccello, Paolo 89, 92–3, 93, 96

born Paris, France, April 4, 1876 ; died Rueil-la-Gadelière, France, October 11, 1958

Spranger, Bartholomeus 143, 150

bear Florence, Italy, c.1397 ; died Florence, December 10, 1475

Vouet, Simon 190, 191, 192, 193, 193, 194

born Antwerp, Flanders, March 21, 1546 ; died Prague, Austria, 1611

Ulft, Jacob van five hundred 179

bear Paris, France, January 8, 1590 ; died Paris, June 30, 1649

Steen, Jan 186 born Leiden, Netherlands, 1625/26 ; buried Leiden, February 3, 1679

baptized Gorinchem, Netherlands, March 26, 1621 ; died Nordwijk, Netherlands, November 18, 1689

Vuillard, Edouard 295 bear Cuiseaux, France, November 11, 1868 ; died La Baule, France, June 21, 1940

Waterhouse, J.W. 263

Watteau, Antoine 200, 202, 202–3, 203, 204, 206, 212 baptized Valenciennes, France, October 10, 1684 ; died Nogent-sur-Marne, France, July 18, 1721

Watts, George Frederic 303 digest London, UK, February 23, 1817 ; died London, July 1, 1904

Weber, Otto 290, 290 hold Berlin, Germany, October 17, 1832 ; died London, UK, December 23, 1888 Werff, Adriaan van five hundred 214 wear Kralingen, Netherlands, January 21, 1659 ; died Rotterdam, Netherlands, November 12, 1722 West, Benjamin 221, 225, 239 behave Springfield [ now Swarthmore ], PA, October 10, 1738 ; died London, UK, March 11, 1820 Weyden, Rogier van five hundred 122, 124, 124–5, 125, 126 born Tournai, Flanders, 1399 ? ; died Brussels, Flanders, June 18, 1464 Whistler, James McNeill 261, 284, 334, 334 bear Lowell, MA, July 11, 1834 ; died London, UK, July 17, 1903 Wood, Grant 379 born nr. Anamosa, IA, February 13, 1891 ; died Iowa City, IA, February 12, 1942

Wright ( of Derby ), Joseph 248, 249, 249 born Derby, UK, September 3, 1734 ; died Derby, August 29, 1797 Wtewael, Joachim 182 bear Utrecht, Netherlands, 1566 ; died Utrecht, August 13, 1638

Z Zeuxis 36 born Heraclea, Italy ; active agent late fifth century BCE Zimmermann, Johann Baptist 216, 216 baptized Wessobrunn, Germany, January 3, 1680 ; buried Munich, Germany, March 2, 1758

Zuccaro, Federico 139, 139 born Sant ’ Angelo in Vado, Italy, April 18, 1540/41 ; died Ancona, Italy, 1609 Zurbarán, Francisco de 166, 170, 171, 171, 176 baptized Fuente de Cantos, Spain, November 7, 1598 ; died Madrid, Spain, August 27, 1664




GENERAL INDEX Bold page numbers indicate main references ; numbers in italic mention to illustrations ; numbers in boldface italic refer to Turning Points and Masterworks. page references for artists are included in the Index of Artists ( see pp.386–91 ).

1938 ( painting ) ( Nicholson ) 337 1949 ( placid ) 354

A Aberdeen Bestiary 71 Abraham and the Sacrifice of Isaac ( Aelfric Hexateuch ) 68 abstract Painting ( 812 ) ( Richter ) 371 Académie des Beaux-Arts, Paris 277 Accademia del Disegno, Florence 133, 138, 140 Accademia Ercolanese 222, 223 acrylic paints 370, 370 Adam, Robert 221, 222, 224 Adam Naming the Animals ( Aberdeen Bestiary ) 71 The adoration of the Magi ( J. Bellini ) 112 adoration of the Magi ( Gentile da Fabriano ) 85, 94 adoration of the Magi ( Giotto ) 79 adoration of the list of Jesus ( Gaulli ) 156 The adoration of the Shepherds ( Maratta ) 162 The worship of the Shepherds ( Mayno ) 170 adoration of the Shepherds ( Procaccini ) 139 adoration of the Shepherds ( Wtewael ) 182 hadrian VI, Pope 133 Aelfric of Eynsham 68 Aelfric Hexateuch 68 Aeneas ’ s Flight from Troy ( Barocci ) 139 Aethelwold of Winchester 66, 66 african artwork 13, 16, 18, 19, 324, 324, 328 Age of Bronze ( Rodin ) 302 The Agony in the Garden ( G. Bellini ) 112–13 The Agony in the Garden ( Mantegna ) 112, 112 Agrigentum 220, 220 Agrippina ( West ) 221 Agrippina Landing at Brindisium With the Ashes of Germanicus ( West ) 225 Ahmose, Pharaoh 23 Aidan 58 Aix-en-Provence 294 Akhenaten, Pharaoh 23, 26, 28 Albani, Cardinal 222 Albert, Prince Consort 257 Albizzi family 89 The Aldobrandini Wedding ( Roman ) 39 Alexander II, Tsar 267 Alexander VI, Pope 101 Alexander VII, Pope 157 Alexander the Great 33, 38, 128 Alexander the Great as Zeus ( Roman ) 37 Alexander the Great ’ s Triumphal Entry into Babylon ( Le Brun ) 196–97

Alexandria 29, 44 Alfred the Great, King of Wessex 60, 66 Alfred Jewel 66, 66 Algeria 18–19, 300 Alhambra Palace, Granada 300 Aline and Valcour ( Man Ray ) 347 allegorical Portrait of Sir John Luttrell ( Eworth ) 147 Allegory of Good and Bad Government ( Lorenzetti ) 79, 82–83 Allegory of Water or Allegory of Love ( Fontainebleau School ) 142, 142 An allegory With Venus and Cupid ( Bronzino ) 140–41, 146 Allen, Paul 367 Alloway, Lawrence 360 Alps 247, 247 Altamira cave 14, 15 The Ambassadors ( Holbein ) 121, 130–31 american english Gothic ( Wood ) 379 Amsterdam 179, 179, 180, 183, 188 anamorphic perspective 130 The Ancient Town of Agrigentum ( Valenciennes ) 220, 220 Andrew of Crete, St 44 The Angel Battles the Beast ( Apocalypse of Beatus ) 68 The Angel of Death ( De Morgan ) 263 Angeli Ministrantes ( Burne-Jones and Morris ) 263 The Angelus ( Millet ) 270 Anglo-Saxons 55, 65, 66, 67 angry Landscape ( Appel ) 370 The Annunciation ( Fra Angelico ) 90–91 The Annunciation ( Lotto ) 116 The Annunciation ( Simone Martini ) 82, 90, 90 The announcement With St. Emidius ( Crivelli ) 97 The annunciation With Six Saints ( Fra Bartolommeo ) 105 Antioch 44 Antony, Mark 23, 29, 33 Antwerp 127, 128, 148, 167, 170 Apocalypse of Beatus 68 Apollinaire, Guillaume 329, 341 Apollo Belvedere ( Roman ) 101 The ideal of Virgil ( Flaxman ) 227 The Apparition ( Moreau ) 300–01, 303 Arc de Triomphe, Paris 221 The Archangel Michael Vanquishing Satan ( Reni ) 161 Archangels Michael and Gabriel ( icon ) 49 The Archduke Leopold William in His video Gallery ( Teniers ) 167 architectural Capriccio ( Robert ) 206–7 Ardèche Valley 14 Arena Chapel, Padua 78–82, 78, 80, 81 Arezzo 88 Aristotle 108 Arles 296 Armory read, New York ( 1913 ) 327 Armstrong, Neil 367 Arnold Schoenberg ( Schiele ) 317 The Arnolfini Portrait ( van Eyck ) 122–23 arrangement on Grey and Black No. 1 ( Whistler ) 334

Art of Painting ( Pacheco ) 173 The art of Painting ( Vermeer ) 185 art of This Century gallery, New York 355, 355, 356 The Arte of Limning ( Hilliard ) 151, 152 Artemis and Actaeon Bell Krater ( Greek ) 37 Arthur, King 58 The artist and His Family ( Largillière ) 204–05 The artist in the Character of Design ( Kauffmann ) 226 The Artist ’ sulfur Wife ( Ramsay ) 210 “ As is When ” —I Went to New York ( Paolozzi ) 362 The Ascension ( Rabbula Gospels ) 44 Ascoli 97 Ashburnham Pentateuch 58 The assault of the Jaguar ( Rousseau ) 342 assumption of the Virgin ( Correggio ) 106 The premise of the Virgin ( Titian ) 115 Astarte Syriaca ( Rossetti ) 262 At the Races in the Countryside ( Degas ) 280 Athelstan, King of Wessex 61 Athens 33 Augsburg 111, 116 Augustine of Canterbury, St 55, 56, 61 Augustulus, Romulus, Emperor 55 Augustus, Emperor 33 Augustus Listening to the Reading of the Aeneid ( Ingres ) 229 Aurier, Albert 304 Aurignacian industry 13 Aurora ( Guercino ) 164–65 Australia prehistoric art 13, 16, 18 Austria Rococo 214 Vienna Secession 305, 306, 307, 316 Autumn Landscape With a opinion of Het Steen in the early Morning ( Rubens ) 172–73 Autumn Leaves ( Millais ) 264–65 Avalanche in the Alps ( Loutherbourg ) 250–51 The Avenue ( Hobbema ) 187 Avignon 65, 68, 79, 84, 101 The Awakening Conscience ( Hunt ) 260

B Bacchus and Ariadne ( Giordano ) 162 Bacchus and Ariadne ( Ricci ) 212, 213 Bacchus and Ariadne ( Titian ) 97, 118–19, 212, 212 Bacchus, Ceres and Cupid ( Hans von Aachen ) 150–51 Back 1—Back 4 ( Matisse ) 318 Baird, John Logie 341 Balbec 222, 224 Ball, Hugo 344 Ballets Russes 323, 329 Balzac, Honoré de 305 Bangor, County Down 60

Banquet of the Officers of the St. George Civic Guard Company of Haarlem ( Hals ) 180–81 The Baptism of Christ ( Piero della Francesca ) 88, 88 The Baptism of Christ ( Trevisani ) 214 Baptistery, Florence 92 A Bar at the Folies-Bergère ( Manet ) 283 barbarian Tales ( Gauguin ) 295 Barbarossa Pays Homage to Pope Alexander III ( Zuccaro ) 139 Barbizon school 268, 278, 279, 296 Barcelona 325 The Bard ( Martin ) 252 Barge Haulers on the Volga ( Repin ) 271, 271 Bargeman ( Léger ) 328–29 Barricade in the Rue de la Mortellerie ( Meissonier ) 267 Barry, Charles 258 Basil I, Emperor 48 Bastille, Paris 221, 235, 235 Bastos ( Motherwell ) 355 Bath, England 217 The Bathers ( Courbet ) 268–69 Bathers ( Heckel ) 317 Battle of Cascina ( Michelangelo ) 138 The Battle of Issus ( Altdorfer ) 128 Battle of San Romano ( Uccello ) 93 Baudelaire, Charles 235, 271, 315 Bauhaus 316, 337 Bayeux Tapestry 64, 64 Beach Scene at Trouville ( Boudin ) 278–79 Beata Beatrix ( Rossetti ) 256 The Beatles 360, 363 Beatus of Liebana 68 Beaune 125 Bede, Venerable 59, 60 Beethoven, Ludwig van 235 The Beguiling of Merlin ( Burne-Jones ) 261 Bellini, Nicolosia 114 Benedict, St. 206 Benedictional of St. Aethelwold 66, 67 Benefits Supervisor Sleeping ( Freud ) 382–83 Berlin 228, 320, 342, 344 Bernard of Clairvaux 65 Bernardino of Siena 93 Bernhardt, Sarah 299 Berry, Jean, Duc de 73 Berzé-la-Ville 65 bestiaries 71 The Betrayal of Christ ( Giotto ) 80–81 bible 56, 57, 121 A Bigger Splash ( Hockney ) 363 Bing, Siegfried 299 Birtwell, Celia 380 Bison ( cave painting ) 15 The Black Tern ( Baselitz ) 319 Blast 328 Der Blaue Reiter 316, 368 Blavatsky, Madame Helena 299 Blenheim Palace, Oxfordshire 214 The Blinding of Samson ( Rembrandt ) 178, 184 The Blood of a Poet ( film ) 345, 345


Blue Dancers ( Degas ) 285 Boethius Diptych 47 Bohemia 143, 334, 334 Bologna 139, 160, 164 Bolsena, Lake 368, 368 The Book of the Dead ( Egyptian ) 29 Book of Durrow 58 Book of Kells 55, 57, 62–63 Books of Hours 65 Borghese, Cardinal Scipione 157 The Boulevard Montparnasse on a winter Morning ( Pissarro ) 285 Bradshaw, Joseph 18 Bradshaw figures 18 Brancacci Chapel, Florence 86, 90, 92 Brandon, Robert 152 Breakfast ( Signac ) 292 Breda 176 Breton, André 341, 344, 345, 346 Breton Women With Umbrellas ( Bernard ) 293 Breuil, Henri 15, 15, 17, 20 Britain Mannerism 143 Pop art and Op art 358–65 pre-raphaelite Brotherhood 256–65 Rococo 210 Romanticism 234, 246–47, 250–53 Vorticism 323, 324, 328 Winchester School 65, 66–67 british Empire 235 british Gentlemen in Rome ( Read ) 225 Brittany 289, 290, 291, 292 The Broken Pitcher ( Greuze ) 207 Browning, Robert 262 Die Brücke 316, 317, 320 Bruges 120, 122, 126, 174 Brunel Deschamps, Éliette 13, 14, 16 Brussels 167, 302, 303 Bryant, William Cullen 253 Buen Retiro, Madrid 176 The construction of the Tower of Babel ( Romanesque ) 69 Buñuel, Luis 345 The Burghers of Calais ( Rodin ) 304 A Burial at Ornans ( Courbet ) 270–71 Burke, Edmund 227, 248, 251 The Burning of the Bones of St. John ( Geertgen tot Sint Jans ) 180 The Burning of Troy ( Poussin ) 248 Bury St. Edmunds 66 Bushmen 13 Byron, Lord 234, 235, 241 Byzantine art 42–53, 66, 79, 80, 82, 112, 306

C Cabaret Voltaire, Zurich 342 The Cadet and His Sister ( Rego ) 381 Café Guerbois, Paris 280 Cambyses II, King of Persia 23 Camera Picta ( Mantegna ) 94 Campbell ’ s Soup Can Tomato ( Warhol ) 362 Candamo Cave 16 The Cannon Shot ( van de Velde ) 186 Canterbury 66 Canterbury Codex Aureus 58, 60, 62 The Canterbury Tales ( Chaucer ) 65 Canute, King of Denmark and England 68 Capet, Hugh, King of France 61

Capetian dynasty 61 Capponi, Ludovico 132, 132 A Capriccio With Roman Ruins ( Panini ) 215 capriccios 207, 215 Carcass of Beef ( Soutine ) 317 The Card Players ( Lucas van Leyden ) 128 Cardinal Richelieu ( Champaigne ) 195 The Care of the Sick ( Domenico di Bartolo ) 93 Carlyle, Thomas 261 Carnation, Lily, Lily, Rose ( Sargent ) 377 Carnival of Harlequin ( Miró ) 345 carolingian dynasty 66 carthage 38 carthusian Order 65 Cassiodorus 56 Castiglione, Baldassare 106, 143 El Castillo cave 18 catacombs, Rome 44, 46 Cathach of St. Columba 56 Catherine de Médicis 143, 148 Catholic Church 121, 133, 157, 158, 162 Catullus 118 cave paintings 12–21, 378 Caylus, Comte de 222 Celebes ( Ernst ) 342–43 Celts 55, 56, 62, 64 Céret 330 Cerveteri 34, 36 Chamber of Roman Ruins ( Clérisseau ) 225 Chambers, Sir William 217 Charcot, Jean-Martin 299 Charlemagne 66 Charles I, King of England 160, 167, 171, 172, 172 Charles I Out Hunting ( Van Dyck ) 172 Charles II, King of Spain 162, 167, 175 Charles II Adoring the Host ( Coello ) 175 Charles III, King of Spain 238 Charles V, Emperor 101, 107, 111, 116, 118, 127, 133, 168, 168 Charles V on Horseback ( Titian ) 116, 168 Charles V Reviewing His Troops ( Vermeyen ) 168 Charles VII, King of France 125 Charles VIII, King of France 89, 101, 111 Charles IX, King of France 148 Charles X, King of France 235 Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundy 126 Charon Crossing the Styx ( Patinir ) 128 Chaucer, Geoffrey 65, 259 Chauvet, Jean-Marie 14 Chauvet Cave 14, 14, 16 Chephren, Pharaoh 23 Un Chien Andalou ( film ) 345 Chigi, Agostino 96, 105 The Child in the Meadow ( Runge ) 240 Children Paddling, Walberswick ( Steer ) 284–85 taiwanese Horse ( prehistoric ) 13, 20–21 chinoiserie 217 The Chocolate Girl ( Liotard ) 216 Christ and Abbot Mena ( Coptic ) 44, 46 messiah at the marriage at Cana ( Goltzius ) 180 messiah Before the high Priest ( Honthorst ) 182 Christ Driving the Traders from the Temple ( El Greco ) 150–51 jesus in Majesty ( Romanesque ) 70 messiah in the House of His Parents ( Millais ) 260 jesus of Clemency ( Montañes ) 170

Christ ’ s Entry into Jerusalem ( Benedictional of St. Aethelwold ) 66–67 Christianity 42–53, 54–59, 79, 80–81 church service at St. Cirq ( Daura ) 368 A church service in Brittany ( Weber ) 290 The Church Militant and the Church Triumphant ( Andrea da Firenze ) 84 church of England 121 cinema 345, 360, 375 cinnabar 34, 34 Circus Scene ( Anquetin ) 290 trappist Order 65, 69 Clare of Assisi, St 359 Clark, Ossie 380 Clement VII, Pope 133 Clement XIII, Pope 211 Cleopatra, Queen of Egypt 23, 29, 33 Cliff, Clarice 329, 329 Clovis I, King of the Franks 58 The Clubfooted Boy ( Ribera ) 173 coastal Scene in a Storm ( Vernet ) 250 Coates, Robert 350 Coburn, Alvin Langdon 323 Codex Amiatinus 56, 59 Codex Euricianus 56 Codex Manesse 72 Codex Rossanensis 44 Codex Vigilanus 61 Colbert, Jean-Baptiste 197 Coleridge, Samuel Taylor 247 collage 330, 342, 347, 360, 362 Collé, Charles 208 Collioure 312 Cologne 66 color versus line 116 Colosseum, Rome 39 Columba, St. 56, 57 Columbus, Christopher 101, 121 Comgall, St 60 comic books 360, 360, 364, 365 commedia dell ’ arte 202, 318, 345 Commynes, Philippe de 111 Compartment C, Car 293 ( Hopper ) 379 Composition ( Van Doesburg ) 336 Composition VI ( Kandinsky ) 338–39 Conjuring Trick ( Klee ) 318 The Conquest of the Air ( La Fresnaye ) 327 Constantijn Huygens and His Clerk ( Keyser ) 183 Constantine the Great, Emperor 42, 43, 46 Constantinople 43, 43, 50, 111 contrapposto poses 134, 144 Copernicus, Nicolaus 133 Coptic Church 44, 46 Corinth 33, 36 Corneille, Pierre 230 Cornforth, Fanny 262 Coronation of Alexander III ( Aretino ) 84 coronation of the Virgin ( Lorenzo Monaco ) 84 Cosquer, Henri 17 Cosquer Cave 17 The Côte des Boeufs at L ’ Hermitage ( Pissarro ) 282 The Courtyard of a House in Delft ( de Hooch ) 184 Crassus, Marcus 39 Crete 19, 34 Cromwell, Thomas 131 Crosby, Theo 360 The Crucifixion ( Altichiero ) 84

Crucifixion ( early Christian ) 48 The Crucifixion ( Evesham Psalter ) 71 The Crucifixion ( Grünewald ) 127 The Crucifixion ( Pisano ) 80 Crucifixion With Eight Saints ( Daddi ) 83 The Crucifixion With the Virgin, St. John, St. Jerome, and St. Mary Magdalene ( Perugino ) 97 cumdach 61 Cupid and Psyche ( David ) 229 Cupid Complaining to Venus ( Cranach ) 146 The Cupid Seller ( Vien ) 223 Cuthbert, St 59

D Dam Square, Amsterdam ( Van der Ulft ) 179 The Damned Consigned to Hell ( Signorelli ) 104 Danaë ( Gossaert ) 146 Danaë Receiving the Shower of Gold ( Primaticcio ) 147 dance, Expressionism 319 The Dance ( Rego ) 381 dancing at the Moulin de la Galette ( Renoir ) 276 Dante Alighieri 79, 243, 262 Darwin, Charles 257 David and Dorelia in Normandy ( A. John ) 378 David Garrick as Richard III ( Hogarth ) 236 The dead Wolf ( Oudry ) 205 Death and the Maiden ( Baldung Grien ) 128 The Death of Ananias ( Lairesse ) 187 Death of Dido ( Reynolds ) 236, 236 The Death of Eurydice ( Niccolò dell ’ Abate ) 148 The Death of Lucretia ( Hamilton ) 224 Death of Meleager ( Roman ) 134 Death on the Pale Horse ( West ) 239 The Death of Priam ( Regnault ) 226 Death of St. Scholastica ( Restout ) 205 The Death of Sardanapalus ( Delacroix ) 234 The Death of the Virgin ( Caravaggio ) 268, 268 Deauville 279 Dedham Lock and Mill ( Constable ) 252 Delft 184, 185 della Rovere, Giuliano 139 Delphic Sibyl ( Michelangelo ) 134 Les Demoiselles d ’ Avignon ( Picasso ) 323, 324–25 The Deposition ( La Hyre ) 196 The deposition of Christ ( Pontormo ) 134, 135, 140 descent from the Cross ( vanguard five hundred Weyden ) 124–25 Desdemona Retiring to her Bed ( Chassériau ) 243 Desire ( Klinger ) 302 Destiny ( Waterhouse ) 263 Detail of Wrestlers ( Etruscan ) 36 Deutschland Deutschland über Alles ( Heartfield ) 345 Diaghilev, Serge 323 Diana of Versailles ( Roman ) 144 Diana the Huntress ( Fontainebleau School ) 144–45 Diana the Huntress ( Giampetrino ) 144 Diane de Poitiers 143, 144, 149




Dickens, Charles 260, 261 Difficult ( Schwitters ) 347 Dijon 122 Dijon Altarpiece ( Broederlam ) 122, 122 Dinteville, Jean de 130 Diocletian, Emperor 50 Diocletian ’ s Palace, Split 222 Dionysus Cup ( Exekias ) 34–35 Diptych of Maartin van Nieuwenhove ( Memling ) 126 diptych 47, 84 Disappointed Love ( Danby ) 241 disegno 116 Disputa ( Raphael ) 101, 107, 108 Disrobing of Christ ( El Greco ) 150 The Doge Leonardo Loredan ( Giovanni Bellini ) 110 dominican Order 83, 84 Dorelia in a Black Dress ( G. John ) 378 double Metamorphosis III ( Agam ) 363 Drakensberg 19 Dresden 320 Dreyfus, Alfred 289 The Duke of Lerma on Horseback ( Rubens ) 168–69 Dunstan, St. 66 Durand-Ruel, Paul 277, 281 Dutch art see Netherlands Dutch Republic 167, 178–80 dutch Vessels Inshore and Men Bathing ( Van de Velde the Younger ) 278 Dying Gaul ( Roman ) 222 Dynamism of a Soccer Player ( Boccioni ) 327

E Eadfrith, Bishop of Lindisfarne 59 easels 278, 278 Eastman Company 277 Ebbo Gospels 66 Echternach Gospels 59 Ecole des Beaux-Arts 300 Ecole de Nancy 299 Edfu 29 Edmund, King of England 74 Edward I, King of England 252 Edward the Confessor, King of England 74 The effect of effective Government in the City ( Lorenzetti ) 79, 82–83 egyptian art 22–31, 33 Eiffel Tower, Paris 277, 289, 289, 345 Einstein, Albert 323, 348 Elizabeth I, Queen of England 143, 152 Ellesmere Chaucer 65 Eluard, Paul 342 Emperor Justinian and his cortege ( Byzantine ) 47 Emperor Nicephorus III Botaneiates between St. John Chrysostom and the Archangel Michael ( Byzantine ) 49 en plein breeze painting 278 L ’ Encyclopédie ( Diderot ) 201, 224 end of the Working Day ( Breton ) 273 Engels, Friedrich 257 England witness Britain The Entombment ( Bouts ) 125 The Entombment ( Campin ) 124 The submission of Napoleon into Berlin ( Meynier ) 228

The Epic of American Civilization ( Orozco ) 352 equestrian Statue of Cosimo I ( Giambologna ) 168, 168 Erasmus 131 Eric Bloodaxe 61 Erik the Red 68 Escorial, Madrid 139, 175, 175 Essex, Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of 152 Este, Alfonso five hundred ’, Duke of Ferrara 97, 118 Este, Isabella d ’ 97, 97 Este family 88, 106 Etchings to Rexroth ( Marden ) 370 Ethelbert, King of Wessex 60 Etruscans 33, 34, 36 Euclid 108 Eugen, Prince of Sweden 379 Euric, king of the Visigoths 56 Euripides 226 Evesham Psalter 71, 74 Exarchate of Africa 46 The execution of Lady Jane Grey ( Delaroche ) 243 exhibition of a Rhinoceros at Venice ( Longhi ) 216 Exposition des Arts Décoratifs, Paris ( 1925 ) 317, 329 Ezekiel ’ second Vision in the Valley of Dry Bones ( Byzantine ) 48 Ezra ( Codex Amiatinus ) 56, 59

F The Factory 363 Falconry ( Giovanetti ) 72 fall of the Rebel Angels ( Floris ) 148 Family Reunion ( Bazille ) 280 fashion 337 Fayum portraits 29, 44 Federal Art Project ( FAP ) 351, 354, 356 The Female Clown Cha-U-Kao ( ToulouseLautrec ) 294 Female Torso ( Miró ) 336 Ferdinand I, Emperor 149 Ferrara 88, 106 Ferrocene ( Hirst ) 371 “ fêtes galantes ” 203 The Fiancés ( Chagall ) 318 The Fighting Temeraire ( Turner ) 246 Finland 306 Flag ( Johns ) 362 Flanders 122–28 Flaubert, Gustave 300, 303 Flayed Ox ( Rembrandt ) 317 flemish art 122–28, 142, 166–75 Flight into Egypt ( Elsheimer ) 248 The Flood ( Girodet ) 239 Florence 78, 79, 83, 84, 88–93, 89, 101, 107, 111, 133, 138, 160, 161, 168, 217 Florus and Laurus ( Novgorod School ) 51 Flowers in a sculpt Vase ( Monnoyer ) 197 Flowers on a Ledge ( Ruysch ) 187 Fontainebleau 136, 140, 147, 148, 194, 268, 278 Fontainebleau School 142–46, 142, 143, 145, 152 Foscari, Doge Francesco 114 Foundling Hospital, Florence 90 Fountain ( Duchamp ) 341, 375

The spring of Life ( italian miniature ) 202 Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse ( Dürer ) 121 The Four Seasons : Summer ( Boucher ) 206 The Fox ( Marc ) 368 France Age of Enlightenment 201 Art Nouveau 299 Baroque 190–99, 202 cave paintings 14, 16–18, 20, 20–21 cubism 322–31 Fauvism 312, 314–15, 330 Impressionism 276–87 Mannerism 142–44 Neoclassicism 221, 222–5, 230, 238 Postimpressionism 288–97 Realism 266–73 Rococo 200–209 Romanticism 234, 235, 238 surrealism 344 Symbolism 298 Francesca district attorney Rimini ( Scheffer ) 243 Francis I, King of France 102, 106, 140, 143, 144, 144, 146, 147 Francis II, King of France 148 Francis of Assisi, St 79, 80 franciscan Order 80 Franklin, Benjamin 201 Franks 58 Frederick I, Emperor 219 Frederick II, Emperor 71 Frederick the Wise of Saxony 146 French Academy, Rome 208 Freud, Sigmund 299, 306, 341, 341 Friedländer, Max J 146 Frieze of Life ( Munch ) 307 Fry, Roger 290

G Gallery Gasper ( Jones ) 358 Game Pass Shelter, Drakensberg 19 The Garden of Earthly Delights ( Bosch ) 126–27, 342, 342 The Garden of Love ( Rubens ) 202 Gare Saint-Lazare ( Manet ) 281 Gassed ( Sargent ) 376, 376–77 Gates, Bill 367 Gebelein murals 23, 26–27 Genoa 162 George, St 50, 73 George III, King of England 211 Germany Bauhaus 337 Der Blaue Reiter 316, 368 Die Brücke 316, 317, 320 expressionism 312–21, 368 Mannerism 142 Nazis 318, 320, 333, 337, 341, 345, 366, 375 Northern Renaissance 120–21, 124 Rococo 210, 211 romanticism 234–36, 250–51 Gesù, Rome 162, 162 Ghent 126 Ghent Altarpiece ( Van Eyck ) 122 Gilbert and Sullivan 262 Gilpin, William 250 The Girlhood of Mary Virgin ( Rossetti ) 260 Giverny 286, 287 Glasgow Boys 272

glass, venetian 112, 112 The Gleaners ( Millet ) 266, 267 The aura of St. Ignatius Loyola and the Missionary function of the Jesuits ( Pozzo ) 163 Gobelins tapestry factory 191, 191, 196, 197, 205 God Judging Adam ( Blake ) 238–39 Goebbels, Joseph 341 Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von 226, 227, 235, 247 Goethe in the Roman Campagna ( Tischbein ) 226 Gogh, Theo van 296 Goldsmith in His Shop ( Christus ) 120, 120 Gonzaga family 88 Gonzaga, Federico II 107 Gonzaga, Ludovico 94 Gorbachev, Mikhail 367 Gordale Scar ( Ward ) 251 Gospel Book of St. Augustine 55, 56 Gospel Books 54–62, 54, 56–63 Gothic Church on a Cliff ( Schinkel ) 251 Goupil Gallery, London 295 Granada 300 Grand Tour 222, 225, 247 Grande Odalisque ( Ingres ) 240 Gravettian industry 13 Gray, Effie 264 Gray, Thomas 252 Gray Scramble ( Single ) ( Stella ) 355 The Great Harris Papyrus 28–29 Greek art 32–39, 55 The green Christ ( Denis ) 334 Greenberg, Clement 352 Greenland 68 Gregory I, Pope 60 Gregory XI, Pope 65 Gregory XV, Pope 164 Greiffenklau, Karl Philipp, Prince-Bishop of Würzburg 219 The Gresley Jewel ( Hilliard ) 150 Grey Space ( distractor ) ( Mehretu ) 371 The Gross Clinic ( Eakins ) 274–75 Grosvenor Gallery, London 262 Guarini, Guarino 163 Guggenheim, Peggy 355, 356 Guggenheim, Solomon R 351 Guimard, Hector 299 Gutenberg, Johann 121 Guthrum 55

H Haarlem 150, 180–81, 182, 185 The Hague 124 Hague School 270, 273 Haley, Bill and His Comets 359 Halley ’ s Comet 79 Handel, George Frederic 215 Hannibal 33 Hard Times ( Herkomer ) 273 The Harrowing of Hell ( Byzantine ) 50–51 The Harvest ( Van Gogh ) 288 Hatshepsut, Queen of Egypt 28 Haussmann, Baron Georges 277, 282 Hautvillers 55 Haviland, Frank 322 The Haywain ( Constable ) 242 Head and Shoulders of the Virgin ( Cignani ) 212


Head of a Girl ( Carracci ) 192 Head of Job ( Blake ) 258 Head of a Woman ( Verrocchio ) 102, 102 The Heavenly Ladder 50 Hell 69 Henry II, King of France 143, 144, 148, 149 Henry IV, King of France 149, 191, 194 Henry V, King of England 73 Henry VIII, King of England 121 Herculaneum 220, 221, 222, 223 Hierakonopolis 24 hieroglyph, egyptian 24, 26 Hillaire, Christian 14 A Hind ’ s Daughter ( Guthrie ) 272 Hitler, Adolf 318, 333 Hodegon Monastery, Constantinople 44 The Holy Family on the Steps ( Poussin ) 198–99 Holy Roman Empire 66, 68 Holy Trinity With the Virgin, St. John, and Donors ( Masaccio ) 90 Homer 221, 224, 228 Homilies of St. Gregory 48 The Honourable Mrs. Graham ( Gainsborough ) 217 Hope ( Watts ) 303 Horace ( Corneille ) 230 The Horrors of War ( Rubens ) 166 sawhorse in a Landscape ( Marc ) 316 The horse Tamers ( Roman ) 236, 236 The House of Cards ( Chardin ) 205 Houses of Parliament, London 257, 258, 258 Hudson River School 246, 254 Huelsenbeck, Richard 344 Hughes, Robert 383 Hugo, Victor 247, 267 The Human Condition ( Magritte ) 340, 340 Hunters in the Snow ( Bruegel ) 129 Huygens, Constantijn 183 Huysmans, Joris-Karl 300, 302, 303, 303 Hyante and Climene Offering a Sacrifice to Venus ( Dubreuil ) 194

I I Lock My Door Upon Myself ( Khnopff ) 308–09 icons 42–53 Ignatius Loyola, St. 163 Ignudo ( Rosso Fiorentino ) 144, 144 Imago Hominis 58, 59 The Immaculate Conception ( Murillo ) 174–75 Impression Sunrise ( Monet ) 280–81 In the Shade ( Cross ) 295 Independent Group 360, 362 The innocence of Susanna ( Valentin de Boulogne ) 194 Institute of Contemporary Arts ( ICA ) 360, 362 Interior ( Buffet ) 380 Interior of the Grote Kerk ( Berckheyde ) 186 intervention of the Sabine Women ( David ) 221 Iona 55, 55, 57 The Iron Rolling Mill, or Modern Cyclops I ( Menzel ) 271 Isabella ( Millais ) 260 Isenheim Altarpiece ( Grünewald ) 127

The Island of the Dead ( Böcklin ) 302 Italy Baroque art 156–65, 212 birth of the Renaissance 78–87 flowering of the Renaissance 88–99 Futurism 323, 324, 327 High Renaissance 100–109 Mannerism 132–41, 144 neoclassicism 222–25 quixotic landscape 248–49 venetian Renaissance 110–19 Iti, grave of 27

J Jacob, Max 329 Jacob ’ mho Dream ( Rosa ) 162 James I, King of England 152 Japan 286, 290, 296, 299, 314 Jarrow 55 The Jaws of Hell Fastened by an Angel ( Winchester Psalter ) 69 Jefferson, Thomas 201 Jerusalem 44, 46 Jesuit Order 156, 162, 163 Jesus and the Samaritan Woman ( early Christian ) 46 Jesus Before Pilate and the Repentance of Judas 44 Joan of Arc 73 John XII, Pope 68 John of Bavaria, Count of Holland 124 John Klimakos, St 50 John Wycliffe Reading his transformation of the Bible to John of Gaunt ( Brown ) 259 Jolson, Al 360 Joseph in Egypt ( Pontormo ) 140, 140 Joshua Commanding the Sun to Stand even ( Martin ) 252 Judith ( Palma Vecchio ) 116 Judith Beheading Holofernes ( Gentileschi ) 160 Julius II, Pope 100, 101, 104, 108 Jung, Carl 352, 352 Jupiter and Io ( Correggio ) 107 Jupiter Kissing Ganymede ( Mengs ) 224 Just What is it that Makes Today ’ second Homes So Different, So Appealing ? ( Hamilton ) 360–61 Justin of Nassau 176 Justinian, Emperor 43, 47, 48

K Kahnweiler, Daniel-Henry 324, 324, 326, 329 Kamares 19 Katia Reading ( Balthus ) 380 Keats, John 260 Kells 55 Kelmscott Press 263 Kennedy, Jackie 359 Kennedy, John F. 359 Kew Gardens, London 217 Khaemwaset, Prince 23 Khafre, Pharaoh 26 Khnumhotep II, Pharaoh 27 Khufu, Pharaoh 26 Kiesler, Frederick 355 Kindred Spirits ( Durand ) 253

King David Playing the Harp ( vespasian Psalter ) 60 The King Drinks ( Jordaens ) 173 Kings and Scribes ( Codex Vigilanus ) 61 The Kiss ( Klimt ) 306–07 The Kiss ( Rodin ) 304 The Kiss of Judas ( Romanesque ) 69 The Knife Grinder ( Malevich ) 327 Knossos 34 Kodak 277 Kristan von Hamle Visits His Lover ( Codex Manesse ) 72 Kublai Khan 72 Kuffner, Baron Raoul 379

L La Cosa, Juan de 101 Laas Gaal 19 Lady Hamilton as a Bacchante ( Vigée-Le Brun ) 227 A dame in her Bath ( Clouet ) 149 The dame of Shalott ( Hunt ) 262 The lady With a Fan ( Roslin ) 217 lady With a Fan ( Velázquez ) 376 Lake District 247, 251 Lake Keitele ( Gallen-Kallela ) 306 Lamentation ( Heemskerck ) 148–49 The lament of Christ ( Giotto ) 78 Landholdt, Anna 237 Landscape ( Hofmann ) 352 Landscape, Ile de France ( Guillaumin ) 281 landscape With the Nymph Egeria ( Claude Lorraine ) 196 landscape With Shepherds and Pilgrims ( Bril ) 170 Languedoc 289 Laocoön ( Roman ) 101, 104, 118 The Larener Woman With Goat ( Mauve ) 273 The large Bathers ( Renoir ) 283 big Nude With Draperie ( Picasso ) 374 Lascaux cave paintings 12, 12, 13, 14, 16, 16, 17, 20, 20–21, 378 The final Judgment ( Cavallini ) 80 stopping point Judgment ( Michelangelo ) 137, 148 last Judgment ( Van der Weyden ) 125 The last Judgment ( Zimmermann ) 216 The survive Supper ( Tintoretto ) 117 The death Supper ( Veronese ) 117 late Afternoon, New York ( Hassam ) 285 The Laughing Cavalier ( Hals ) 178, 183 Laurentian Library, Rome 133, 133 Le Havre 281, 287 Leo V, Emperor 48 Leo X, Pope 101, 133 Leopold William, Archduke 167, 167 Lerma, 1st Duke of 168, 169 Leroy, Louis 281 L.H.O.O.Q. ( Duchamp ) 344 Liber Sacramentorum 61 Liberty Leading the People ( Delacroix ) 242 Lichfield Gospels 58, 59 Licinius 46 The Light of the World ( Hunt ) 260 Lindisfarne 55, 58 Lindisfarne Gospels 54, 54, 55, 56, 59, 59 Lombards 55, 60 London 250, 251, 257, 285, 302, 337, 359, 360

London Shoeshine Boy ( BastienLepage ) 272 Loredan, Doge Leonardo 110, 111 Loreto 116 Lorraine 195 Los Angeles 362, 363 Louis IX, King of France 71 Louis XIII, King of France 191, 192, 194 Louis XIV, King of France 157, 162, 167, 175, 190, 191, 191, 196, 196, 197, 201, 204, 214 Louis XIV ( Rigaud ) 204 Louis fourteen and His family Dressed as Roman Gods ( Nocret ) 196 Louis XIV Visiting the Gobelins factory ( Le Brun ) 191 Louis XV, King of France 200, 201 Louis XVI, King of France 201, 221, 235 Louis-Philippe, King of France 267 Louvre, Paris 144, 201, 208, 268, 330, 367 Ludovisi family 164 Luke, St. 44, 59, 138 Lumière, Auguste and Louis 277, 313 Luncheon of the Boating Party ( Renoir ) 282–83 Luther, Martin 101, 107, 121, 133 Luxe, Calme, et Volupté ( Matisse ) 315 Lytton, Bulwer 260

M MacDurnan Gospels 61 Macgregol 55 McNeill, Dorelia 378, 378 Madame de Pompadour ( Boucher ) 200 Madame X ( Sargent ) 376, 376, 377 Madonna ( Munch ) 305 Madonna and Child Enthroned ( Cimabue ) 80 Madonna and Child With a Distaff ( Morales ) 150 Madonna of the Harpies ( Andrea del Sarto ) 106 Madonna of the Quail ( Pisanello ) 84 The Madonna Standing With the Child and Angels ( Massys ) 127 Madonna With the Long Neck ( Parmigianino ) 137 Madrid 139, 167, 168, 173, 175, 176 Madrid Codex 68 Mae West ’ sulfur Lips ( Dalí ) 347 Maestà ( Duccio ) 82 Maestà ( Simone Martini ) 82 Magdalenian industry 13 The Magic Apple Tree ( Palmer ) 252 Manesse family 72 Manetho 26 Mantua 88, 94, 97, 107, 137 Mantua, Duke of 168 Manuel II, Emperor 51 manuscript painting 54–62, 54, 56–63, 65–72, 66–72 Mao Zedong 363 Marey, Etienne-Jules 334, 334 Margaret Valois 149 Maria-Theresa, Empress 211 Marie Antoinette, Queen of France 227, 235 Marie de Médicis 191, 192 Mariette, Auguste 25, 25 Mark, St. 66 Marlborough, Duke of 214




The marriage of Frederick Barbarossa and Beatrice of Burgundy ( Tiepolo ) 218–19 The marriage of the Virgin ( Rosso Fiorentino ) 136 Mars and Venus United by Love ( Veronese ) 117, 202 Marseillaise 221 Martin I, Pope 47 Martin V, Pope 101 The Martyrdom of St. Erasmus ( Poussin ) 161 The Martyrdom of St. Peter ( Caravaggio ) 158–59 The Martyrdom of St. Sebastian ( Pollaiuolo ) 96 Marx, Karl 257, 267 Mary Magdalene Approaching the Sepulchre ( Savoldo ) 158 masks, shamanism 18 Massacre of the Innocents ( Cornelis van Haarlem ) 150 Mastaba of Ty ( Egyptian ) 24–25 Matisse, Anna Heloise 314 Matterhorn I ( Kokoschka ) 318–19 Matthew, St. 54, 59 Maurice, Emperor 46 Maurice, Frederic Denison 261 Maximilian II, Emperor 143, 149, 150 Mazarin, Cardinal 191, 197 Mazeppa and the Wolves ( Vernet ) 241 Mead, Dr. Richard 203 Medici, Cosimo de ’ 89 Medici, Duke Cosimo I de ’ 133, 138, 140, 168, 168 Medici, Francesco de ’, Grand Duke of Tuscany 138 Medici, Giuliano de ’ 96 Medici, Lorenzo de ’ ( Lorenzo the Magnificent ), 89, 96, 98, 133 Medici, Lorenzo di Pierfrancesco de ’ 98 Medici, Piero de ’ 89, 94 Medici kin 89, 97, 98, 101, 138, 161, 217 Mehmed II, Sultan 111, 114 Meier-Graefe, Julius 299 Meissen porcelain 211, 214 Melissa ( Dossi ) 106 Melk 214 Melun Diptych ( Fouquet ) 125 Memphis 26, 29 The Menaced Assassin ( Magritte ) 346 Las Meninas ( Velázquez ) 173 Menkaure, Pharaoh 26 Mentuhotep II, King of Egypt 27 The Mérode Altarpiece ( Master of Flémalle ) 122, 124 Merritt Parkway ( de Kooning ) 350, 350 Merrymaking at an Inn ( Steen ) 186 Merton Abbey 263 Metochites, Theodore 50 Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York 352 Meurent, Victorine 281 Michael VII Dukas, Emperor 49 Michael VIII, Emperor 50 Microsoft 367 Mieszko I, King of Poland 55 Milan 79, 139 The Millat Wijk bij Duurstede ( Ruisdael ) 185 Miller, Lee 345 miniatures 150, 152, 153

Minoans 19, 33, 34 The Miracle of the Icon 51 Miracle of the Relic of the True Cross ( Carpaccio ) 114 The miracle of St. Benedict ( Subleyras ) 206 Mr. and Mrs. Clark and Percy ( Hockney ) 380 modern Painters ( Ruskin ) 258 Mona Lisa ( Leonardo da Vinci ) 104, 144, 344 Mongols 51 Monogram Page ( Book of Kells ) 62–63 Monroe, Marilyn 363 Mont Sainte-Victoire 294 Mont Sainte-Victoire ( Cézanne ) 324 Montefeltro, Federigo district attorney, Duke of Urbino 88, 89, 95 The Montefeltro Altarpiece ( Piero della Francesca ) 95 The Montgomery Sisters ( Reynolds ) 225 More, Sir Thomas 131 Moréas, Jean 303 Morris, Jane 262 Morris & Co. 261, 263 Morris, Marshall, Faulkner & Co. 257, 259 Mosaic of Street Musicians ( Dioskurides of Samos ) 38 Moses and the Daughters of Jethro ( Rosso Fiorentino ) 134 Moulin Rouge, Paris 289, 294 Mozarabic art 61, 68 Mummy Cartonnage of Nespanetjerenpere ( Egyptian ) 29 Murdered Dmitry Tsarevitch ( Nesterov ) 306 Murnau Street With Women 316 The Muse of Painting ( Veronese ) 212 The Muses ( Denis ) 293 Museum of Modern Art, New York 333 Muybridge, Eadweard 274, 283 Mycenaeans 33, 34

N Nabis 292, 295 Nadar 281 Nagada acculturation 24 Nancy 299 Naples 79, 160, 162, 249 Naples from Posillipo ( More ) 248 Napoleon I, Emperor 221, 224, 226, 227, 228, 228, 235, 239, 243, 247, 271 Napoleon III, Emperor 267, 277 napoleon at Arcola ( Gros ) 239 The Nativity ( Byzantine ) 49 Nativity ( Caravaggio ) 192 Nazarenes 234, 240, 258 Nebamun Hunting in the Marshes 23, 24, 30–31 Nectanebo I, Pharaoh 29 Nefertiabet, Princess 26 Neferu, Queen of Egypt 27 Nelson, Horatio 227 Netherlands 292 Dutch Baroque 178–89 Mannerism 142 Netherlandish School 122, 124, 127 Neumann, Balthasar 211 New English Art Club 284 New Minster Charter 65 New York City 285, 351, 352, 367 New York School 350

News from Nowhere 263, 263 Niaux Cave 18 Niccolò district attorney Tolentino 93 Nicholas II, Tsar 333 Nicolas V, Pope 93 Nietzsche, Friedrich 320 Night ( Hodler ) 304–05 The Night Watch ( Rembrandt ) 188–89 The Nightmare ( Fuseli ) 236, 237 Nijinsky, Vaslav 323 Nocturne in Black and Gold : The Falling Rocket ( Whistler ) 334 Noli Me Tangere ( Duccio ) 82 scandinavian Summer Evening ( Bergh ) 378 Normandy 277, 279, 281, 293 Normans 50, 64–65 Notre Dame, Paris 65 Novem Codices 56 Novgorod School 50, 51 Nude Descending a Staircase, No. 2 ( Duchamp ) 327, 332 Nude Study ( Villeneuve ) 268 Number 1 ( Lavender Mist ) ( Pollock ) 356–57 Nuremberg 120 Nuremberg Chronicle 43 Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek, Copenhagen 317

O The Oath of the Horatii ( David ) 230–31 The oath of the Horatii clock 229 oath of the Tennis Court ( David ) 221 Ocean ( Magritte ) 347 Odo, Bishop of Bayeux 64 The Odyssey ( Tibaldi ) 137 Oedipus and the Sphinx ( Moreau ) 300 An Old homo and a Boy ( Ghirlandaio ) 97 Old Testament Trinity ( Rublev ) 52–53 Olympia ( Manet ) 280 On the Way to the Trenches ( Nevinson ) 328 Onement I ( Newman ) 354 Ophelia ( Millais ) 260–61 Ophelia Among the Flowers ( Redon ) 307 Orpheus ( Delville ) 305 Ossian Receiving dead Warriors into Valhalla ( Girodet ) 228 Ostrogoths 47, 55 Otto I, Emperor 68 Ottoman Turks 51, 111, 235 Ottonian dynasty 66 Ovid 118 The Oxbow ( Cole ) 254–55

PQ Pacheco, Francisco 173 Padua 78–82, 78, 80–81, 112 The Painter ’ mho Studio ( Van Oost ) 174 paints acrylic paints 370, 370 pigments 14, 112, 112 in tubes 243 ultramarine 118 watercolors 247 Palaeolithic art 12–21 Palais Garnier, Paris 277 Palermo 50 Palette of Narma ( Egyptian ) 27

palettes, egyptian 27 Pallas Athena Von Stuck ) 306 Palmyra 222 Papal States 79 The Parable of the Blind ( Bruegel ) 376, 376 Parable of the Sower ( Bassano ) 116 Parade Amoureuse ( Picabia ) 344 Paris 162, 191, 192–94, 200, 221, 267, 276–77, 277, 289, 299, 313, 313, 322–23 Paris Salon 201, 252, 267, 268, 270, 276, 277, 280, 287 Parma 106, 107 Parnassus ( Mengs ) 222 Parthenon, Athens 33, 37 mania of Christ ( Memling ) 102 pastels 206, 207 Patience ( Gilbert and Sullivan ) 262 Paul, St. 158 Paul III, Pope 137 Paul IV, Pope 144 Paul V, Pope 157, 160 Paul Helleu Sketching With his Wife ( Sargent ) 284 Pazzi family 96, 97 peace and Plenty Binding the Arrows of War ( Janssen ) 170–71 The Pearl Fishers ( Allori ) 138 Peasants of Flagey Returning From the Fair ( Courbet ) 268 A Peasants ’ Meal ( Le Nain brothers ) 195 Peche Merle Cave 17 Péladan, Sâr Joséphin 299, 304, 305 Pembroke, Earls of 74 La Peña de Candamo 16 Penicuik House 225 The Penitent Magdalene ( La Tour ) 195 Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts 274 Pepin II, King of the Franks 59 Perseus and Andromeda ( Lemoyne ) 205 The continuity of Memory ( Dalí ) 348–49 position 89, 90, 92, 102 Pertaining to Yachts and Yachting ( Sheeler ) 329 Perugia 96 The Pesaro Altarpiece ( Titian ) 192, 192 Peter, St. 47, 158 Peter the Great, Tsar 211 Philip II, King of Spain 118, 129, 139 Philip III, King of Spain 168 Philip III ( Philip the Good ), Duke of Burgundy 121, 122, 124 Philip IV, King of Spain 171, 173, 176 Philip V, King of Spain 167, 204 Philip of Macedon 37 photography 268, 277, 283, 322, 334, 367, 375 Picts 56, 56, 57 The picture Dealer ( Antolínez ) 174 Pierrot ( Rouault ) 318 Pieter Jan Foppeszoon and His Family ( Heemskerck ) 180 pigments 14, 112, 112 pilgrimage to the Isle of Cythera ( Watteau ) 203 Pitti Palace, Florence 161 Pius VII, Pope 221


Pius XII, Pope 359 Place Royale, Paris 194 Plato 108 plein atmosphere painting 278 Pliny the Elder 34, 37 Plum Estate, Kameido ( Hiroshige ) 290 Poe, Edgar Allan 300 Poitiers 73 Polo, Marco 72 Polynesia 289, 291, 293, 295, 324 Polyphemus Attacking Acis and Galatea ( Carracci ) 160 Pompadour, Madame de 200, 201, 206 Pompeii 33, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40–41, 220, 221, 222, 368 Pont-Aven 290, 291, 293 Pontinari, Tommaso 126 Pontinari Altarpiece ( Van five hundred Goes ) 126 Pontoise 280, 281, 282, 290 The Poor Fisherman ( Puvis de Chavannes ) 298 The Port of Collioure ( Derain ) 312 Portrait of Baldassare Castiglione ( Raphael ) 106 Portrait of Charles John Crowle ( Batoni ) 217 Portrait of a Dominican Friar ( Tomaso da Modena ) 83 Portrait of Don Gabriel de la Cueva yttrium Giron ( Moroni ) 138 Portrait of Francis I, King of France ( Clouet ) 144 Portrait of Franz Liszt ( Lehmann ) 243 Portrait of Hanka Zborowska ( Modigliani ) 328 Portrait of a Lady ( Baldovinetti ) 94 Portrait of Ludovico Capponi ( Bronzino ) 132, 132 Portrait of Madame Récamier ( Gérard ) 228 Portrait of a Man ( Antonello da Messina ) 114 Portrait of Pope Innocent X ( Velázquez ) 173 portrait miniatures 150, 152, 153 Le Portugais ( Braque ) 330, 331 Portugal 210 The Potato Eaters ( Van Gogh ) 292 Prague 143, 150 Prandtauer, Jacob 214 Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood 256–65, 308–09 Prehistoric art 12–21 The presentation in the Temple ( Vouet ) 192, 193 Primavera ( Botticelli ) 88, 98–99, 102, 102 printing 121 Prix de Rome 208, 222, 223, 226, 228 progress of the Magi ( Gozzoli ) 94 The Prodigal Son ( Puvis de Chavannes ) 302 Provence 289, 290 psalter of St. Louis and Queen Blanche 71 Ptolemaic dynasty 29 Ptolemy III, Pharaoh 29 Pugin, AWN 257, 258, 258 punishment of Lust ( Segantini ) 304 Pyk, Karin 379 Queen Mary I ( Mor ) 129



Rabbula Gospels 44, 44 Raedwald 58 Raft of the Medusa ( Géricault ) 240–41 Rahotep and Nofret ( Egyptian ) 26, 26 Rain, Steam, and Speed ( Turner ) 253 Rainy Day ( Caillebotte ) 282 The Raising of Lazarus ( Sebastiano del Piombo ) 106 A Rake ’ sulfur Progress ( Hogarth ) 215 Ramesside dynasty 23 Ramses III, Pharaoh 28–29 Rand, John G 243 Rape of Europa ( Reni ) 192 Ravenna 43, 47, 60 Rebecca at the Well ( Byzantine ) 46 record of the several Phases of a Jump ( Marey ) 334 Red Yellow Blue Painting Number 1 ( Marden ) 366 Reeves, William and Thomas 222, 222, 247 Reichenau 66 Relay Race Around the Streets of Moscow ( Dejneka ) 379 republican Automatons ( Grosz ) 344 Rest on the Flight into Egypt ( Runge ) 240 The Return of Marcus Sextus ( Guérin ) 221, 227 Revue Blanche 289 Rhine, River 247 Richard II, King of England 73, 74, 74 Richelieu, Cardinal 191, 193, 195, 197 Rienzi ( Hunt ) 260 The Rite of Spring ( Stravinsky ) 323 The River Seine at Mantes ( Daubigny ) 278 Robe Mondrian ( St. Laurent ) 337 Robert of Molesme 69 rock paintings 12–21 Roger II, King of Sicily 50 Rolin, Nicholas 125 Roman art 32–41, 55 Le Roman de la Rose 72 Rome 44, 46, 101, 104, 133, 156–58, 194, 197, 221, 222, 224, 225, 240 Ronsard, Pierre de 194 Roosevelt, Franklin D. 351 Roosevelt, Theodore 377 Rosenberg, Pierre 208 Rosetta Stone 29 Rosicrucianism 299, 304, 305 Rossetti, Christina 308–09 Rousseau, Jean-Jacques 201, 235, 247 Royal Academy of Arts, London 211, 217, 221, 252, 256, 260, 263, 264, 375 Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture, Paris 191, 199, 203 Rudolf II, Emperor 139, 143, 149, 150, 151 The Ruins of Balbec ( Wood ) 224 Ruskin, John 257, 258, 260, 264 Russia abstract art 333 Constructivism 324 icons 43, 46, 52 platonism 271 Rococo 210 Stalinist 366 Suprematism 336 Wanderers 270, 271

S With Child ( Richter ) 381 Sade, Marquis de 347 Sahara, cave paintings 18, 19 St. Catherine ’ s Monastery, Sinai 44, 47, 48, 48, 49 St. Francis and Angels 80 St. Francis Renounces His Earthly Father ( Sassetta ) 92 St. George and the Dragon ( Novgorod School ) 50 St. Ives group 337 St. Jérôme in His Study ( Antonello da Massina ) 95 St. John ’ s Gospel 61 Saint-Julien, Baron de 208 St. Laurent, Yves 337 St. Lucy Altarpiece ( Domenico Veneziano ) 93 St. Luke Painting the Blessed Virgin ( Michael Damaskenos ) 44 St. Luke Painting the Virgin ( Vasari ) 138 St. Martin, Nohant-Vic 69 St. Martin and the Beggar ( El Greco ) 168, 168 St. Martin and the Beggar ( Lallemant ) 194 St. Paul and the Viper ( Romanesque ) 66, 71 St. Peter ( picture ) 44, 47 St. Peter ’ south, Rome 101, 108, 157, 157, 161, 164 St. Petersburg 302, 306, 336 Saint-Savin Abbey 69 St. Serapion ( Zurbarán ) 171 Saint-Severin series ( R. Delaunay ) 327 Sala dei Giganti ( Giulio Romano ) 137 Salon five hundred ’ Automne exhibition, Paris ( 1905 ) 314 Salon de la Rose+Croix 299, 304 Salt root cellar With Neptune and Tellus ( Cellini ) 147 Sant ’ Ignazio, Rome 163 Santa Maria Maggiore, Rome 160 Santa Maria Novella, Florence 90 Santa Maria del Popolo, Rome 158 Sappho 368, 368 Saqqara 24, 24–25, 25, 26 Saturn Devouring His Sons ( Goya ) 241 A Satyr Mourning Over a Nymph ( Piero di Cosimo ) 97 Savonarola, Girolamo 89 Schilderboek ( Van Mander ) 182 Schiller, Friedrich 235, 247 Schoenberg, Arnold 317, 338 The School of Athens ( Raphael ) 108–09 Scotland 247, 272 The Scream ( Munch ) 316 A Scribe, an Astronomer With an Astrolabe, and a Mathematician ( Psalter of St. Louis and Queen Blanche ) 71 Scrovegni, Enrico 82 scythian Women Besieging Their Enemies ( Acre ) 72 seascape With Ponies on the Beach ( Jongkind ) 278 Seated Scribe ( Gentile Bellini ) 114 Seated Woman ( Vuillard ) 295 Sefar 18 Self-Portrait ( La Tour ) 206 self-portrait ( Poussin ) 190

Self-Portrait ( Rembrandt ) 178 self-portrait as a Hunter ( Desportes ) 197 self-portrait With Bandaged Ear ( Van Gogh ) 296–97 self-portrait With Gloves ( Dürer ) 127 self-portrait With a portrayal of Her Sister ( Carriera ) 214 Selves, Georges de 130 Sennefer, grave of 28 The Sermon, Arrest, and Martyrdom of St. James ( Van Scorel ) 147 Seville 167, 170, 174 Sèvres 201 sfumato 102, 107, 150 Shakespeare, William 74, 238, 243, 260, 307 shamanism 13, 14, 18 Shelley, Mary 229 Shelley, Percy Bysshe 247 Sheng-Tung ( Riley ) 363 A Sibyl ( Domenichino ) 160 sicily 50, 157 The Siege of Tournai ( Van der Meulen ) 175 Siena 78, 79, 79, 82–83, 84, 88, 90, 92–93 Silence ( Levy-Dhurmer ) 305 Sistine Chapel, Rome 101, 104, 104–05, 137, 216 Sistine Madonna ( Raphael ) 100, 100 Sixtus IV, Pope 101 Sketches of Costumes for the Commedia dell ’ Arte ( Gillot ) 202 Sleeping Groom and Sorceress ( Baldung Grien ) 236, 236 Small Tree Near Cairo ( Hodgkin ) 372–73 The Smoker ( Gris ) 322, 322 Snow Scene at Moret ( Sisley ) 284 The Social Contract ( Rousseau ) 235 company of Arts 222 Soiscél Molaise 61 Somalia 19 The Soothsayer ’ sulfur Recompense ( de Chirico ) 342, 342 South Africa 19 Soviet Union 333 Socialist Realism 375 Spain Baroque 166–77 cave paintings 15, 16, 18, 19 Mannerism 139, 142, 146 Peninsular War 245 Romanticism 234 Spartacus 39 Spinola, Ambrogio 176 Split 221 Spring ( Arcimboldo ) 149 The Stages of Life ( Friedrich ) 253 Standing Nude ( Currin ) 381 Stanza della Segnatura, Vatican 104, 108 Stein, Gertrude 325 Stein, Leo 325 Steinbeck, John 351 Stevenson, Robert Louis 377 De Stijl 336 distillery Life ( Metzinger ) 328 still Life With a chinese Bowl ( Kalf ) 184 still Life With Plaster Cast ( Cézanne ) 294 still Life With Quince, Cabbage, Melon, and Cucumber ( Sánchez Cotán ) 170 Stoffels, Hendrickje 268 The Stonebreaker ( Wallis ) 270




The Stonebreakers ( Courbet ) 268 The Stonemason ’ s Yard ( Canaletto ) 215 The Story of Adam ( Ashburnham Pentateuch ) 58 Stravinsky, Igor 323 The Street ( Kirchner ) 320–21 Street Scene, at Five in the Afternoon ( Anquetin ) 292 Strong, Sir Roy 152 Strozzi, Palla 85 Strozzi family 89 Study for Amorpha : fugue in Two Colours II ( Kupka ) 335 Study of Hands ( Andrea del Sarto ) 134 Der Sturm 313 A Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grand Jatte ( Seurat ) 288, 292, 295 Sung dynasty 20 Suprematist Composition ( Malevich ) 336 surprise ! ( Rousseau ) 293 surrealist Landscape ( Matta ) 352, 352 The Surrender of Breda ( Velázquez ) 176–77 Sutton Hoo 58 The Swing ( Fragonard ) 208, 209 Switzerland 247, 342, 344 Symbols of the Gospel Writers ( Book of Durrow ) 56–57 Symphony in White, No. 1 ( Whistler ) 261 Syon House, London 222

T Tabula ( Hantaï ) 370 Tacitus 225 The Talisman ( Sérusier ) 292 Tamara in the green Bugatti ( de Lempicka ) 379 Tamburlaine the Great 51 Tango ( S. Delaunay ) 332 Tanis 28 Tara Brooch 55 Tarkovsky, Andrei 52 Tarquinia 34, 36 Tassili newton ’ Ajjer Plateau 19 Tavern Scene ( Brouwer ) 183 tempera 112 The Tempest ( Giorgione ) 115 Tempietto, Rome 101 Temple of Zeus, Olympia 37 The temptation of Adam and Eve ( Masolino di Panicale ) 92 The temptation of St. Anthony ( Khnopff ) 303 The enticement of St. Jerome ( Valdés Leal ) 173 “ The Ten ” 285 Tennyson, Alfred, Lord 262, 264 Thamar Painting 122 Theodora, Empress 47 Theophanes the greek 52 The Thinker ( Rodin ) 304 The Third of May 1808 ( Goya ) 244–45 Thoré, Théophile 207, 272 The Threatened Swan ( Asselyn ) 184 Three Musicians ( Picasso ) 329 The Three Witches ( Fuseli ) 238 three Women at Church ( Leibl ) 272 Time Transfixed ( Magritte ) 346 Tintern Abbey ( Girtin ) 250 Toledo 150, 168 The Tour of Doctor Syntax, In Search of the Picturesque ( Rowlandson ) 251

Tournai 124 The Town No. 2 ( R. Delaunay ) 327 Trafalgar Square ( Mondrian ) 337 Trajan ’ sulfur Column, Rome 39, 207 The Transfiguration ( Raphael ) 106, 136 Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry ( Limbourg brothers ) 73, 73 Tribute Money ( Masaccio ) 79, 86–87, 92 Trier 66 The Triumph of Bacchus and Ariadne ( Carracci ) 212 Triumph of Death ( Orcagna ) 83 Triumph of Galatea ( Raphael ) 105 trompe lambert ’ oeil 32, 38, 225, 342 Trouville 279 Turin Shroud 163 Tuscany 111 Tutankhamun, Pharaoh 22, 23, 329 The Two Fridas ( Kahlo ) 346–47

U Uffizi Palace, Florence 217, 378 United States of America Abstract Expressionism 336, 342, 344, 350–57 Age of Enlightenment 201 American Scene Painting 379 Hudson River School 246, 254 Impressionism 285 Pop art and Op art 358–65 Precisionism 324, 329 realism 270, 274 romanticism 246, 254 Untitled ( Bolsena ) ( Twombly ) 369 Upward ( Kandinsky ) 336 Urban II, Pope 69 Urban VIII, Pope 157 Urbino 88, 95, 106, 139 The Ustyug Annunciation ( picture ) 50 Utrecht 182 Utrecht Psalter 55

V The Val five hundred ’ Aosta ( Brett ) 260 Valladolid 168 Valpinçon, Paul 280 Vase of Flowers ( Bosschaert ) 171 vatican 101, 104, 108 Vauxelles, Louis 314, 323, 324 vellum 66, 66 Vendôme Column, Paris 271 Venice 79, 110–19, 192, 215, 263 Venus and Adonis ( Spranger ) 150 Venus and Cupid ( Van der Werff ) 214 Venus figurines 13 Venus of Willendorf 16 Verdi, Giuseppe 25 Verlaine, Paul 299 Versailles 190, 191, 194, 200, 267 vespasian Psalter 60 Vesuvius, Mount 248–49, 248–49 Vesuvius from Posillipo ( Wright ) 249 Vézelay 70 Viaduct at L ’ Estaque ( Braque ) 326 Victoria, Queen of England 257 Victoria and Albert Museum, London 257 Vienna Genesis 46 Vienna Secession 305, 306, 307, 316

Vierzehnheiligen 211, 211 scene of the Colosseum ( Piranesi ) 222 Vigila 61 Vikings 55, 56, 56, 60, 61, 62 Villa Farnesina, Rome 101, 105 villa of Livia 32 Villa of the Mysteries Frescoes ( Roman ) 40–41 Vincennes porcelain 201 Les XX ( Les Vingt ) 303 Violet Center ( Rothko ) 355 Virgil 236, 243 The Virgin and Child Accompanied by the Apostles ( Coptic ) 44 Virgin and Child With Scenes from the Life of St. Anne ( Lippi ) 94 Virgin Enthroned with Two Saints 44–45 Virgin Hodegetria 44 The virgo in the Garden of Paradise ( german School ) 73 The Virgin Mary Appearing to St. Philip Neri ( Maratta ) 162 Virgin of Humility Adored by a prince of the House of Este ( Jacopo Bellini ) 114 The virgo of the Rocks ( Leonardo ) 102–03, 104, 158 The Virgin of Vladimir ( Circle of Andrei Rublev ) 42, 42 Visigoths 55, 56, 56 The sight of the Sermon ( Gauguin ) 290, 291, 304 Vitruvius Pollio 40 Vladimir of Kiev 43, 49 Voltaire, François Marie Arouet de 201

W Wales 285 A walk on the Beach ( Rysselberghe ) 295 Wanderers 270, 271 warrior Vase ( Mycenaean ) 34 The Washerwoman ( Daumier ) 270 Water of the Flowery Mill ( Gorky ) 353 The Waterlily Pond Green Harmony ( Monet ) 286–87 Watson and the Shark ( Copley ) 217 Wearmouth 55 Wedgwood, Josiah 227 The Well of Moses ( Sluter ) 122 Wellington, Duke of 247 Wernigerode Gospels 66 West, Mae 347, 347 West Interior ( Katz ) 380 Whaam ! ( Lichtenstein ) 364–65 The Wheel of Fortune ( Burne-Jones ) 262 Where Do We Come From ? What Are We ? Where Are We Going ? ( Gauguin ) 294 Whitechapel Art Gallery, London 360 Wieskirche 211, 216 Wigman, Mary 319, 319 Wilding, Alexa 262 Wilhelm I, Kaiser 267 Willendorf 16 William the Conqueror 64, 65 Wilton Diptych 74–75, 84 Winchester Bible 70 Winchester Psalter 69 Winchester School 65, 66–67 Winckelmann, Johann 222, 222, 223, 224 Winter Scene With Skaters near a Castle ( Avercamp ) 182

Wittenberg 121 Das Wölund-Lied ( Wayland ’ mho Song ) ( Kiefer ) 370 Woman I ( de Kooning ) 354 Woman Bathing in a Stream ( Rembrandt ) 268 Woman Holding a Fruit ( Gauguin ) 324 Woman Playing a Kithara ( Roman ) 39 Woman selling Cupids ( Roman ) 39 The Woman With the Glove ( Carolus-Duran ) 376 Wood, Robert 222, 224 Woolner, Thomas 256 Wordsworth, William 247 Work ( Brown ) 261 Works Progress Administration ( WPA ) 351 World of Art group 306 Wright, Frank Lloyd 351 Wright, Orville and Wilbur 313 Würzburg 219

Y Young Girl Reading ( Fragonard ) 207 Young Man Among the Roses ( Hilliard ) 142, 152–53 Young Shepherd in Repose ( Renoir ) 347 Young Woman Sewing in a Garden ( Cassatt ) 283 The youthful David ( Castagno ) 93

Z Zborowska, Hanka 328 Zebra ( Vasarely ) 360 Zimmermann, Dominikus 216 Zola, Emile 277, 289 Zurich 342, 344


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Cobalt id would like to thank the following for their invaluable assistant : Ian Chilvers for the generous bestowal of advice on a crop of column matters large and little, and for his consummate dedication to maintaining the historical accuracy and artistic integrity of this book. Hilary Bird for index, and Louise Thomas at Cashou for her outstanding professionalism and coherent attention to detail ( ). The authors would like to thank the following for their aid : Meghan Acker, Harry Aldwinckle, Petrina Beaufoy Helm, Graham Dalik, Emmie Francis, Sally Jacobs, Ramuntcho Matta, Deirdre Morrow, Malcolm Procter, Tim Rock, Katy Rogers, Rebekah Standing, and Dr Claudia Stumpf. The publisher would like to thank the following for their kind license to reproduce their photograph : keystone : a – above ; b – below/bottom ; c – kernel ; l – left ; r – right ; t – top BAL – The Bridgeman Art Library ; DEA – De Agostini Picture Library ; GI – Getty Images 1 gastrointestinal : AFP / Luis Acosta / © 2013. Banco de México Diego Rivera Frida Kahlo Museums Trust, Mexico, D.F. / DACS. 2 gastrointestinal : Imagno. 5 Corbis : The Art Archive / Alfredo Dagli Orti / © ADAGP, Paris and DACS, London 2013. 6 BAL : british Museum, London ( technetium ). g : APIC ( tr ). 7 gilbert : AFP / Stan Honda / © Succession Picasso / DACS, London 2013 ( tr ) ; DEA ( thallium ) ; UIG / Mondadori Portfolio ( trusteeship council ). 8–9 BAL : Giraudon / © Succession H. Matisse / DACS 2013. 12 Corbis. 13 Corbis : All Canada Photos / Alexandra Kobalenko. 14 BAL : Giraudon ( red brigades ). Corbis : ( crb ) ; Frans Lanting ( chromium ). g : AFP / Direction Regionales des Affaires Culturelles ( cra ). 15 Corbis : ( bel ). GI : Time Life Pictures / Dmitri Kessel ( tr ). 16 Dorling Kindersley : courtesy of the Natural History Museum, London ( red brigades ). gastrointestinal : AFP / Lionel Bonaventure ( bl ) ; Gamma-Rapho / Raphael Gaillarde ( ca ). 17 BAL : index ( bl ). Corbis : ( t ). gastrointestinal : Gamma-Rapho / Fanny Broadcast ( red brigades ). 18 BAL : Omniphoto / UIG ( thallium ). Corbis : Sebastien Cailleux ( bromine ). gastrointestinal : Gamma-Rapho / Raphael Gaillarde ( tr ). 19 Corbis : Liba Taylor ( bl ) ; Visuals Unlimited / Tim Hauf ( tr ). gastrointestinal : DEA / G. Dagli Orti ( red brigades ) ; Photographer ’ sulfur Choice / Thomas Schmitt ( thallium ) 20–21 BAL. 22 gilbert : AFP / Khaled Desouki. 23 gilbert : DEA / G. Dagli Orti. 24 Corbis : Burstein Collection ( ca ) ; Sandro Vannini ( cb ) ; Gianni Dagli Orti ( bc ). g : DEA ( c ) 25 BAL : Archives Charmet ( tr ). Corbis : Sygma / Frederic Soltan ( bl ). 26 gilbert : DEA / A. Jemolo ( bl ) ; DEA / G. Dagli Orti ( red brigades ). 26–27 g : DEA / G. Dagli Orti ( trusteeship council ). 27 BAL : Cincinnati Art Museum, Ohio / Gift of Mrs Joan Stark in memory of Louise J. Roth ( bl ). Corbis : Sandro Vannini ( red brigades ). g : DEA / G. Sioen ( cra ). 28 akg-images : Erich Lessing ( bromine ). BAL : ( thallium ). gastrointestinal : UIG / Werner Forman ( bl ). 29 BAL : Brooklyn Museum of Art, New York / Charles Edwin Wilbour Fund ( thallium ). gastrointestinal : DEA ( tr ) ; Universal History Archive ( red brigades ). 30–31 BAL : british Museum, London. 32 gilbert : DEA / G. Dagli Orti. 33 Corbis : SOPA / Bruno Cossa. 34 Corbis : Wolfgang Kaehler ( ca ) ; Visuals Unlimited / Scientifica ( bc ). gilbert : DEA / G. Nimatallah ( cb ) ; National Geographic / O. Louis Mazzatenta ( degree centigrade ). 35 Corbis : inheritance Images ( fifty, trusteeship council ). © Marie-Lan Nguyen/Wikimedia Commons : Musée Louvre, Paris ( red brigades ). 36 Corbis : The Art Archive / Alfredo Dagli Orti ( tr ) ; Burstein Collection ( bl ). gastrointestinal : DEA / G. Dagli Orti ( technetium, red brigades ). 37 BAL : ( red brigades ) ; Museum of Fine Arts, Boston / James Fund and by limited Collection ( thallium ). 38 Corbis : Werner Forman ( bc ) ; Araldo de Luca ( tr ). 39 BAL : DEA ( bl ) ; Giraudon / Museo Archeologica Nazionale, Naples ( cb ). g : AFP / Alberto Pizzoli ( ca ) ; AGE Fotostock / Wojtek Buss ( tr ). 40–41 Corbis : Frederic Soltan 42 BAL : State Russian Museum, St. Petersburg. 43 Corbis : historical Picture Archive. 44 Corbis : Araldo de Luca ( crb ). gilbert : DEA / G. Dagli Orti ( cra ) ; DEA ( chromium, red brigades ). SuperStock : ( bl ). 45 BAL : ancient Art and Architecture Collection Ltd. 46 BAL : DEA ( bl ). gilbert : DEA ( technetium, bromine ) 47 The Art Archive : Boistesselin / Kharbine-Tapabor ( liter ). g : DEA ( tr, bromine ). 48 Corbis : spoke Images ( tr ). gastrointestinal : DEA ( fifty, red brigades ). 49 BAL : Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris ( tr ) ; Private Collection ( thallium ). g : DEA ( b-complex vitamin ). 50 BAL : State Russian Museum, St. Petersburg ( red brigades ) ; Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow ( bl ). Corbis : Roger Wood ( ca ). 51 BAL : Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow ( crb ). Corbis : ( bc ). gilbert : DEA ( thallium ). 52 Alamy Images : Grzegorz Gajewski. 53 BAL : Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow. 54 g : Robana / British Library, London. 55 gilbert : Iconica / Macduff Everton. 56 Corbis : Homer Sykes ( cb ). gastrointestinal : DEA ( vitamin c ) ; UIG / Prisma ( ca ) ; UIG / Werner Forman ( bc ). 56–57 Corbis : Stapleton Collection ( b ). 57 BAL : Neil Holmes ( tr ). 58 Alamy Images : The Art Gallery Collection ( tr ). gilbert : DEA ( bc ). 59 BAL : Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris ( thallium ) ; british Library, London ( cb ) ; Lichfield Cathedral, Staffordshire ( bromine ). gastrointestinal : DEA ( tr ). 60 BAL : british Library, London ( bl ) ; Royal Library, Stockholm ( technetium ). 61 BAL : Boltin Picture Library / National Museum of Ireland, Dublin ( thallium ) ; Lambeth Palace Library, London ( bl ). gastrointestinal : DEA / A. Dagli Orti ( bromine ) ; UIG / Prisma ( tr ). 62, 63 BAL : The Board of Trinity College, Dublin. 64 BAL : UIG / Universal History Archive. 65 Corbis : adocphotos. 66 BAL : british Library, London ( bl ). gastrointestinal : BAL / Ashmolean Museum, Oxford ( chromium ) ; DEA ( cra, crb ). The Royal Library, Copenhagen : ( red brigades ). 67 BAL : british Library, London. 68 BAL : british Library, London

( red brigades ) .GI : DEA ( trusteeship council, bl ). 69 BAL : british Library, London ( bromine ) ; Giraudon ( thallium ). Corbis : Sylvain Sonnet ( bl ). 70 BAL : Winchester Cathedral, Hampshire ( bromine ). gilbert : Cover / JMN ( l ). 71 BAL : Aberdeen University Library, Scotland ( bromine ) ; british Library, London ( tr ). gilbert : The Bridgeman Art Libry / Canterbury Cathedral, Kent ( bl ) ; UIG / Photo12 ( thallium ). 72 BAL : Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris ( thallium ) ; Musée Condé, Chantilly ( bl ). g : DEA ( tr, bromine ). 73 gastrointestinal : Buyenlarge ( thallium ) ; DEA ( bromine ). 74–75 BAL : National Gallery, London. 78 BAL : Scrovegni ( Arena ) Chapel, Padua. 79 Corbis : SOPA / Maurizio Rellina. 80 BAL : Giraudon ( ca ). Corbis : Araldo de Luca ( cb ) ; Summerfield Press ( hundred ). gilbert : DEA / G. Nimatallah ( bc ). 81 BAL : private Collection ( crb ). gilbert : APIC ( lambert ). 82 gilbert : DEA ( tr, bl, red brigades ). 83 BAL : Samuel Courtauld Trust, The Courtauld Gallery, London ( bl ). Corbis : Elio Ciol ( red brigades ). g : DEA ( ca ). 84 Alamy Images : The Art Archive ( bromine ). BAL : capella di San Giacomo, Padua ( bl ) ; Santa Maria Novella, Florence ( thallium ). Corbis : Summerfield Press ( bc ). g : Alinari Archives, Florence / Pietro Aldi ( tr ). 85 Corbis : Summerfield Press. 86–87 Corbis : Sandro Vannini. 88 g : DEA. 89 g : BAL. 90 BAL : ( crb ) ; DEA / G. Nimatallah ( red brigades ). gastrointestinal : DEA ( cra, chromium ). 91 Corbis : Sandro Vannini ( technetium ). gastrointestinal : DEA ( boron ). 92 BAL : National Gallery, London ( tr ). Corbis : Sandro Vannini ( bl ). g : DEA ( red brigades ). 93 Corbis : The Art Archive / Alfredo Dagli Orti ( thallium ) ; Summerfield Press ( tr ). Courtesy National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C. : ( bromine ). 94 BAL : National Gallery, London ( tr ). Corbis : Alinari Archives, Florence ( bl ). gastrointestinal : DEA ( thallium, red brigades ). 95 Corbis : The Art Archive / Alfredo Dagli Orti ( thallium ) ; National Gallery, London ( red brigades ). 96 Corbis : National Gallery, London. 97 Corbis : National Gallery, London ( tr ). g : DEA ( clb, crb, red brigades ). Courtesy National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C. : ( cla ). 98–99 BAL : Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence. 100 BAL : Staatliche Kunstsammlungen, Dresden. 101 gastrointestinal : lonely Planet Images / Robert McGrath. 102 BAL : british Museum, London ( chromium ) ; Galleria degli Uffizi ( red brigades ). Corbis : Bettmann ( one hundred fifty ). gilbert : SuperStock ( crb ). 103 Photo SCALA, Florence. 104 BAL : Giraudon ( bl ). Corbis : Sandro Vannini ( ca ). gilbert : Gamma-Rapho / Eric Vandeville ( bromine ). 105 BAL : Giraudon ( crb ). gilbert : The Image Bank / Mark Harris ( liter ). 106 BAL : DEA / A. Dagli Orti ( bromine ). Corbis : Musée du Louvre, Paris ( thallium ) ; Summerfield Press ( bc ). gilbert : DEA ( technetium ), 107 BAL : Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna ( carbon ). Corbis : Alinari Archives, Florence ( bl ). 108–109 gastrointestinal : universal History Archive. 110 BAL : National Gallery, London. 111 gastrointestinal : AWL Images / Alan Copson. 112 BAL : Musée du Louvre, Paris ( carbon ) ; Museo Vetrario, Murano ( ca ). Corbis : National Gallery, London ( bc ). Dorling Kindersley : courtesy of Winsor & Newton ( cb ). 113 BAL : Musée Condé, Chantilly ( technetium ). g : universal History Archive ( bl ). 114 BAL : Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum, Boston ( bromine ). g : BAL ( trusteeship council ) ; DEA ( bl, bc ). 115 Corbis : Arte & Immagini srl ( cla ). gastrointestinal : DEA ( gas constant ). 116 Corbis : Gianni Dagli Orti ( ca ) ; Summerfield Press ( cla ). gastrointestinal : DEA ( bl, bromine ). 117 BAL : Cameraphoto Arte Venezia ( bel ). g : DEA ( thyroxine ). 118 Library Of Congress, Washington, D.C. : ( c ). 119 g : cosmopolitan History Archive. 120 Corbis : The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. 121 GI : Time & Life Pictures / Mansell. 122 Alamy Images : Archivart ( clb ). BAL : Giraudon ( cra ). Corbis : Francis G. Mayer ( crb ). gilbert : BAL ( chromium, bromine ). 123 Corbis : National Gallery, London. 124 Corbis : The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York ( ca ). gilbert : BAL ( bromine ). 125 Corbis : Gemaldegalerie, Berlin ( thallium ). g : DEA ( tr, bromine ). 126 BAL : Groeningemuseum, Bruges ( red brigades ) ; Prado, Madrid ( tr ). gilbert : DEA ( bc ) ; Universal History Archive ( bl ). 127 BAL : Samuel Courtauld Trust, The Courtauld Gallery, London ( technetium ) ; Musée d ’ Unterlinden, Colmar ( red brigades ). g : Imagno ( bl ). 128 BAL : collection of the Earl of Pembroke, Wilton House, Wiltshire ( clb ) ; Kunstmuseum, Basel ( tr ). Corbis : Francis G. Mayer ( cla ). gilbert : BAL ( red brigades ). 129 BAL : Prado, Madrid ( bc ). gilbert : DEA ( thymine ). 130–131 Corbis : National Gallery, London ( carbon ). 131 Corbis : Arte & Immagini srl ( crb ). 132 Corbis : Frick Collection, New York. 133 BAL : Biblioteca Medicea-Laurenziana, Florence. 134 akg-images : Erich Lessing ( cra ). Arti Doria Pamphilj s.r.l. : ( bromine ). BAL : Giraudon ( chromium ). Corbis : Alinari Archives, Florence ( crb ). gilbert : DEA ( chlorine ). 135 gilbert : DEA. 136 BAL : San Lorenzo, Florence ( cra ). gastrointestinal : DEA / G. Nimatallah ( lambert ). 137 akg-images : Electa ( tr ). BAL : Alinari Archives, Florence / Palazzo Poggi, Bologna ( red brigades ). Corbis : Massimo Listri ( bl ) ; Summerfield Press ( bc ). 138 BAL : Santissima Annunziata, Florence ( tr ). Corbis : Massimo Listri ( bc ). g : DEA ( cla ). 139 BAL : Alinari Archives, Florence / Pinacoteca Nazionale, Bologna ( cra ) ; Cameraphoto Arte Venzia ( thallium ). Corbis : Alinari Archives, Florence ( red brigades ). 140 g : DEA. 141 Corbis : National Gallery, London. 142 BAL : Giraudon / Musée du Louvre, Paris. 143 Corbis : Eurasia Press / Steven Vidler. 144 Alamy Images : Tomas Abad ( bromine ). BAL : Devonshire Collection, Chatsworth ; Reproduced by license of Chatsworth Settlement Trustees ( crb ). Corbis : The Art Archive / Alfredo Dagli Orti ( bl ). gilbert : DEA / G. Dagli Orti ( chromium ). 145 gastrointestinal : DEA. 146 Alamy Images : INTERFOTO ( bromine ). Corbis : Bettmann ( bl ). 147 BAL : Château of Fontainebleau, Seine-et-Marne ( thallium ) ; Samuel Courtauld Trust, The Courtauld Gallery, London ( tr ) ; Giraudon / Musée de la Chartreuse, Douai ( crb ). Corbis : Ali Meyer ( bl ). 148 BAL : Giraudon ( thallium ). gilbert : DEA ( bl ). 148–149 Alamy Images : Peter Horree ( trusteeship council ). 149 BAL : Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge ( trusteeship council ) ; Giraudon / Musée du Louvre, Paris ( crb ). gastrointestinal : DEA ( bl ). 150 BAL : hermitage, St. Petersburg ( bl ) ; Private Collection ( technetium ). gastrointestinal : DEA ( cra, red brigades ). 151 gastrointestinal : DEA ( thallium, crb ). 152 BAL : The Stapleton

Collection. 153 BAL : Victoria & Albert Museum, London ( l, radius ). 156 gastrointestinal : BAL. 157 Corbis : inheritance Images. 158 BAL : Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence ( crb ). Corbis : Design Pic / Ken Welsh ( one hundred fifty ) ; The Gallery Collection ( bromine ). gilbert : universal History Archive ( chromium ). 159 gastrointestinal : BAL. 160 Corbis : Alinari Archives, Florence ( bl ) ; Summerfield Press ( cra ). g : DEA / G. Dagli Orti ( bromine ). 161 BAL : Alinari Archives, Florence / Santa Maria della Concezione, Rome ( bl ). Corbis : Vanni Archive ( tr ). gilbert : BAL ( crb ). 162 BAL : Devonshire Collection, Chatsworth ; Reproduced by license of Chatsworth Settlement Trustees ( cla ) ; Palazzo Pitti, Florence ( red brigades ). Corbis : Arcaid / David Clapp ( bc ). gilbert : DEA / L. Pedicini ( cra ). 163 Corbis : Sylvain Sonnet. 164–165 gastrointestinal : DEA. 166 Corbis : Arte & Immagini srl. 167 g : BAL. 168 Alamy Images : PjrTravel ( chromium ). gilbert : BAL ( one hundred fifty ) ; DEA ( crb, bromine ). 169 gastrointestinal : Cover / Gotor. 170 gastrointestinal : DEA / Veneranda Biblioteca Ambrosiana ( ca ) ; DEA ( bl, bromine ). 171 BAL : Wolverhampton Art Gallery, West Midlands ( deoxythymidine monophosphate ). Corbis : Francis G. Mayer ( bl, bc ). 172 BAL : National Gallery, London ( red brigades ). g : BAL ( thallium ). 173 Corbis : Alinari Archives, Florence ( tr ). gilbert : BAL ( bc ) ; DEA ( cla ) ; Cover / Gotor ( bromine ). 174 BAL : Lukas – artwork in Flanders VZW ( cla ). g : Cover / Gotor ( radius ) ; DEA ( bc ). 175 BAL : Giraudon ( tr ). Corbis : SOPA / Pietro Canali ( bromine ). gastrointestinal : DEA ( deoxycytidine monophosphate ). 176–177 g : universal History Archive. 178 BAL : english Heritage Photo Library. 179 Corbis : The Art Archive. 180 BAL : Museumslandschaft Hessen Kassel ( deoxycytidine monophosphate ). gilbert : DEA ( ca ) ; Universal History Archive ( cb ). Hendrik Goltzius, Christ at the marriage of Cana, after Francesco Salviati, 1590–1617 : ( bc ). 181 BAL : The Clowes Fund Collection, Indianapolis Museum of Art ( technetium ). g : DEA ( b-complex vitamin ). 182 BAL : Ashmolean Museum, Oxford ( bl ) ; National Gallery, London ( bromine ). Corbis : National Gallery, London ( cra ). 183 BAL : National Gallery, London ( bromine ) ; Wallace Collection, London ( thallium ). gilbert : BAL ( ca ). 184 Corbis : Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam ( bl ). g : DEA ( bc, bromine ) ; Gamma-Rapho / Francis Demange ( thallium ). 185 gastrointestinal : DEA ( cla ) ; Imagno ( red brigades ). 186 Corbis : Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam ( cra ). gilbert : DEA ( bl ) ; Universal History Archive ( ca ). 187 BAL : Museumslandschaft Hessen Kassel ( technetium ) ; Private Collection ( cb ). Corbis : Lebrecht Music & Arts / Derek Bayes ( clb ). 188–189 gastrointestinal : DEA. 190 gastrointestinal : DEA. 191 BAL : Giraudon / Château de Versailles. 192 BAL : Cameraphoto Arte Venezia / Santa Maria Gloriosa dei Frari, Venice ( cra ) ; Devonshire Collection, Chatsworth ; Reproduced by permission of Chatsworth Settlement Trustees ( chromium ) ; Modadori Electa / Oratory of San Lorenzo, Palermo ( crb ). Corbis : diachronic picture Archive ( cla ). gilbert : Alinari Archives, Florence ( bromine ). 193 BAL : Giraudon / Musée du Louvre, Paris. 194 BAL : Musée du Louvre, Paris ( bl ) ; Musée Carnavalet, Paris ( red brigades ). g : DEA ( tr ). 195 BAL : Archives Charmet / La Sorbonne, Paris ( cla ). gastrointestinal : DEA ( tr ) ; Hulton Fine Art Collection ( clb ). 196 BAL : Giraudon / Musée des Beaux-Arts, Rouen ( bl ). Corbis : Alinari Archives, Florence ( thallium ) ; The Art Archive ( bromine ). g : DEA ( cra ). 197 BAL : Towneley Hall Art Gallery and Museum, Burnley ( thallium ). g : BAL ( red brigades ). 198–199 BAL : Cleveland Museum of Art, Ohio / Leonard C. Hanna, Jr. Fund. 200 Corbis : Stapleton Collection. 201 Alamy Images : Mary Evans Picture Library. 202 Corbis : museum of Fine Arts, Boston ( speed of light ). gilbert : BAL ( cb ) ; DEA ( ca ) ; Time Life Pictures / Rob Crandall ( bc ). 203 Corbis : Musée du Louvre, Paris ( bl ). g : DEA / G. Fini ( technetium ). 204 Corbis : Francis G. Mayer ( tr ). gilbert : universal History Archive ( bl ). 205 BAL : Wallace Collection, London ( bl ). Corbis : Lebrecht Music & Arts / Derek Bayes ( tr ). g : DEA / G. Dagli Orti ( thallium ) ; DEA ( bromine ). 206 Corbis : Frick Collection, New York ( bromine ). gilbert : DEA ( trusteeship council, tr ). 207 BAL : The Bowes Museum, Barnard Castle, County Durham ( thallium ) ; National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C. ( bromine ). g : DEA ( bl ). 208 BAL : Giraudon / Musée Fragonard, Grasse. 209 BAL : Wallace Collection, London. 210 g : DEA. 211 Corbis : Arcaid / Florian Monheim. 212 BAL : Detroit Institute of Arts ; Gift of Mr. and Mrs. Edgar B. Whitcomb ( chromium ) ; Devonshire Collection, Chatsworth ; Reproduced by license of Chatsworth Settlement Trustees ( red brigades ). g : DEA ( crb ) ; Universal History Archive ( cra ). 213 BAL : collection Michael Burden ( trusteeship council ) ; Kunstsammlungen, Pommersfelden ( barn ). 214 BAL : Leeds Museum and Art Galleries / Temple Newsam House ( red brigades ) ; Wallace Collection, London ( tr ). Corbis : Arte & Immagini srl ( bl ). 215 BAL : Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge ( red brigades ) ; National Gallery, London ( trusteeship council ). Corbis : Lebrecht Music & Arts / Derek Bayes ( bl ). 216 BAL : Wieskirche, Wies ( red brigades ). gastrointestinal : DEA ( thallium, bl ). 217 BAL : Giraudon / Musée du Louvre, Paris ( thallium ) ; National Gallery of Scotland, Edinburgh ( tr ) ; Nationalmuseum, Stockholm ( bc ). 218–219 Corbis : Sandro Vannini. 220 gilbert : BAL. 221 Alamy Images : The Art Gallery Collection. 222 BAL : museum of London ( cra ) ; Royal Castle, Warsaw / Maciej Bronarski ( bromine ). Corbis : PoodlesRock ( chromium ). gastrointestinal : Hulton Archive / Christopher Simon Skyes ( crb ). 223 akg-images : Erich Lessing ( trusteeship council ). g : DEA ( boron ). 224 BAL : Yale Center for British Art / Paul Mellon Collection ( bl ). gastrointestinal : DEA ( ca ). 225 BAL : Arthur Ackermann Ltd. ( red brigades ) ; Yale Center for British Art / Paul Mellon Collection ( tr ). Corbis : Massimo Listri ( bl ) ; Philadelphia Museum of Art ( thallium ). 226 BAL : Musée de Picardie, Amiens ( tr ) ; Staedel Museum, Frankfurt-am-Main ( red brigades ). Corbis : Lebrecht Music & Arts / Derek Bayes ( bl ). 227 BAL : Giraudon / Musée du Louvre, Paris ( tr ) ; Harris Museum and Art Gallery, Preston ( thallium ) ; Walker Art Gallery, National Museum Liverpool ( bl ). 228 gilbert : DEA ( thallium ) ; Universal History Archive ( bl ) ; Imagno ( bromine ). 229 Corbis : Bettmann ( thallium ).




GI : DEA ( bromine ). : Musée Carnavalet, Paris / Philippe Ladet ( bl ). 230–231 gilbert : APIC. 234 g : universal History Archive. 235 g : DEA. 236 BAL : The Royal Collection © 2011 Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II ( bromine ). GI : Time Life Pictures / Mansell ( chromium ) ; UIG / Prisma ( cra ) ; Universal History Archive ( crb ). 237 Corbis : Bettmann ( technetium ). gilbert : universal joint History Archive ( b ). 238 gastrointestinal : DEA ( chlorine, tr ). 239 BAL : Detroit Institute of Arts ( tr ) ; Hermitage, St. Petersburg ( bc ) ; Musée Girodet, Montargis / Peter Willi ( red brigades ). 240 Alamy Images : The Art Gallery Collection ( triiodothyronine ). BAL : Hamburger Kunsthalle, Hamburg ( bl ). gilbert : DEA ( bromine ). 241 Alamy Images : The Art Gallery Collection ( tr ). gilbert : DEA ( bl, red brigades ). 242 gilbert : universal History Archive. 243 BAL : Giraudon / Musée du Louvre, Paris ( red brigades ) ; Wallace Collection, London ( bl ). Corbis : National Gallery, London ( thallium ). gastrointestinal : Imagno ( tr ). 244–245 BAL : Prado, Madrid. 246 gilbert : BAL. 247 Corbis : SuperStock. 248 BAL : private Collection ( chromium ) ; Yale Center for British Art / Paul Mellon Collection ( crb ). Corbis : Stapleton Collection ( red brigades ). g : DEA ( cra ). 249 BAL : Yale Center for British Art / Paul Mellon Collection ( trusteeship council ). g : universal History Archive ( b ). 250 BAL : Blackburn Museum and Art Gallery, Lancashire ( technetium ) ; Hamburger Kunsthalle, Hamburg ( bl ). gastrointestinal : DEA ( tr ). 251 BAL : Victoria & Albert Museum, London ( tr ). Corbis : Alte Nationalgalerie, Berlin ( red brigades ). gastrointestinal : BAL ( trusteeship council ). 252 BAL : Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge ( bromine ) ; Laing Art Gallery, Newcastle-upon-Tyne ( bl ). gilbert : DEA ( tr ). 253 Corbis : Francis G. Mayer ( tr ). gastrointestinal : BAL ( thallium ) ; Imagno ( bl ). 254–255 Photo SCALA, Florence : Art Resource / The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. 256 Alamy Images : Archivart. 257 gilbert : BAL. 258 BAL : Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge ( crb ) ; Victoria & Albert Museum, London ( cra ). Dorling Kindersley : Trish Gant ( bromine ). gastrointestinal : DEA ( chromium ). 259 BAL : Bradford Art Galleries and Museums, West Yorkshire ( barn ). Corbis : Hulton-Deutsch Collection ( technetium ). 260 BAL : private Collection ( red brigades ). g : DEA ( bc ) ; SuperStock ( bl ). 260–261 Corbis : tate Britain, London ( trusteeship council ). 261 BAL : Manchester Art Gallery ( bc ). g : universal History Archive ( tr ). 262 BAL : Giraudon / Musée d ’ Orsay, Paris ( thallium ) ; Manchester Art Gallery ( hundred ). 263 BAL : individual Collection ( bl ) ; Towneley Hall Art Gallery and Museum, Burnley ( tr ). Corbis : The Print Collector ( red brigades ). gastrointestinal : BAL ( thallium ). 264 Corbis : Arte & Immagini srl. 265 BAL : Manchester Art Gallery. 266 gilbert : universal History Archive. 267 gastrointestinal : DEA. 268 Alamy Images : The Art Gallery Collection ( crb ). BAL : Giraudon / Musée du Louvre, Paris ( red brigades ). gilbert : Hulton Archive ( centiliter ). Photo SCALA, Florence : Art Resource / The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York ( chromium ). 269 gastrointestinal : DEA. 270 BAL : Musée d ’ Orsay, Paris ( tr ). Corbis : Musée d ’ Orsay, Paris ( bc ). gilbert : BAL ( red brigades ) ; DEA ( bl ). 271 Corbis : Alte Nationalgalerie, Berlin ( chromium ). g : universal History Archive ( red brigades ). 272 BAL : Musée des Arts Décoratifs, Paris ( bc ) ; National Gallery of Scotland, Edinburgh ( tr ). gilbert : DEA ( bl ). 273 BAL : Haags Gemeentemuseum, The Hague ( thallium ) ; Manchester Art Gallery ( bl ). Corbis : Brooklyn Museum ( tr ). 274 Corbis : adoc-photos. 275 BAL : Philadelphia Museum of Art, Pennsylvania. 276 gastrointestinal : BAL. 277 g : Roger Viollet. 278 BAL : Brooklyn Museum of Art, New York / Gift of Cornelia E. and Jennie A. Donnellon ( cb ) ; National Gallery, London ( speed of light ) ; Private Collection ( bc ). : Yuriy Chaban ( ca ). 279 akg-images : National Gallery, London ( b-complex vitamin ). BAL : Giraudon / Archives Larousse, Paris ( technetium ). 280 BAL : museum of Fine Arts, Boston ( red brigades ). gilbert : BAL ( bl ) ; DEA ( tr ). 281 Corbis : Francis G. Mayer ( bl ) ; Private Collection ( bromine ). g : BAL ( ca ). 282 Corbis : Burstein Collection ( cra ) ; National Gallery, London ( lambert ). 283 BAL : Musée d ’ Orsay, Paris ( bc ). Corbis : Courtauld Institute of Art, London ( thallium ). Dorling Kindersley : Guy Ryecart ( tr ). gastrointestinal : DEA ( bl ). 284 BAL : Brooklyn Museum of Art, New York ( thallium ) ; Private Collection ( tr ) ; Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge ( bromine ). 285 Alamy Images : Tomas Abad ( bc ). Corbis : Brooklyn Museum ( bromine ). gastrointestinal : BAL ( technetium ). 286–287 gilbert : UIG / Mondadori Portfolio ( carbon ). 287 Corbis : Bettmann ( cb ). 288 g : DEA. 289 gilbert : BAL. 290 Corbis : Brooklyn Museum ( cra ) ; Private Collection ( chromium ). g : BAL ( crb, bromine ). 291 Corbis : adoc-photos ( technetium ). g : DEA ( b ). 292 BAL : The Art Institute of Chicago ( bc ). Corbis : Francis G. Mayer ( thallium ). g : BAL ( tr ). 293 BAL : Musée d ’ Orsay, Paris / © ADAGP, Paris and DACS, London 2013 ( red brigades ) ; National Gallery, London ( tr ). Corbis : The Art Archive ( thallium ). 294 gastrointestinal : BAL ( red brigades ) ; DEA ( thallium ). 295 BAL : private Collection ( tr ). Corbis : fine Art Photographic Library ( bl ) ; The Gallery Collection ( trusteeship council ). gastrointestinal : BAL ( red brigades ). 296 Corbis : Bettmann. 297 gilbert : universal joint History Archive. 298 gilbert : BAL. 299 Corbis : Radius Images. 300 BAL : Giraudon / Archives Larousse, Paris ( centiliter ) ; Giraudon / Musée des Augustins, Toulouse ( chromium ) ; Giraudon / Musée du Louvre, Paris ( crb ). Corbis : Atlantide Phototravel ( cra ) ; Adam Woolfitt ( bromine ). 301 BAL : Fogg Art Museum, Harvard University. 302 BAL : On Loan to the Hamburger Kunsthalle, Hamburg ( technetium ). gastrointestinal : DEA ( bl ). 302–303 g : DEA ( technetium ). 303 BAL : Giraudon / Private Collection ( bc ) ; Private Collection ( tr ). gastrointestinal : Hulton Archive ( trusteeship council ). 304 g : BAL ( tr, red brigades ) ; DEA ( thallium ). 305 BAL : Giraudon / Private Collection / © DACS 2013 ( thallium ) ; Private Collection / Courtesy Musée vitamin d ’ Orsay, Paris ( bc ). Corbis : Burstein Collection / © The Munch Museum / The Munch – Ellingsen Group, BONO, Oslo / DACS, London 2013 ( tr ). 306 akg-images : National Gallery, London ( bc ). Corbis : global Look ( trusteeship council ) ; Ali Meyer ( thallium ). 307 Corbis : Francis G. Mayer ( chromium ). gilbert : DEA ( thallium ). 308 gastrointestinal : DEA. 309 Alamy Images : Mary Evans Picture Library ( chromium ). 312 BAL : Giraudon / Musée five hundred ’ Art Moderne, Centre Pompidou, Paris / © ADAGP, Paris and DACS, London 2013. 313 Corbis. 314 BAL : Giraudon / Musée Rodin, Paris ( crb ). gilbert : BAL ( chromium ) ; DEA ( cra ). © Succession H. Matisse : ( bromine ). 315 BAL : Giraudon / © Succession H. Matisse / DACS 2013 ( boron ). Library Of Congress, Washington, D.C. : Van Vetchen Collection ( technetium ). 316 BAL : Nasjonalgalleriet, Oslo / © The Munch Museum / The Munch – Ellingsen Group, BONO, Oslo / DACS, London 2013. ( bl ) ; Private Collection / © ADAGP, Paris and DACS,

London 2013 ( ca ). gilbert : BAL ( red brigades ). 317 akg-images : Erich Lessing ( thallium ). Corbis : Albright-Knox Art Gallery / © ADAGP, Paris and DACS, London 2013 ( technetium ) ; Francis G. Mayer / © DACS 2013 ( bl ). 318 BAL : Giraudon / Private Collection / Chagall ® / © ADAGP, Paris and DACS, London 2013 ( bc ). Corbis : Christie ’ second Images / © ADAGP, Paris and DACS, London 2013 ( tr ) ; Philadelphia Museum of Art ( thallium ). 319 BAL : individual Collection / © Fondation Oskar Kokoschka / DACS 2013 ( bl ). Corbis : Bettmann ( red brigades ) ; Christie ’ randomness Images / © 2012 Georg Baselitz ( trusteeship council ). 320–321 gilbert : DEA. 322 gilbert : DEA. 323 g : Alvin Langdon Coburn / © George Eastman House, International Museum of Photography and Film. 324 Corbis : Werner Forman Archive ( ca ). g : BAL ( bc ) ; DEA ( coulomb ). Lebrecht Music and Arts : Rue des Archives / PVDE ( cb ). 325 gastrointestinal : AFP / Stan Honda / © Succession Picasso / DACS, London 2013 ( l ) ; Apic ( chromium ). 326 g : DEA / © ADAGP, Paris and DACS, London 2013. 327 BAL : DEA / G. Nimatallah / Nazionale five hundred ’ Arte Moderna, Rome ( red brigades ) ; Giraudon / Musée National vitamin d ’ Art Moderne, Centre Pompidou, Paris ( thallium ) ; RIA Novosti / Yale University Art Gallery, New Haven, CT ( technetium ). Corbis : Francis G. Mayer ( tr ) ; Francis G. Mayer / © Succession Marcel Duchamp / ADAGP, Paris and DACS, London 2013 ( bc ). 328 BAL : individual Collection / © ADAGP, Paris and DACS, London 2013 ( tr ). Corbis : Stapleton Collection / The Estate of C.R.W. Nevinson ( thallium ). g : DEA ( bc ). 329 BAL : Bonham ’ s London / Private Collection / Courtesy of Wedgwood, Clarice Cliff is a record trademark of WWRD ( Waterford Wedgwood Royal Doulton ) ( thallium ). Corbis : Francis G. Mayer / © ADAGP, Paris and DACS, London 2013 ( bl ) ; Philadelphia Museum of Art ( tr ). 330 Corbis : Bettmann. 331 BAL : Offentliche Kunstsammlung, Basel / © ADAGP, Paris and DACS, London 2013. 332 © Pracusa 2012009. 333 g : Hulton Archive. 334 BAL : Detroit Institute of Arts / Gift of Dexter M. Ferry, Jr. ( cra ) ; Giraudon / Private Collection / © ADAGP, Paris and DACS, London 2013 ( crb ). Corbis : adoc-photos ( chromium ). gilbert : AFP / Joe Klamar ( bromine ) ; DEA / © ADAGP, Paris and DACS, London 2013. ( one hundred fifty ). 335 BAL : Cleveland Museum of Art, Ohio / © ADAGP, Paris and DACS, London 2013. 336 BAL : private collection ( ca ). Corbis : The Art Archive / Alfredo Dagli Orti / © ADAGP, Paris and DACS, London 2013 ( tr ) ; Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam ( bl ) ; Philadelphia Museum of Art / © Succession Miro / ADAGP, Paris and DACS, London 2013 ( red brigades ). 337 Alamy Images : INTERFOTO ( tr ). BAL : Agnew ’ second, London / Private Collection / © Angela Verren Taunt 2013. All rights reserved, DACS ( cla ). Photo SCALA, Florence : Digital effigy, The Museum of Modern Art, New York / © 2013 Mondrian/Holtzman Trust c/o HCR International USA ( red brigades ). 338–339 BAL : hermitage, St. Petersburg / © ADAGP, Paris and DACS, London 2013. 340 BAL : Giraudon / National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C. / © ADAGP, Paris and DACS, London 2013. 341 Corbis : Peter Aprahamian. 342 Corbis : DPA / Ana Riwkin ( chlorine ) ; Philadelphia Museum of Art / © DACS 2013 ( bromine ). g : BAL ( chromium ) ; SuperStock ( crb ). 343 Corbis : Lebrecht Music & Arts / Derek Bayes / © ADAGP, Paris and DACS, London 2013. 344 BAL : Alinari Archives, Florence / Galleria Pictogramma, Rome / © Succession Marcel Duchamp / ADAGP, Paris and DACS, London 2013 ( bc ) ; Museum of Modern Art, New York / © DACS 2013 ( technetium ) ; Private Collection / © ADAGP, Paris and DACS, London 2013 ( bl ). 345 BAL : private Collection / © The Heartfield Community of Heirs / VG Bild-Kunst, Bonn and DACS, London 2013 ( tr ). Corbis : Albright-Knox Art Gallery / © Succession Miro / ADAGP, Paris and DACS, London 2013 ( barn ) ; Hulton-Deutsch Collection ( thallium ). 346 BAL : Art Institute of Chicago, Illinois / © ADAGP, Paris and DACS, London 2013 ( bc ). 347 BAL : individual Collection / © Man Ray Trust / ADAGP, Paris and DACS, London 2013 ( red brigades ). Corbis : AlbrightKnox Art Gallery / © DACS 2013 ( technetium ) ; EPA / Robert Vos / © Salvador Dali, Fundació Gala-Salvador Dalí, DACS, 2013 ( tr ). gastrointestinal : AFP / Luis Acosta / © 2013. Banco de México Diego Rivera Frida Kahlo Museums Trust, Mexico, D.F. / DACS ( thallium ). 348–349 BAL : museum of Modern Art, New York / © Salvador Dali, Fundació Gala-Salvador Dalí, DACS, 2013. 350 BAL : Detroit Institute of Arts / Gift of W. Hawkins Ferry / © The Willem de Kooning Foundation, New York / ARS, NY and DACS, London 2013. 351 Corbis : PhotoQuest / Sloan. 352 BAL : Phillips, Fine Auctioneers, New York / Private Collection / © ARS, NY and DACS, London 2013 ( bromine ). Corbis : Bettmann ( chromium ) ; Science Faction / Macduff Everton / © DACS 2013 ( cra ) ; Geoffrey Clements / © ADAGP, Paris and DACS, London 2013 ( clb ). 353 Corbis : Francis G. Mayer / © ADAGP, Paris and DACS, London 2013 ( bel ). GI : Time Life Pictures / Gjon Mili ( technetium ). 354 BAL : Giraudon / Museum of Modern Art, New York / © The Willem de Kooning Foundation, New York / ARS, NY and DACS, London 2013 ( technetium ) ; Private Collection / Courtesy Clyfford hush Museum, Clyfford still, 1949, PH-519, 1949, gouache on paper, 76 ten 56 centimeter. © Clyfford still Estate ( bromine ). Photo SCALA, Florence : Digital Image, The Museum of Modern Art, New York / © 2013 The Barnett Newman Foundation, New York / DACS, London ( bc ). 355 BAL : Christie ’ randomness Images / Private Collection / © 1998 Kate Rothko Prizel & Christopher Rothko ARS, NY and DACS, London ( thallium ) ; Mayor Gallery, London / Private Collection / © ARS, NY and DACS, London 2013 ( crb ). Corbis : Christie ’ s Images / © Dedalus Foundation, Inc. / DACS, London / VAGA, New York 2013 ( tr ). g : AFP / Chris Young ( bc ). 356–357 BAL : National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C. / © The Pollock-Krasner Foundation ARS, NY and DACS, London 2013. 358 Corbis : Christie ’ randomness Images / Copyright Allen Jones. 359 gastrointestinal : Retrofile / Tom Kelley Archive. 360 Alamy Images : Antiques & Collectables / reproduced by kind license of the Dan Dare Corporation Limited ( crb ). BAL : Phillips, Fine Art Auctioneers, New York / Private Collection / © ADAGP, Paris and DACS, London

2013 ( red brigades ). Corbis : Christopher Felver ( one hundred fifty ). gilbert : Silver Screen Collection ( chromium ). 361 BAL : Kunsthalle, Tubingen / © R. Hamilton. All Rights Reserved, DACS 2013. 362 BAL : Pallant House Gallery, Chichester / © Trustees of the Paolozzi Foundation, Licensed by DACS 2013 ( technetium ) ; Saatchi Collection, London / © The Andy Warhol Foundation for the Visual Arts, Inc. / DACS, London, 2013. Trademarks Licensed by Campbell Soup Company. All Rights Reserved. ( red brigades ). g : DEA / © Jasper Johns / VAGA, New York / DACS, London 2013 ( bl ). 363 BAL : Giraudon / Musée National five hundred ’ Art Moderne, Centre Pompidou, Paris / © ADAGP, Paris and DACS, London 2013 ( bromine ). Corbis : Christie ’ randomness Images / © Bridget Riley 2013. All rights reserved, courtesy Karsten Schubert, London ( cra ). © Tate, London 2013 : David Hockey, A Bigger Splash, 1967, Acrylic on canvas, 96 x 96 inches © David Hockney ( thallium ). 364–365 The Art Archive : tate Gallery, London / Eileen Tweedy / © The Estate of Roy Lichtenstein / DACS 2013. 366 Corbis : Albright-Knox Art Gallery / © ARS, NY and DACS, London 2013. 367 GI : Paris Match / Hubert Fanthomme / © Cy Twombly Foundation. 368 BAL : Kunstmuseum, Dusseldorf ( red brigades ). Corbis : Sandro Vannini ( chromium ). collection of the Daura Gallery, Lynchburg College, Virginia : ( cra ). gilbert : DEA ( crb ). 369 BAL : Christie ’ second Images / Private Collection / © Cy Twombly Foundation ( bacillus ). Corbis : STR / Keystone ( trusteeship council ). 370 BAL : Christie ’ south Images / Private Collection / © Karel Appel Foundation / DACS 2013. ( bl ) ; Giraudon / Musée vitamin d ’ Art Moderne, St Etienne / © ADAGP, Paris and DACS, London 2013. ( ca ). Dorling Kindersley : Steve Gorton ( tr ). © Anselm Kiefer / courtesy White Cube : Anselm Kiefer, Wölundlied, 1982, Oil, emulsion and straw on canvas tent with lead wing and gelatin silver print on project paper, 109 ten 149 inches ( red brigades ). 371 © Damien Hirst and Science Ltd. All rights reserved, DACS 2013 : Photographed by Prudence Cuming Associates ( metric ton ). © Julie Mehretu / courtesy White Cube : Julie Mehretu, Grey Space ( distractor ), 2006, Ink and acrylic on canvas, 72 adam 96 inches ; Photo : Erma Estwick ( bromine ). © Gerhard Richter, 2013 : ( bc ). 372–373 Corbis : Christie ’ mho Images / © Howard Hodgkin. 374 BAL : Giraudon / Musée de l ’ Orangerie, Paris / © Succession Picasso / DACS, London 2013. 375 BAL : The Barnes Foundation, Merion, Pennsylvania / © Succession H. Matisse / DACS 2013. 376 BAL : DEA / The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York ( bc ) ; Giraudon / Musée five hundred ’ Orsay, Paris ( cb ). gilbert : DEA ( coulomb ) ; Imagno ( ca ). 377 Alamy Images : Lebrecht Music and Arts Photo Library ( b ). Corbis : ( technetium ). 378 Alamy Images : The Art Gallery Collection ( bl ). BAL : © The Estate of Augustus Edwin John ( tr ). 379 BAL : private Collection / © ADAGP, Paris and DACS, London 2013. ( bl ) ; Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow ( tr ). Corbis : Geoffrey Clements ( red brigades ). gastrointestinal : Apic ( thallium ). 380 BAL : Musée National five hundred ’ Art Moderne, Centre Pompidou, Paris / © ADAGP, Paris and DACS, London 2013. ( thallium ) ; Philadelphia Museum of Art, Pennsylvania / © Alex Katz, DACS, London / VAGA, New York 2013. ( tr ) ; Private Collection / © ADAGP, Paris and DACS, London 2013. ( bl ). 381 BAL : private Collection / © Paula Rego ( bl ). © John Currin. Courtesy Gagosian drift : ( bromine ). © Gerhard Richter, 2013 : ( tr ). 382–383 BAL : © The Lucian Freud Archive.

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